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Annals of the 
Smithsonian Institution 

1997 





Smithsonian Institution 



Smithsonian Institution Archives 

National Collections Program 

Washington, D.C. 



For additional copies of this publication, contact the National Collections Program, Smithsonian Institution 
Archives, 900 Jefferson Drive, SW, Room 3101, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560-0404; 
(202) 357-3125; tompkinsw@si.edu 



Annals of the 
Smithsonian Institution 

1997 



Smithsonian Institution Archives 

National Collections Program 

Washington, D.C. 

2000 



Contents 



Smithsonian Institution 4 
Statement by the Secretary 6 
Report of the Under Secretary 
Report of the Provost 14 
Report of the Board of Regents 
18 



16 



Chronology 

Reports of the Bureaus and Offices of the 
Smithsonian Institution for Fiscal Year 1997 

44 

Members of the Smithsonian Councils, Boards, and 
Commissions, September 30, 1997 96 

Visits to the Smithsonian Institution Museums and 
Galleries in Fiscal Year 1997 104 

Academic, Research Training, and Internship 
Appointments and Research Associates in Fiscal 
Year 1997 105 



Award Activity at the Smithsonian Institution in 
Fiscal Year 1997 148 

Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Press 
in Fiscal Year 1997 158 

Publications of the Staff of the Smithsonian 
Institution and Its Subsidiaries in Fiscal Year 
1997 160 

The Smithsonian Institution and Its Subsidiaries, 
September 30, 1997 238 

Donors to the Smithsonian Institution in Fiscal 
Year 1997 258 

Contributing Members of the Smithsonian 
Institution in Fiscal Year 1997 278 

Financial Report 296 



Notes: The arrangement of bureau and office listings within is not alphabetical but rather follows as closely as possible the 

organization of the Smithsonian Institution as shown on page 4. 

The contents of Annals were produced from electronic files provided by the bureaus and offices. 



Smithsonian 
Institution 



Environmental Management and Safety 

Physical Plant 

Protection Services 

Senior Information Officer 

Imaging, Printing, and Photographic Services 

Information Technology 

Business Management Directorate 

Smithsonian Magazine 

Smithsonian Associates 

Smithsonian Businesses 

— Retail 

— Concessions 

— Product Development and Licensing 

— Smithsonian Press/Productions 



Provost 



Establishment, Board of Regents, Executive Committee, 
and the Secretary 

Office of the Secretary 

Office of the Under Secretary 

Office of the Provost 

Office of Inspector General 

Office of Planning, Management, and Budget 

Office of General Counsel 

Office of Government Relations 

Office of Communications 



Secretary 



Inspector General 

Secretariat 

Planning, Management, and Budget 

Membership and Development 



Under Secretary 

Operations Directorate 

Chief Financial Officer 

Comptroller 

Contracting and Property Management 

Risk and Asset Management 

Senior Executive Officer 

Equal Employment and Minority Affairs 

Human Resources 

Ombudsman 

Senior Facilities Officer 



Museums and Research Institutes 

Anacostia Museum and Center for African American 

History and Culture 
Archives of American Art 
Arthur M. Sackler Gallery /Freer Gallery of Art 
Center for Folklife Programs and Cultural Studies 
Conservation Analytical Laboratory 
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 
National Air and Space Museum 
National Museum of African Art 
National Museum of American Art 
— Renwick Gallery 

National Museum of American History 
National Museum of the American Indian 
National Museum of Natural History 
— Museum Support Center 
National Portrait Gallery 
National Postal Museum 
National Zoological Park 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
Smithsonian Environmental Research Center 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

Education, Museum, and Scholarly Services 

Center for Museum Studies 

Exhibits Central 

Fellowship and Grants 

International Relations 

National Science Resources Center 

Smithsonian Institution Archives 

Smithsonian Institution Libraries 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 



Smithsonian Office of Education 
Sponsored Projects 

Other Support Services 

Accessibility- Progtam 
Institutional Studies 
Scientific Diving Progtam 



Affiliated Organizations 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts 

National Gallery of Art 

Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 



Statement by the 
Secretary 

I. Michael Heyman 



Before I took up my responsibilities as Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution in September 1994, I had enjoyed 35 
years as a member of an academic community: the University 
of California at Berkeley, with 10 as chancellor. One of the 
questions I am regularly asked is whether I miss the world of 
students and the opportunity to shape their education. 

The answer is yes, I do. I miss the company of undergraduates 
and graduates. For someone of my generation, teaching the 
young is a way to touch the future. But I am quick to add 
that I have not left the world of education; I have simply 
exchanged one kind of educational institution for another. 
James Smithson's mandate to dedicate the Smithsonian to 
"the increase and diffusion of knowledge" well over 150 years 
ago keeps this great complex of museums and research 
institutes focused on goals that are at the heart of education. 

There are differences, of course. Much of the education that 
happens within the Smithsonian universe can be described as 
informal rather than formal. We are not a degree-granting 
institution, nor do we shepherd the young through the stages 
of classroom experience from elementary through high school. 
We present to the public, both school age and adult, a wealth 
of programs that represent and reinforce the excitement of 
learning about the human and the natural worlds. We have no 
alumni because there is no fixed starting or ending point to 
what we offer. In recent years, however, the Smithsonian has 
taken more and more interest in making its resources directly 
available to America's schools. In the last decades of this 
century, our nation has come to recognize a need to find new 
ways to support the education of our children and to help 
prepare them for a rapidly changing world. The Smithsonian 
has developed educational materials and programs based on 
actual objects and other primary resources that, in effect, take 
our museums and research institutes to the classroom. We feel 



we have something to offer schools that are special to our own 
learning environment. 

Traditionally, education has relied heavily on texts and 
lectures, questions and discussions. Words are at the core of 
the experience. Object-based education focuses the learning 
experience more on artifacts and primary documents in a 
manner that taps children's diverse learning styles while 
stimulating interest and providing a deeper understanding of 
the subject. As one teacher put it, "Even young children can 
often be helped to understand quite complex concepts when 
they can discover them concretely manifested in objects." 

One Smithsonian project for a schoolchild based on this 
approach is "Of Kayaks and Ulus," which was created largely 
by the National Museum of Natural History for grades 7 
through 10. The project, originally presented in a kit but soon 
available on the Internet, involves Bering Sea Eskimos and 
emphasizes the journals and collections of a famous 
nineteenth-century Smithsonian naturalist, Edward Nelson. 

The kit contains a teachers' guide, which suggests, for 
instance, that students view "mystery" slides of objects from 
the Eskimo culture, then ponder how these objects were made 
and used. Further discussion usually elicits hypotheses about 
the environment in which the people who made these items 
lived, the natural resources they depended upon, their ability 
as craftspeople, and similar topics. After this process, the 
srudents learn that all the objects, and many others, are in a 
collection at the Smithsonian amassed by Nelson. Then they 
are introduced to reproductions of Nelson's letters, journals, 
photographs, drawings, and field notes. 

There are many other examples of similar projects 
developed by the Smithsonian. One is a popular science 
curriculum featuring hands-on experiments for students in 
grades 1 through 6. Created by the National Science Resources 



Center (a joint initiative of the Smithsonian and the National 
Academy of Sciences), the curriculum enables children to 
learn by doing experiments, as well as by reading texts and 
listening to teachers. As one of the world's premier research 
institutions, we are ideally suited to help students better 
understand science by teaching them not only what we know 
but also how we know it. The program, called Science and 
Technology for Children, is used in more than 20 percent of 
the nation's school districts, and similar curricula are now 
being fashioned for grades 7 and 8. 

One of the pleasures of my position as Secretary is the 
opportunity to visit schools and see some of these programs in 
action. I can also keep in touch with students, though they 
are somewhat younger than the Berkeley undergraduates I 
once knew. Last year, I observed classes using the NSRC 
science curriculum while I was visiting Anchorage, Alaska. It 
was a delight to see fifth- and sixth-graders not only reading 
about science but actually handling objects that had scientific 
importance. This is a wonderful way to teach the scientific 
method. The pupils hypothesized about the outcome, did the 
steps, and saw the results. They learned as much when they 
were wrong as when they were right. 

Another time, I was surrounded by a kinetic first-grade 
group visiting the Hands On History Room at the National 
Museum of American History. The objects here were not 
scientific but historical, evoking the early nineteenth century, 
and they were all piled into a big box. I was one of the adults 
telling that excited group stories about the objects and 
clothing. The excitement mounted when the children were 
invited to try on the clothing; one great big red cape was 
particularly popular. I know something important was 
happening there: the stimulation of curiosity and the 
glimmerings of a world beyond theit own experience. It was 
one of the best times I have had at the Smithsonian. 

As I have come to know the range of educational activities 
conceived by my colleagues in the museums, the research 
institutes, and in our central Smithsonian Office of Education, I 
continue to be impressed by the inventiveness of their strategies. 
The National Portrait Gallery, for example, takes to classrooms 
"The Trial of John Brown," in which costumed gallery staff play 
the roles of judge, attorneys, and witnesses in a mock trial of the 
nineteenth-century abolitionist while students serve as jury. The 
National Postal Museum has put together an activity book in 
which students create their own postage stamps and another 
book that is a guide to building letter-writing relationships 
across generations. 

Other materials among the 455 items listed in the latest 
Smithsonian Resource Guide {or Teachers include such 
imaginatively titled booklets as Birds over Troubled Forests, 
from the Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center of the National 
Zoo, and the Smithsonian Office of Education's Image and 
Identity: Clothing and Adolescence in the ippos. which explores 
the clues that clothing provides to understanding culture. 
Studies indicate that skillfully done object-based education is 
a successful means of engaging young people and teaching a 



variety of skills and subjects. If these techniques are to be 
widely used in schools and museums, considerable resources 
must be invested in the preparation and distribution of 
materials and, most important, in teacher training. Teachers 
who are confident they can use these new techniques find 
object-based education an exciting way to enhance learning. 

The Smithsonian has been involved in a number of 
activities to inform teachers and to offer relevant training, 
especially in the Washington metropolitan area. Summer 
seminars for teachers, conducted largely within Smithsonian 
museums and research institutes, focus on how to use 
museum collections in the teaching process. Similarly, 
Smithsonian staff have worked with the National Faculty, a 
nonprofit educational organization, in extensive teacher 
training programs around the country that involve curators 
from the Institution and local museums, as well as 
distinguished university professors. 

The Smithsonian also brings thousands of Washington-area 
teachers together at an annual Teachers' Night to see displays 
and discuss materials and programs for local schools. As a way 
to reach more educators, we have begun to use the Internet to 
share curriculum ideas and lesson plans. By the year 2003, an 
Education Resource Center in the Arts and Industries 
Building will allow teachers to try out a variety of curriculum 
kits and other materials on site. A virtual version will also be 
available on the Smithsonian Education World Wide Web 
site (http://educate.si.edu/). 

In these ways the Smithsonian can collaborate with all 
schools interested in our approach to object-based and 
research-linked education. But two schools in the District of 
Columbia are taking the Smithsonian connection one step 
further. In the fall of 1996, Robert Brent Elementary School 
and Stuart-Hobson Middle School became Museum Magnet 
Schools through a partnership forged between the District of 
Columbia Public Schools and the Smithsonian Institution 
under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education. The 
Smithsonian Office of Education describes this partnership as 
"a groundbreaking program for elementary and middle school 
students allowing them to pursue real questions, becoming 
both teacher and student, observer and curator." 

Using an interdisciplinary and thematic approach, students 
in these schools collect, study, and interpret objects to learn 
science, art, geography, history, and potentially a multitude of 
other subjects. What strikes me as particularly remarkable 
about this program is its core insight that students may learn 
best when they have the opportunity to present their learning 
to new audiences. In February 1997, the Washington Post 
reported on a tour that Erica Webster, 14, of Stuart-Hobson 
Middle School gave "a wide-eyed group of kindergartners" of 
a Native American history exhibition she and her 
eighth-grade classmates had developed. Erica's sure command 
of the material came across as she sat with the younger 
students in a 12-foot-tall tepee made of bed linens. 

Erica's principal, Yvonne Lewis, described the total 
immersion of her eighth-graders in Native American culture. 



"Their lives became these people's lives. Across the board, in 
all their classes, whatever they were working on was tied to 
Native Americans." Examples she gave were the use of 
geometry to design tepees and igloos; the use of food and 
culture as the basis of essays and poetry; and science teaching 
focused on Native American agricultural strategies. 

This is modern learning at its best — active and 
imaginative. These students are engaged in their learning and, 
as a result, are invested in it. They make observations, see 
connections, and find meaning for themselves. Like the 
curators they resemble, they conduct research and then choose 
ways to communicate their discoveries to others. It is an 
encouraging start to an experiment we are watching closely to 
determine long-term educational benefits. 

The Museum Magnet Schools project is one of a number 
presided over by the Smithsonian's Office of Education, led by 
its energetic director Ann Bay. It reflects not only the 
Institution's commitment to object-based and 
interdisciplinary education but also our commitment to 
partnerships as the foundation of all our educational efforts. 
Whether working in Washington or elsewhere around the 
nation, Bay's office emphasizes community-based outreach. 
The Smithsonian goes to communities that invite us to work 
with them, building bridges between local museums and 
schools. This was the theme of one of our most valuable 150th 
anniversary projects, a national teleconference jointly 
sponsored with the Institute of Museum and Library Services, 
which presented models of successful museum-school 
partnerships. Our magnet school program is new, but another 
formal attempt to test the value of museum -based education 
dates to 1988 and the establishment of our own Smithsonian 
Early Enrichment Centet (SEEC). The founding board 
envisioned this program as a national model, establishing 
museums as learning centers for preschool children. I'll let the 
center's director, Sharon Shaffer, describe a typical day: 

Children are fascinated by things that go, such as bikes, 
cars, trucks, and planes. A group of three-year-olds may 
listen to the story "Curious George Rides a Bike." A 
museum visit sets the stage for expanding their 
understanding of bicycles as the children search for a 
bike that is just like George's. As the hunt develops, the 
children view a unicycle, a tandem bike, and an antique 
bicycle. They discuss the size and number of wheels on 
each bike and, as they observe wooden wheels and rubber 
tires, consider why some wheels look different from 
others. They want to know about spokes and chains and 
gears and handlebars." The experience continues back in 
the classroom as children listen to the old-time song, "A 
Bicycle Built for Two," pretend to pedal around the 
room, and create collages of bicycles. 



A recent analysis of five years of test data shows that 
children participating in the SEEC program exceeded expected 
achievement in all areas. Two-thirds of SEEC preschoolers score 
in the 99th percentile in nationally normed science tests upon 
completion of the program. The application of the SEEC 
curriculum, known as Museum Magic, outside the Smithsonian 
was tested in the fall of 1997 in Cleveland through an 
arrangement with University Circle, Inc., in collaboration with 
five preschools and seven cultural institutions. 

No report on the Smithsonian's new strategies for the 
"diffusion of knowledge" would be complete without an 
electronic dimension. There are those who see electronic outteach 
as a threat to direct people-to-people interaction. I am not one of 
them. At the Smithsonian, we see successful electronic 
communication as built on human connections. The more we 
share our resources electronically, the more we can be of service to 
our many publics and to the educational goals we all share. 

One of my first priorities as Secretary was the creation in 
1995 of a World Wide Web site, which has given many 
Americans easy access to a range of our collections and fields 
of expertise. More recently, my colleagues have created 
experimental electronic programs that will invite the richest 
possible interaction between Smithsonian resources and the 
needs of our nation's classrooms. Among the most remarkable 
of these is the Natural Partners Initiative, led by the National 
Museum of Natural History in close partnership with the 
National Zoological Park and the Smithsonian Environmental 
Research Center and, outside the Smithsonian, the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration's Stennis Space Center, 
Mississippi State University, the Council for Great City 
Schools, and many other partners now and to come. This 
initiative has already begun to benefit classrooms as far from 
the Smithsonian's home base in Washington as Alabama, 
California, Florida, Iowa, Mississippi, North Carolina, 
Tennessee, and Wyoming. This creative new program has 
been designed to enliven the way science is taught. It will 
electronically link scientific and educational institutions, 
technical experts, teachers, and firsthand experiences in a local 
classroom setting. The program uses state-of-the-art 
technologies to enable live two-way videoconferencing 
between Smithsonian content experts and students and 
teachers wherever they are situated, as well as virtual tours of 
exhibits, links to remote Smithsonian research sites, and 
teacher training and enhancement conferences, among a 
wealth of strategies. In the words of its founders, the Natural 
Partners Initiative will "allow educators to become immersed 
in content that was previously very difficult to access. It will 
further support those teachers in using inquiry-based 
learning. Natural Partners would like to see every classroom 
become a museum." 

So would we all. 



Report of the 
Under Secretary 

Constance Berry Newman 



One of the best ways to understand the essence of the 
Smithsonian Institution is to look around not just at the 
intriguing objects on exhibit or at the rapt faces of visiting 
youngsters, but at the people who work here. Inside each 
building, security personnel welcome staff and visitors while 
keeping trained eyes out for their safety and the safety of the 
collections. At museum information desks, volunteers field 
questions, give directions, and suggest places to visit. 
Computer specialists make sure the Institution's information 
systems are humming, electricians maintain the systems that 
illuminate the nation's treasures, and painters prepare gallery 
walls to display magnificent works of art. The Smithsonian's 
success is all about the people. Curators, scientists, educators, 
collections managers, and conservators make visible, 
indisputable contributions to what we do. Yet, we may take 
for granted the equally valuable contributions of many other 
employees, often working behind the scenes. Knowledge is 
"increased and diffused" thanks to every one of them, 
whatever their job descriptions might be. 

We began this year with a challenging act to follow: the 
Smithsonian's 150th anniversary celebration in fiscal year 
1996. We sustained the anniversary spirit throughout the 
Institution, in team efforts to engage the American people in 
their Smithsonian. The Institution's service, financial, and 
administrative organizations were critical to those efforts, as 
they continued to provide a strong foundation for education 
and outreach. 

A Continuing Celebration 

The 150th anniversary traveling exhibition "America's 
Smithsonian" was in St. Paul, Minnesota, at the beginning of 
the fiscal year and then traveled to Houston, Texas; Portland, 



Oregon; Birmingham, Alabama; and San Jose, California. 
More than 3 million visitors have had the opportunity to see 
highlights of the nation's collections since the exhibition 
opened in February 1996. "Voices of Discovery," administered 
by The Smithsonian Associates, again brought Smithsonian 
scholars to the exhibition venues for nearly 400 free programs 
at museums, schools, libraries, senior centers, and other sites. 
An advertising, marketing, and publicity campaign in each 
city, designed and implemented by the Office of Public 
Affairs (OPA), raised public awareness of the exhibition. 
OPA's work on "America's Smithsonian" and othet 
anniversary projects earned the Silver Anvil Award of 
Excellence from the Public Relations Society of America. In 
the spring, the Smithsonian contracted with Rathe 
Production, Inc., and PGI, Inc., to manage transportation, 
installation and deinstallation, special events, and public 
relations for the exhibition in future locations. 

Welcoming a Diverse Audience 

We should never assume that people know what the 
Smithsonian has to offet. We need to communicate actively 
with those who visit and those who do not, with loyal 
audiences and with others who are new to the Institution. We 
must also recognize that some groups have not been well 
represented in our collections, exhibitions, and programs. We 
are taking steps to broaden the coverage, and we are being 
more aggressive in our effort to teach out to a wider audience. 

Outreach to the Latino community was an emphasis this 
year. OPA's ongoing projects reached Latino audiences in the 
Washington, D.C., metropolitan area and across the nation. 
The office represented the Smithsonian at local and national 
Hispanic events such as the annual U.S. Hispanic Chamber of 



Commerce conference; began a partnership with the Bravo 
Group, a national Hispanic marketing group; and created 
target bilingual publicity campaigns for several exhibitions. 
The Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center 
(VIARC) reached potential visitors through La Cumbre, the 
primary travel trade show for travel agents and tour operators 
who send visitors to Washington from Latin America. 

A Lifetime of Learning 

People of all ages can find abundant learning opportunities 
at the Smithsonian. The Smithsonian Associates, Smithsonian 
magazine, and Smithsonian Press/Smithsonian Productions 
bring education, enlightenment, and enjoyment to wide 
audiences and strengthen the bond between the American 
people and their national museums. 

The Smithsonian Associates (TSA) truly has something for 
everyone. Consider some offerings on TSAs rich menu this 
year: an eight-week Campus on the Mall course examining the 
impact of Jackie Robinson's breaking the baseball color 
barrier 50 years ago; a chance for families to meet Kermit, 
Elmo, Miss Piggy, and other Muppets in an unprecedented 
look at the late Jim Henson's genius; and the first 
Smithsonian Associates voyage to the North Pole, on board a 
nuclear-powered icebreaker. 

TSA took educational programs across the nation during 
fiscal year 1997. Along with "Voices of Discovery," national 
outreach initiatives included a new audiocassette series. 
"Voices from The Smithsonian Associates" showcases popular 
Resident Associate programs such as Microsoft's Bill Gates, 
journalists David Brinkley and Walter Cronkite, historians 
Stephen Ambrose and James McPherson, and writers P. D. 
James and Pat Conroy. Art in Celebration!, an exhibition of 
TSAs commissioned artworks organized in collaboration with 
the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service, 
continued its three-year, 40-state tour on Artrain. The tour is 
sponsored by Chrysler Corporation. Some 360 Smithsonian 
Study Tours, in the United States and around the world, 
included family-oriented trips to the Galapagos Islands and 
Kenya. 

Many TSA programs have become signature Smithsonian 
events and local traditions. Discovery Theater, the only 
continuous live children's theater in the Washington area, 
celebrated its twentieth season. Many of the 75,000 
youngstets who delight in Discovery Theater performances 
each year are experiencing theater for the first time. The 
annual Smithsonian Kite Festival on the Mall, one of the 
premier handmade kite competitions in the world, was again 
sponsored jointly by The Smithsonian Associates, the 
National Air and Space Museum, and participating 
kite-flying clubs. At TSAs summer camp, some 450 
youngsters ages 4 to 13 discovered the wonders of the sea, 
learned about ancient Pompeii, took an imaginary trip to the 
Moon, created their own Web pages, filmed their own science 
fiction videos, and more. 



For design and decorative arts historians, TSA began 
offering a two-year aster's degree program in the history of 
nineteenth- and twentieth-century American decorative arts. 
Created in cooperation with Cooper-Hewitt National 
Museum of Design and Parsons School of Design, the 
program gives students unique access to materials on 
American art and design history contained in the 
Smithsonian's unparalleled holdings. 

Smithsonian magazine, read by nearly 8 million people each 
month, is a vital educational outreach vehicle. Academic 
institutions, associations, and textbook publishers use its 
articles as course material or for information. About 70 
percent of the more than 500 reprint requests received this 
year were from organizations with an educational purpose or 
affiliation. Smithsonian took on a polished new look with the 
July 1997 issue, the first redesign in the magazine's 27-year 
history. Air & Space! Smithsonian magazine finished its eleventh 
year of publication, providing 1.2 million readers with focused 
editorial content relating to the collections of the National Air 
and Space Museum and information of interest to the aerospace 
community. Smithsonian Press/Smithsonian Productions 
(SP/SP) reaches both popular and scholarly audiences 
through a variety of media, publishing more than 100 books 
and recordings each year. This year. SP/SP celebrated the 
American musical with Red, Hot & Blue, written by curators 
Amy Henderson and Dwight Blocker Bowers to accompany 
the popular National Portrait Gallery-National Museum of 
American History exhibition. A four-CD set, "Star-Spangled 
Rhythm," showcased nearly 90 years of the musical's 
recorded history and featured many rare, 
never-before-released performances. 

New titles for a popular audience from SP/SP included 
Snakes in Question and Bats in Question, part of the Smithsonian 
Answer Book series. These inviting, easy-to-read books, written 
by Smithsonian experts, satisfy the curiosity of both adults 
and children. SP/SP also launched a major 16-volume popular 
series in partnership with Random House Publishers, the 
Smithsonian Guides for Natural America. 

SP/SP's notable contributions to scholarly literature this 
year included The Origin and Early Diversification of Land 
Plants: A Cladistic Study, by Paul Kenrick and Peter R. Crane, 
considered one of the most important books on the assembly 
of terrestrial ecosystems. Another new publication, the second 
volume in Tom D. Dillehay's Monte Verde; A Late Pleistocene 
Settlement in Chile, received national attention for rewriting the 
chronology of the peopling of the Americas. The 13-part radio 
series from SP/SP, "Black Radio: Telling It Like It Was," won 
prestigious radio honors in the Alfred I. DuPont-Columbia 
University Awards and the George Foster Peabody Awards. 
The series has run on nearly 200 radio stations around the 
country. Major production began on the television project 
"River of Song: Music along the Mississippi," as PBS 
announced its intention to broadcast the three-hour series 
nationally in 1998—99. A companion radio series, funded by 
the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, will air on public 



IO 



radio, and a related book is also planned. "Slaves No More," a 
new radio project featuring the recollect ions of former slaves 
recorded in the 1930s by the Works Progress 
Administration, received major funding from the National 
Endowment for the Humanities and the Corporation for 
Public Broadcasting. 

Expanded Public Awareness 

Engaging the public in the Smithsonian requires another 
kind of educational effort: building awareness of the 
Institution, its educational mission, and its multifaceted 
public service. Throughout the year, we used various 
strategies to generate public interest and understanding. 
When people plan a visit to the Smithsonian, they need 
accurate and complete information. This year, VIARC staff 
reviewed descriptions of the Smithsonian for the 1998 editions 
of 35 major Washington, D.C., guidebooks. On the 
Smithsonian website, VIARC provides a current 
Institution-wide calendar and exhibition listings, along with 
suggestions for planning a visit and information about how to 
volunteer. VIARC also strengthened its links with the local, 
national, and international tour and travel industry by 
participating in key national meetings where the 
Smithsonian's representative met individually with nearly 250 
tour operators. 

Teachers, students, and researchers can turn to the useful 
"Resources" brochures, produced by OPA, for information on 
collections, databases, publications, fellowships, internships, 
and more. This year, a fourth title, "Asian Pacific American 
Resources at the Smithsonian," was added to the series. 

OPA also published four issues of the newsletter 
"Smithsonian Institution Research Reports," which informs 
members of Congress, scholars and scientists, library users, 
and Smithsonian Contributing Members about the many 
research efforts around the Institution. Smithsonian Year ipp6, 
prepared by OPA with Smithsonian Press/Smithsonian 
Productions, was a special thematic annual report focusing on 
the 150th anniversary and its related activities and programs. 

Special events and conferences drew thousands of people to 
the Smithsonian this year, extending the Institution's 
connections to a variety of organizations and individuals. The 
Office of Special Events and Conference Services produced 
nearly 400 events that increased public awareness and often 
raised revenue. Among the highlights were a reception 
honoring the president of Honduras, hosted by the 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; the 1997 
Computerworld Smithsonian Awards presentation ceremony; 
a World Wildlife Fund environmental preservation 
symposium; a dinner celebrating the dedication of the 
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial; and the first Great 
Smithsonian Press Sale, which drew several thousand shoppers 
over three days in June. 

The Smithsonian's congressionally mandated activities 
stressed its core educational mission and programming. 
Through presentations at hearings, live demonstrations, site 



visits, lectures, and distribution of program materials, the 
Office of Government Relations raised congressional 
awareness and enlisted the assistance of members of Congress 
and their staff in promoting their constituents' participation 
in Smithsonian programs. During the year, members of 
Congress joined in bringing the National Museum of Natural 
History's Natural Partners Initiative and National Science 
Resources Center programs to their communities. 

Products with an Educational Message 

The Smithsonian is committed to developing and licensing 
products that reflect its educational values and extend its 
message. From a business point of view, offering merchandise 
of high quality helps strengthen the Institution's financial 
base. From an education point of view, an exhibition 
catalogue, a CD-ROM, or a product carrying a descriptive 
card contribute to people's knowledge of our collections and 
research and stimulate interest in the Smithsonian. This was a 
banner year for the Museum Shops, with sales exceeding $33 
million, a 16 percent increase over fiscal year 1996. Shops 
supporting the exhibitions Red. Hot & Blue: A Salute to 
American Musicals at the National Portrait Gallery and Amber: 
Window to the Past at the National Museum of Natural 
History (NMNH) were especially successful. At NMNH, two 
new shops opened in November, with spacious and inviting 
designs that incorporate actual museum artifacts and make 
the shops integral to the museum visit. Off the Mall, a new 
shop with a varied selection of merchandise opened in the 
new Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport terminal, 
operated in partnership with concessionaire Lanta 
Concessions, Inc. The successful shop at 
Baltimore- Washington International Airport continued to 
offer aviation-related merchandise. Both airport shops also 
provide information designed to attract visitors to the 
Smithsonian and promote membership. The Smithsonian 
Catalogue, like the Museum Shops, continues to reflect the 
educational values and the rich diversity of the museums and 
research institutes. Every product receives curatorial approval. 
The catalogue enjoyed its best sales year ever, with the 
holiday 1996 edition posting record sales. 

Through licensing agreements, the Smithsonian also 
promotes its educational mission. This year, Natural Science 
Industries, Inc., expanded its line of children's science kits, 
and Soundprints began issuing teachers' guides to accompany 
its children's books and tapes. The Institution signed a new 
agreement this year with Scientific Explorer, Inc., for 
educational activity kits. 

Strong Infrastructure 

In support of the Smithsonian's educational mission, crucial 
work goes on in finance, administration, facilities, and 
information technology. A spirit of teamwork guides these 
service-oriented divisions, which often work in concert with 
museums, research institutes, and offices. 



11 



S caff development and recognition were a focus in several 
Smithsonian units this year. The third annual Secretary's 
Award for Excellence in Equal Opportunity Program, 
cosponsored by the Office of Equal Employment and Minority 
Affairs and the Secretary's office, recognized four employees 
for their outstanding contributions. The Unsung Heroes 
awards, which began in the 150th anniversary year and 
continued through December 1996, honored Smithsonian 
employees nominated by their colleagues for exemplary 
service. The program was coordinated by the Ombudsman. 
Other offices provided vital internal support. The Office of 
the Comptroller, for example, guided the new Smithsonian 
Financial System general ledger and financial reporting 
system through its first year. The Office of Human Resources 
held its first open house, designed to inform employees about 
the services available to them. 

The Office of Physical Plant worked on five major 
expansion initiatives this year. Inside the courtyards at the 
National Museum of Natural History, two major projects are 
under way. The East Court Building will provide expanded 
staff office space, a Smithsonian Early Enrichment Center, a 
rare book library, public restrooms, and collections space. The 
museum's new Discovery Center/West Court Building will 
feature a Discovery Room, a large-format movie theater, and a 
restaurant. This year, the Office of Risk and Asset 
Management began the process of obtaining approval for $40 
million in tax-exempt financing for the project. 

Construction progressed on the National Museum of the 
American Indian's Cultural Resources Center in Suitland, 
Maryland, set to open in fall 1998. Design of the Mall 
museum advanced to the construction documents phase, based 
on schematic design approvals from the Commission of Fine 
Arts and the National Capital Planning Commission early in 
the year. The design of the National Air and Space Museum's 
Dulles Center is also moving ahead. 

Several major projects led the way for Smithsonian repairs 
and renovations to existing buildings. Design fee negotiations 
are under way to renovate the Arts and Industries Building to 
renew offices, exhibit halls, child care facilities, and other 
spaces. Design was completed on two projects: accessibility 
improvements and a new roof for the National Museum of 
American Art and the National Portrait Gallery and skylight 
and window wall replacements for the National Air and Space 
Museum. At the National Museum of Natural History, 
mechanical renovations continued on the upper floors. 

The Office of Contracting and Property Management 
continued to provide contractual support for "America's 
Smithsonian" and for media and entertainment projects 
developed through a relationship with a Hollywood agent, 
Creative Artists Agency. The office awarded several 
multimillion-dollar contracts, including those to build the 
National Museum of the American Indian's Cultural 
Resources Center and the Discovery Center at the National 
Museum of Natural History. In addition to providing 
operational support for information systems throughout the 



Institution, the Office of Information Technology began a 
three-phase process of upgrading SINET, the Smithsonian's 
internal data communications network. This year, several 
buildings were wired or recabled, some network software and 
electronics were upgraded, and MCI was selected as the new 
Internet service provider. The Office of Imaging, Printing, 
and Photographic Services added tens of thousands of 
photographs of Smithsonian artifacts and special events to its 
already large collection. Many of these images will be 
digitized for public Internet access and internal use as part of 
the large-scale project to digitize Smithsonian collections. 

As the fanfare of the Smithsonian's 150th anniversary 
subsided, we returned to business as usual this year. But the 
Institution's "business" — its mission of increasing and 
diffusing knowledge — is hardly "usual." The Smithsonian is 
for everyone, from the second-grader to the distinguished 
scholar. 

That is a far-reaching mandate, and fulfilling it requires a 
multiplicity of skills and talents. At the Smithsonian, we are 
fortunate to have staff who are dedicated to our mission and 
committed to excellence. Thanks to their collaborative efforts, 
this unique center for education, research, and enjoyment 
continues its tradition of outstanding public service. 

The Smithsonian Card 

Consumers who use the Smithsonian Card from NOVUS 
Services, Inc., are assisting Smithsonian programs in research, 
exhibitions, collections, and education. A percentage of each 
purchase made with the Smithsonian Card goes to the 
Institution. NOVUS Services also makes a donation each time 
a Smithsonian Card is issued or renewed. NOVUS Services is 
promoting the Smithsonian Card through a national 
marketing effort. In addition to showing their support for the 
Smithsonian, Card members earn points toward U.S. Series 
EE Savings Bonds when they make purchases with the 
Smithsonian Card. The relationship with NOVUS Services 
grew out of the Smithsonian's partnership with Discover 
Card, a business unit of NOVUS Services and the first partner 
of the 150th Anniversary Corporate Partner Program. 

Discovery Theater Turns 20 

For young people from all over the Washington, D.C., area, 
a trip to Discovery Theater is a memorable treat. Over the 
years, Discovery Theater has presented original productions, 
contemporary and traditional live puppetry, theatrical 
performances, dance, storytelling, and musicals — all designed 
to entertain, educate, and enlighten young audiences. As one 
of its twentieth-anniversary-season productions, Discovery 
Theater commissioned a theatrical piece in collaboration with 
the Education Department of the National Museum of 
African Art, based on che life of King Asantehene Agyeman 
Prempeh I, ruler of the Asante nation from 1888 to 1896. 

Performances coincided with the exhibition of King 
Prempeh's adinkra cloth at the museum. School groups 



12 



attending Discovery- Theater could schedule a docent-led tour 
of the exhibition to learn more about the significance of the 
ceremonial adznkra cloth and the depth of meaning 
symbolized in its rich iconography. This project was 
supported by a grant from the Smithsonian Educational 
Outreach Fund. Youngsters come to Discovery Theater with 
school and youth groups and on Saturday outings with their 
families. Ticket prices are kept low to give everyone a chance 
to attend. Presentations are geared to specific age groups, 
while themes reflect the interests of diverse audiences. A free 
learning guide for each production helps teachers prepare 
children for the experience. The productions are often interactive, 
opening avenues of self-reflection and offering enjoyable ways for 
parents and teachers to demonstrate life's lessons. 

Vital Volunteers 

They are rhe Smithsonian's most active ongoing 
partnership: the nearly 8,000 men and women who 
contributed their time this year to the Institution's mission of 
education and public service. Volunteers are a familiar 
presence as they invite a child to climb on the highwheeler in 
rhe Hands On History Room at the National Museum of 



American History, staff the Smithsonian's public inquiry 
telephone lines, or assist with Smithsonian Associate 
programs. More than 1,000 volunteers serve as docents; every 
museum, the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, 
and the Smithsonian Institution Building all have docent 
programs. The Visitor Information and Associates' Reception 
Center (VIARC) manages two Institution-wide programs in 
which 2,068 participants contributed 275,989 hours this year. 
In VIARC's Behind-the-Scenes Volunteer Program, 
volunteers support everyday activities in offices, conservation 
labs, libraries, and elsewhere. The Volunteer Information 
Specialist Program staffs information desks in most 
Smithsonian buildings. This year, 470 volunteers turned out 
to help the Festival of American Folklife run smoothly. On 
the "America's Smithsonian" tour, more than 2,100 volunteers 
helped their communities enjoy treasures from Smithsonian 
collections. Through Friends of the National Zoo (FONZ), 
the Smithsonian Women's Committee, and Young 
Benefactors, more than 1,600 volunteers helped generate 
financial support for the Institution. 

"Without question, volunteers are one of the Institution's 
richest and most enduring assets," says Secretary I. Michael 
Heyman. They will be "instrumental in securing the viability 
of the Smithsonian into the next century and beyond." 



13 



Report of 
the Provost 

J. Dennis O'Connor 



Two vkal processes of discovery converge at the Smithsonian: 
research and education. To "diffuse" knowledge we must first 
"increase" it, so the research conducted by our scholars and 
scientists is a necessary precursor to the educational experiences 
our visitors enjoy. As Provost, I hold an enviable position at 
the point of convergence, working with the Institution's great 
museums and research centers as they help the process of 
discovery to flourish. And flourish it does. In the Smithsonian's 
museums, we celebrate and inspire discovery, largely through 
exhibitions and public programs. Some exhibitions are 
structured attempts to convey information or meaning 
through the use of objects, whether historical, scientific, or 
artistic. Occasionally, we present an impressive object (a work 
of art, a skeletal structure, a histotical artifact), give visitors 
information about it, and invite them to take from it what 
they wish. We hope that their experience extends their 
personal horizons and stimulates them to explore different 
ways of thinking, questioning, seeing, and understanding. 
This year's diverse exhibitions blurred the line between 
education and research, from the extraordinarily effective 
new Janet Annenberg Hooker Hall of Geology, Gems, and 
Minerals at the National Museum of Natural History, to the 
National Postal Museum's fascinating story of invention and 
innovation, "Undercover: The Evolution of the American 
Envelope." A varied and vibrant selection of exhibitions from 
the Anacostia Museum and Center for African American 
History and Culture appeared throughout the year in the Arts 
and Industries Building. One of them was jazz bassist Milt 
Hinton's photographs of "Life on the Road" with Dizzy 
Gillespie, Hank Jones, Cab Calloway, and other renowned 
musicians. At the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, "King of the 
World: A Mughal Manuscript from the Royal Library, 



Windsor Castle" presented both beautiful works of art and the 
intriguing story of life in seventeenth-century India under the 
reign of the builder of the Taj Mahal. 

The scientists and scholars who work in the Smithsonian's 
research organizations engage in discovery of another variety. 
We can point with great pride to the newly released book on 
the rise and closure of the Panamanian Isthmus during the 
last 10 million years, a cooperative effort of the Panama 
Paleontology Project led by Anthony Coates and his colleagues 
at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. This already 
classic work explains the formation of species throughout 
North and South America better than any other study. 

Two other compelling discoveries show the level at which 
Smithsonian scientists lead the expansion of knowledge. 
Researchers from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
and their colleagues announced new findings that strengthen 
the case for black holes. Using satellite measurements of x-ray 
binary stars, they verified the existence of the "event horizon," 
the one-way membrane that traps matter and energy inside a 
black hole. At the National Museum of Natural History, there 
was new proof that a catastrophic asteroid impact caused the 
extinction of dinosaurs and other organisms 65 million years 
ago. A deep-sea core went on display that contains material 
from the asteroid along with evidence of the extinction of a 
major group of marine microscopic organisms. 

Discovery has also flourished in our educational programs 
this year, including the Smithsonian Office of Education's 
Museum Magnet Schools, its Smithsonian Education website, 
and the Smithsonian Early Enrichment Center's innovative 
early childhood curriculum. 

One of our priorities in the last year has been to take 
discovery beyond the Mall in a way that we have not done 



H 



before — by extending electronic outreach, for instance. Some Regents created theSmithsonian Center forLatinoInitiatives 

Smithsonian exhibitions have companion sites on the World under the Office of the Provost. When it opens in 1998, 

Wide Web, and there are virtual exhibitions as well. Some say the new center will promote interna links, as well as 

this experience in cyberspace is a far cry from standing next to connections between the Smithsonian and Latino 

the original, and they are absolutely right. On the other hand, communities. 

not all of our 260 million citizens can come to Washington to These reports from the Smithsonian's 16 museums, its 

expetience objects firsthand. Looking ahead, we see the research institutes, and its offices illustrate the convergence of 

prospect for dramatic changes in our educational potential as research and education. They share the thread of discovery, 

we digitize several million images from Smithsonian whether in a tropical forest canopy, at the far reaches of the 

collections fot online access. solar system, in a classroom, or in an exhibition gallery. For 

The Smithsonian also cook steps to more firmly engage scholars and the public alike, the Smithsonian is indeed a 

the public with the Institution when the Board of place for wondering, questioning, and learning. 



15 



Report of the 
Board of Regents 



The work of the Board of Regents' Committees throughout 
the year substantially strengthened the three plenary meetings 
in February, May, and September 1997. The Board welcomed 
its newest congressional member, Representative Esteban 
E. Torres (D-Calif.), whose appointment by the Speaker of the 
House on February 2.5, 1997, filled a long-standing vacancy on 
the Board and brought the membership to is full statutory 
capacity. The Board named Regent Frank A. Shrontz to its 
investment policy committee and elected Regent Wesley 
S. Williams, Jr., to the Executive Committee. The Regents' 
Committee of the Whole, established last year, effectively 
enhanced the Board's oversight of the Institution. The 
Committee's meetings attracted the participation of many 
Regents on the Sunday afternoons preceding regular Monday 
board meetings. Members discussed in depth such topics as 
the status of development and campaign; the Smithsonian's 
Strategic Plan (known also as the Response to the Government 
Performance Results Act); and space needs associated with the 
planned renovation of the Patent Office building and the 
enhancement of the operations of the National Portrait Gallery, 
National Museum of American Art, and Archives of American 
Art. In addition, the Committee of the Whole discussed the 
operations and plans of the National Museum of Natural 
History and the Freer and Sackler Galleries with their 
respective directors and advisory board representatives. 

The Audit and Review Committee exercised its primary 
responsibility for oversight of the Institution's financial 
operations. This committee is the Regents' principal contact 
with the Institution's external auditors and receives the yearly 
report on its fiscal transactions. The committee also receives 
the Smithsonian inspector general's findings and frequently 
reviews particular functions and operations that have come to 



its attention. In the past year, such reviews included new 
accounting standards, insurance and risk funding, and tax 
issues related to the Institution's business activities. 

The Investment Policy Committee continued to monitor 
and meet with each of the current investment managers of the 
Institution's endowment. The committee terminated one 
investment management firm based on its relatively weak 
performance, redistributing its funds and some funds from 
another balanced management firm to other specialized 
investment managers. In other actions, the committee's rules 
of operation, proxy voting guidelines, and standards of 
conduct and disclosure were adopted; a $21 per-unit payout 
rate for fiscal year 1998 was approved; and the committee 
discussed the use of index funds and investments in 
alternative investment classes. 

Among its many actions throughout the year, the Board of 
Regents established the Smithsonian's charitable gift annuity 
program, approved an agreement with Novus Services, Inc., 
for a Smithsonian affinity credit card, and authorized 
tax-exempt financing for the construction of the Discovery 
Center in the National Museum of Natural History. In 
addition, the Regents approved the sale of the Barney Studio 
House for the benefit of the National Museum of American 
Art, reported to Congress that the National Campaign for the 
National Museum of the American Indian raised more than 
$37 million in fulfillment of its statutory requirement for 
construction of the Mall museum, worked with the Secretary 
to ensure that the continuing tour of "America's Smithsonian" 
would incur no additional deficit, and established the 
Smithsonian Center for Latino Initiatives. 

Particularly notable among the Regents' discussions were 
the Smithsonian policy on cosponsored special events, the 



16 



implications of early institutional affiliations, the ptinciples 
of a corporate sponsorship policy, and the challenges of certain 
exhibitions in contemporary art and American history. The 
Regents named the Visitors' Center at the Smithsonian 
Tropical Research Institute for STRI's first director, the late 
Dr. Martin H. Moymhan; named an exhibition gallery in the 
National Postal Museum for Guido Craven, president of 
Harmers Auction SA, a leading stamp dealer, and Tito 
Giamporcaro, a prominent philatelist; and named Cooper- 
Hewitt, National Design Museum's Center for the Study of 
Jewelry and Precious Metals for Joseph A. DiPalma and his 
sister Flora DiPalma Hoffman. As the year ended, the Regents 
considered a significant potential gift to the National 
Museum of Natural History. 

The Regents were pleased to award Joseph Henry Medals 
to Dr. Frederick G. Seitz, president emeritus of Rockefeller 
University and chair of the Joint Advisory Committee of 
Sponsoring Institutions of the Joseph Henry Papers Project, 
and Dr. Tomas Ybarra-Frausto, chairperson of the 
Smithsonian Council and the Latino Oversight Committee. 
Dr. Seitz and Dr. Ybarra-Frausto were honored for their 
significant contributions toward the Smithsonian's mandate 
for the increase and diffusion of knowledge. 

With the assistance of their Committee on Policy, Programs, 
and Planning, the Regents established the National Advisory 
Board of the National Zoological Park, the National Advisory 
Board of the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, the 
Development Board of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, and 
the Council of Philatelists of the National Postal Museum. The 
Regents expressed great appreciation to these and the many other 
advisory boards that assist in the oversight of the Smithsonian's 
museums, research institutes, and major programs. 

The Board of Regents appointed the following individuals 
to the Institution's advisory boards: Max N. Berry, Henry 
E. Catto, Peter R. Coneway, Thomas Edward Congdon, 
Archie W. Dunham, Richard Hunt, Robert L.James, Nan 
Tucker McEvoy, Thomas D. Mullins, Heinz C. Prechter, 
Carol Ann Swanson Price, David M. Silfen, Kenneth L. 
Smith, Frank A. Weil, Anthony Welters, and Daniel W. 
Yohannes to the Smithsonian National Board; Alison 
Bernstein, H. P. Claussen, Dollie Ann Cole, Neil Harris, 
Irene Hirano, Thomas W. Langfitt, Seymour L. Schwartz, 
and Marvin D. Williams to the National Musetory Board of 
Trustees; Joseph M. Goldenberg, Joseph E. Harris, Robert 
Farris Thompson, and Walter E. Washington to the 
Commission of the National Museum of African Art; 
Kay Allaire, Harvey Krueger, Elaine La Roche, Barbara A. 
Mandel, Richard Smith, and Edward A. Weinstein to the 
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum Board of Trustees; 
Cynthia Helms, Marie Lam, and Robert Tang to the Arthur 
M. Sackler Gallery Visiting Committee; David L. Dilcher, 
Edward O. Gaylord, Colin Patterson, and Marshall Turner to 
the National Museum of Natural History Advisory Board; 
Duane Champagne, George L. Cornell, Billy L. Cypress, 
Charles Diker, Dwight Gourneau, Joann Sebastian Morris, 



and Ted Stevens to the Board of Trustees of the National 
Museum of the American Indian; Joan Adams Mondale and 
Roger Harrison Mudd to the Commission of the National 
Portrait Gallery; Sylvia Ripley Addison, David Challinor, 
Jeannine Smith Clark, Katharine C. Crittenberger, Leonard 
C. Jaques, Barbara J. Smith, and Kevin Starr to the 
Development Board of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries; 
and Tomas Bjaringer, George Brett, Chan Chin Cheung, 
Guido Craven, Enzo Diena, Tito Giamporcaro, Surajita 
Gongvatana, Envan Haub, Tim Hirsch, John Hotchner, 
Norman Hubbard, Azeezaly Jaffer, Alvin and Marge Kantor, 
Frank Mandel, Arthur Morowitz, Hassan Shaida, David 
Sundman, Donald Sundman, and Steven C. Walske to the 
Council of Philatelists of the National Postal Museum. 

Staff Changes 

On October 4, 1996, the Smithsonian community paid 
tribute to Mary Livingston Ripley, the late wife of Secretary 
Emeritus S. Dillon Ripley. Mrs. Ripley was remembered for 
her many contributions to the Smithsonian during her 
husband's tenure, including the establishment of the 
Smithsonian Women's Committee, the enhancement of 
Smithsonian gardens and orchid collections, and her avid 
work as a photographer, entomologist, and collaborator in 
Mr. Ripley's ornithological fieldwork. The Smithsonian's 
senior management was bolstered this year with the arrival of 
Robert V Hanle, formerly at the University of Minnesota 
Foundation, in the new position of executive director for 
development. Appointed from within the Smithsonian ranks 
were Roslyn A. Walker as director of the National Museum of 
African Art; Nancy E. Gwinn as director of Smithsonian 
Institution Libraries, succeeding Barbara Smith, who retired 
this year; and James B. Conklin, replacing Arthur Lee Denny 
as senior information officer. Several highly accomplished 
members of the senior staff have left for other vineyards. 
Assistant Secretary for Institutional Advancement Alice 
Green Burnette left to pursue other opportunities on a 
part-time basis. Marie A. Mattson, director of the Office of 
Membership and Development, moved to a similar position 
at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts after 
receiving the Secretary's Gold Medal for Exceptional Service. 
David L. Correll left his position as director of the 
Smithsonian Environmental Research Center to become 
senior scientist. As the year ended, Patrick J. Miller resigned 
as director of the Office of Physical Plant to accept a 
comparable post at Harvard Medical School. It is always 
difficult to lose senior personnel who have contributed so 
unstintingly to the advancement of Smithsonian interests. 

The compliment that other organizations pay in this 
respect is bittersweet. But, by the same token, the Institution 
has both acquired and nurtured from within a staff highly 
regarded for its talent and dedication. The vitality of the 
Smithsonian staff is central to its success, and the continued 
strength of the Institution in this sense has never seemed 
more assured. 



I" 



of Smithsonian artifacts and using the Synthonics 
software process "Rapid Virtual Reality" for rotation 
and examination of the object images. 

October 



Chronology 



■ Exhibition Office of Physical Plant, Architectural 
History, and Historic Preservation conducted a research 
project related to the Langley Memorial Plaque which 
resulted in a small exhibition mounted in the Castle. A 
brochure to accompany this exhibition was produced 
and continues to be distributed. 



October 5 



October 

■ Exhibition "Down Through the Years: Stories From 
the Anacostia Museum Collection" highlighted the 
uniqueness and the treasures of the Anacostia Museum 
and Center for African American History and Culture. 



■ Hewlett-Packard Donation The Hewlett-Packard 
Company donated a state-of-the-art ultrasound imaging 
system to the Department of Animal Health. Zoo 
vetetinarians will use the system to help diagnose 
disease in the Zoo's animal collection. The Sonos iooo 
system — valued at $120,000 — had been pteviously 
loaned by HP to the Zoo for use during the cardio- 
vascular examination conducted by Zoo veterinarians in 
June. Those exams revealed the existence of heart dis- 
ease among several of the Zoo's great apes. 



October 

■ Exhibition "Footsteps from North Brentwood," an 
exhibition at the Anacostia Museum and Center for 
African American History and Culture, documented the 
growth and development of the first municipality in 
Prince George's County, Maryland, to be incorporated 
by African American citizens. 

October 



October j-iS 

■ Workshop The Center for Museum Studies col- 
laborated with the Fundacion Antorchas and the Univer- 
sidad de Buenos Aires in offered a series of workshops 
on preventive conservation and exhibition design. The 
workshops, held at the university's Museo Etnografico 
Juan B. Ambrosetti, provided training to museum staff 
in Argentina, Chile, and Brazil. Another program was 
offered in May 1997. 



■ Research An entirely new kind of solar system object — 
an icy miniplanet — was discovered and described by a 
team of scientists, included an SAO astronomer, who 
determined that it and others of its ilk might pass 
through the vast, dark "no man's land" between the 
Kuiper Belt of frozen planetesimals beyond Pluto's orbit 
and the Oort Cloud of comets that is believed to form a 
halo around the entire solar system. 



October 8 

■ Benefit The Archives of American Art honored artist 
Chuck Close at a gala black-tie dinner. An exhibition 
featured the artist and comprising papers, photographs, 
letters, and other documents in the Archives' collections 
opened the same evening in the New York Regional 
Centet Gallery Space. 



October 



October 9 



■ Licensing agreement A licensing agreement was made 
with Synthonics Technologies, Inc., for the development 
and production of a CD-ROM containing images in 3D 



■ Public Program "Oye Como Va: The Smithsonian 
Honors Tito Puente," the National Museum of 
American History's tribute to renowned Latin musician 



18 



Tico Puente included a donation of Puente's "timbales" 
to the National Museum, an oral history interview, a 
discussion about the New York music scene and the 
Puerto Rican community, and a musical tribute by La- 
Jazz. Puente was presented with the museum's Lifetime 
Achievement Award. 



October iy 

■ Meeting The Smithsonian Accessibility Program 
released its publication "Smithsonian Guidelines for Ac- 
cessible Exhibition Design" to staff at a meeting of the 
Smithsonian Liaison Council. 



October II 

■ Concert The Smithsonian Associates and the Center 
for Folklife Programs and Cultural Studies celebrated 
the Folkways legacy at Baird Auditorium. Pete Seeger, 
Ella Jenkins, Bernice Johnson Reagon, and Anthony 
Seeger received the Smithson Medal on behalf of 
Folkways artists past, present, and future. Smithsonian 
General Counsel John Huerta awarded the medal. 

October n 

■ Special Event The Smithsonian Associates awarded 
the James Smithson Bicentennial Medal to singer/ 
songwriter Pete Seeger for his outstanding career in 
music. 

October 16— November 14 

■ Public Program America's Smithsonian, the traveling 
exhibition celebrating the Institution's 150th Anniver- 
sary, visited St. Paul, Minnesota. The Office of Member- 
ship and Development organized a Premiere Gala for 
local supporters that was held October 15. The exhibi- 
tion also traveled to Houston, Texas, December 6— 
January 28. A Premiere Gala for local supporters was 
held December 5. April 3-May 6, the exhibition visited 
Portland, Oregon. A Premiere Gala was held April 2. 
Birmingham, Alabama received the show May 29-July 
12. A Premiere Gala was held May 28. The show 
returned to the West Coast in the summer, visiting San 
Jose, California, July 31-August 26. A Premiere Gala 
was held July 30. 

October 17-ip 

■ Meeting The Office of Membership and Develop- 
ment welcomed the Smithsonian National Board to 
Washington, D.C., for the board's 25th annual meeting. 
The board also held its spring meeting April 3—5. June 
1—8 the Board took a study tour to Alaska, featuring a 
visit to the Anchorage Museum of History and Art, 
cohost of the Smithsonian Arctic Studies Program based 
at the National Museum of Natural History. 



October 18-ip 

■ Special Event The Office of Membership and 
Development welcomed the James Smithson Society to 
Washington. The Society, the highest circle of Con- 
tributing Membership, met for its 20th annual gather- 
ing and gave its Founder Medal to Agnes Cowles 
Bourne for her generous support of the Cooper-Hewirt's 
renovation. The Society's annual meeting was per- 
manently moved to the spring in FY97, and the group 
also met May 9—10. The Society gave two Founder 
Medals recognizing extraordinary members. Mr. and 
Mrs. Philip D. Reed, Jr., accepted the medal on behalf 
of the Philip D. Reed Foundation. The Reeds have sup- 
ported the work of SERC, NOAHS and the CRC. Mary 
Marvin Breckinridge Patterson accepted the medal 
recognizing her lifetime support for the Smithsonian 
and many SI units. 

October ip 

■ Special Event The Office of Membership and 
Development organized the Smithsonian Benefactors 
Circle Dinner to recognize and honor those individuals 
whose gifts, over their lifetimes, have preserved the 
traditions of the Smithsonian and furthered its vision. 
At the SBC October 1996 dinner, William Gordon 
Bowen received the Joseph Henry Medal in recognition 
of his distinguished achievements as a Smithsonian 
Regent and his support as President of the Andrew W. 
Mellon Foundation. Jerome and Dororthy Lemelson 
received the SBC's Annual Award for their generous sup- 
port and their establishment of the Jerome and Dorothy 
Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innova- 
tion at the National Museum of American History. The 
award was accepted by their son, Eric Lemelson. 

October ip 

■ Exhibition and Publication The SITES exhibition 
"Seeing Jazz" premiered at the International Gallery. 
The book, also entitled Seeing Jazz, published for the 
premiere, complemented and expanded on the themes 
of the exhibition, including more artworks and literary 



10 



selections. As part of its national tour, select works from 
the exhibition were shown at The Jazz Gallery in New 
York City on February 22, 1998. The New York City 
Host Committee brought the exhibition there as part of" 
city-planned events for the Grammy Awards. Support 
for the exhibition was provided by America's Jazz 
Heritage, A Partnership of the Leila-Wallace-Reader's 
Digest Fund and the Smithsonian Institution. 

October 25— July 6 

■ Exhibition "Red, Hot & Blue! A Salute to American 
Musicals" was on view at the National Portrait Gallery. 
NPG and the National Museum of American History 
jointly organized this major exhibition that consisted of ap- 
proximately four hundred photographs, caricatures, set 
designs, costumes, other memorabilia, and audio and video 
clips that traced the musical from its immigrant roots in 
nineteenth-century vaudeville, through its glittering rise 
on Broadway, and through Hollywood's gleaming sound 
stages, to its heyday in the 1940s and 1950s, ending with 
the modern musical. Sponsored by Discover® Card. 

October 30— February 25 

■ Exhibition "Memory: Luba Art and the Making of 
History," organized by the Museum for African Art in 
New York City. 

October 30 

■ Meeting The Smithsonian Accessibility Program con- 
vened the first joint meeting of the Advisory Council on 
Accessibility and the Smithsonian Accessibility Liaison 
Council. The topic of discussion was unit submissions of 
Five- Year Accessibility Improvement Plans and finding 
ways to integrate access and all facets of the Institution's 
operation. 

November 

■ Commemoration A number of exhibits opened around 
the museum commemorating the 50th anniversary of the 
U.S. Air Force, including a Korean War era F-86 Sabre jet 
fighter, a collection of models of Air Force aircraft, and 
various works of art from the Air Force collection. 

November 

■ Milestone The National Postal Museum received its 
first endowment pledge, a $500,000 gift from Guido 



Craveri and Tito Giamporcaro as part of the Museum's 
Fund for the Future campaign. 

November 

■ Agreement The agreement with Mrs. Hanako Matano 
to serve as the Smithsonian's special representative to 
Japan was renegotiated and renewed. 

November 

■ Special Event The Office of Equal Employment and 
Minority Affairs orchestrated the third annual 
Secretary's Award Program for Excellence in Equal 
Opportunity in collaboration with the Secretary's Office 
and the SI Equal Opportunity Advisory Council. 
Several outstanding managers and employees were 
recognized for exceptional contributions to the 
Smithsonian's Equal Opportunity goals and honored 
before their peers and hundreds of Smithsonian 
employees. 

November 1 

■ Exhibition "Points of Entry," a series of three exhibi- 
rions at the Anacostia Museum and Center for African 
American History and Culture documented the immi- 
grant experience. 

November 6 

■ Exhibition The National Postal Museum opened the 
What's in the Mail for You! exhibition dramatizing the 
impact of the direct mail industry on American society. 

November 6 

■ Presentation The Smithsonian Accessibility Program 
staff" hosted 22 members of the National Recreation 
Association of Japan for a discussion of accessibility at 
the Smithsonian for visitors with disabilities. 

November 12 

■ Workshop "Second Annual Black History Month 
Planning Workshop" with Washington-area federal and 
school agencies was held at the Anacostia Museum and 
Center for African American History and Culture to 
develop skills in planning and implementing local 
Black History Month programs. 



20 



November 13 



December 



■ Special Event The Smithsonian Associates awatded 
the James Smithson Bicentennial Medal to musician 
and inventor Les Paul fot his singular achievements. 

December 



■ Agreement An agteement with Simon and Schuster 
to develop a CD-Rom product based on the "Earth 2U" 
geography traveling exhibition. Nissan, a co-sponsor of 
the exhibit, has a separate contract with Simon and 
Schuster related to the Smithsonian agreement. 



■ Acquisitions The National Air and Space Museum ac- 
quired two suits used by American astronauts on MIR: 
the spacesuit worn by Norm Thagard, and one designed 
to imitate the effects of gravity on the muscles and 
bones of cosmonauts during long spaceflights used by 
Shannon Lucid during her six-month stay on MIR. The 
museum also acquired a set of Smithsonian 150th anni- 
versary commemorative coins flown on the Space 
Shuttle (STS-79) in 1996. These were the fitst U.S. 
commemorative coins to be flown in space, and were 
presented to the directors of both NASM and the 
NMAH in a ceremony at NASM in December 1996. 

December 

■ Test Move The historic telocation of the National 
Museum of the American Indian collection from the 
museum's Research Branch in the Bronx to the Cultural 
Resources Center in Suitland, Maryland, began with a 
pilot move project in December. The pilot move project 
relocated of 17,000 objects to a holding place near Suit- 
land, tested strategies for the five-year move project, 
and cleared a staging area in the cramped and anti- 
quated Bronx facility. 



■ Latino Outreach The Office of Public Affairs ran the 
first of three advertising campaigns for the year in local 
Latino newspapers. OPA staff wrote the text in Spanish 
and placed the advertisements in two newspapers. The 
campaigns were geared toward the winter holiday, the 
Folklife Festival and Hispanic Heritage Month. 

December 

■ Contract A master contract was entered into with 
the Sloan auction house to allow for deaccessioned art 
objects to be placed up for auction without having to 
renegotiate a full agreement each time. Individual 
museum's objects are consigned through amendments 
to the basic agreement, saving resources and providing 
a consistent framework for such activities. 



December 

■ "Publication The Office of Equal Employment and 
Minority Affairs published and distributed the four- 
teenth Smithsonian Institution Equal Opportunity 
Report in response to a 1989 request from the House 
and Senate Committees on Appropriations. This report 
described the composition of the work force in terms of 
gender, racial/ethnic identity, grade, and occupational 
categories. It also contains a summary of the Institu- 
tion's efforts to ensure that programs reflect the nation's 
diversity and pluralism. It covered the period Septem- 
ber 1996 to September 1997. 

December 

■ Awards Smithsonian magazine received Community- 
Action Network's 10th Annual Media and Cotporate 
Awards: Exceptional Merit award for "A Freedom Sum- 
mer Activist Becomes A Math Revolutionary" by Bruce 
Watson (February 1996), and Certificates of Metit for 
"Making up for Lost Time: The Rewards of Reading at 
Last" by Richard Wolkomir (August 1996); and "Ranchers 
for a 'Radical Center' to Protect Wide-open Spaces" by 
Jake Page (June 1997). The Acoustical Society of America's 
Science Writing Award in Acoustics for Journalists was 
awarded for "Decibel by Decibel, Reducing the Din to a 
Very Dull Roar" by Richard Wolkomir (February 1996). 
The Walter Sullivan Award for Excellence in Science 
Journalism from the American Geophysical Union was 
awarded for "Geologists Worry about Dangers of Living 
'Under the Volcano'" by Jon Krakauer (July 1996). 

December 3 

■ Training Seminar The Smithsonian Accessibility Pro- 
gram conducted a "Two-Cents Seminar on Accessible 
Programs" to staff and people with disabilities from its 
Advisory Council. Four panelists spoke on issues of pro- 
gram access for different disabilities. The presentation 
was one of four training sessions focusing on guidelines 
prepared by the Accessibility Program to improve ac- 
cess to museums for visitors with disabilities. 



21 



December 5 

■ Special Event The Smithsonian Associates awarded 
the James Smithson Bicentennial Medal to Walter 
Cronkite for his outstanding career in journalism. 



Center's Castle Docents featured Clifford Nelson appear- 
ing in persona as 19th century paleontologist Fielding 
B. Meek who lived and died in the Castle. 

December 20-21 



December- 9 

■ International Authority File The Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Libraries became a participating member of NACO 
(Name Authotity Cooperative Program), an internation- 
al project with 213 participating libraries in which 
cataloging department staff create original authority 
records for inclusion in the Name Authority File main- 
tained by the Library of Congress. 

December 10 

■ Special Event The Annual Appreciation Reception for 
the Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center's 
corps of Volunteer Information Specialists included 
remarks by the Under Secretary, Constance B. Newman. 

December 75 



■ Public Program The Smithsonian Associates 
presented a weekend seminar on Shakespeare, which fea- 
tured the Washington premiere of Kenneth Btanagh's 
film version of Hamlet. In addition to introducing the 
film, the actor/director spoke on the art of adapting 
Shakespeare for film in a discussion with other direc- 
tors, scholars, producers, and commentatots, including 
Shakespeare Theater artistic director Michael Kahn and 
commentator Robert MacNeil, with National Public 
Radio's Susan Stamberg moderating. 

December 29 

■ Family Program "Reflections and Renewal: A Com- 
munity Celebration," a program of the Anacostia 
Museum and Center for African American History and 
Culture celebrated the principles of Kwanzaa through 
music, testimonials, performances, and storytelling. 



■ Film Premiere "The Line King: The Al Hirschfeld 
Story," a film by Susan W Dryfoos, made its 
Washington premiere at the National Portrait Gallery. 
The film, distributed by Castle Rock, centered on the 
art and times of the famous caricaturist. 

December 16 



1997 

■ Repatriation The National Museum of the American 
Indian continued its commitment, under federal law 
and museum policy, to repatriate human remains and 
objects of religious and cultural pattimony to native 
groups throughout the hemisphere. 



■ Science Gallery Opens The Amazonia Science Gallery 
opened at the National Zoo. This new permanent 
exhibit on biodiversity is located in a wing of the 
Amazonia habitat. Visitors can learn about the work of 
Smithsonian scientists who are investigating the com- 
plexities and interrelationships of plants and animals 
and the effect of human activities on the environment. 
Included in the Science Gallery are displays about the 
diversity of life in the rainforest, a biodiversity study 
center in which visitors can examine a variety of 
small creatures and objects under microscopes, and 
laboratories where working scientists can be observed 
investigating animal behavior, genetics, and nutrition. 

December 18 

■ Special Event The Annual Appreciation Reception 
for the Visitor Information and Associates' Reception 



1997 

■ Construction Construction of the museum's Cultural 
Resources Center, which began in September 1996, con- 
tinues throughout the year. Clark Construction Group, 
Inc., served as the general contractor for the project. 

1997 

■ Anniversary Although collecting cultural objects has 
been part of the Smithsonian's work since the 
institution's founding in 1846, 1997 marked the 100th 
anniversary of the formal creation of the Department of 
Anthropology, now part of the National Museum of 
Natural History. Today, curators and other scientists 
conduct research in ethnology and linguistics, archaeol- 
ogy, and physical anthropology, and the department en- 
compasses initiatives in archaeobiology, human origins, 



22 



Latin American archaeology, Asian cultural history, Arctic 
studies, and Paleoindian/Paleoecology studies, as well as 
the museum's American Indian Program and Repatriation 
Office, the editorial staff of the Handbook of North American 
Indians, and the collections of the National Anthropologi- 
cal Archives and the Human Film Studies Archives. 



eluding the Sun, orbit and which is hidden from optical 
view by dust between the stars, has been determined by 
SAO radio astronomers and their colleagues to within 
0.03 arcsecond, a measurement uncertainty equivalent 
to less than the width of a penny as seen from a distance 
of 65 kilometers. 



1997 

■ Discussion Program The Senate of Scientists of the 
National Museum of Natural History presented an in- 
formal discussion series to introduce the public to the 
work of museum scientists and the research value of the 
Smithsonian's incomparable collections. These Spotlights 
on Research, held in museum exhibition galleries, 
focused on such subjects as diversity among fishes; the 
domestication of livestock and human history; the dif- 
ference between tocks, minerals, and gems; the early 
solar system; and the importance of seaweed in our lives. 

1997 

* Permanent Exhibition A collection of ceramics by 
contemporary Korean masters, donated by the National 
Museum of Korea, was added to the exhibits in the Na- 
tional Museum of Natural History's Hall of Asian Peoples. 

January—December 

■ Anniversary In 1997, the National Museum of 
African Art celebrated its 10th year on the National 
Mall with a year's worth of special events. The celebra- 
tion included the installation in the museum's pavilion 
of kinetic sculptures by the contemporary Nigerian art- 
ist Sokan Douglas Camp; special exhibitions and public 
programs; and a Quadrangle-wide birthday party. 

January 

■ Research Based on satellite observations of x-ray bi- 
nary stars, SAO scientists and their colleagues were able 
to provide evidence supporting the existence of a pre- 
viously theoretical phenomenon known as an "event 
horizon," the one-way membrane surrounding a black 
hole, and the boundary at which matter and energy, in- 
cluding light, begin to fall into this gravitational trap. 

January 

■ Research The position on the sky of the center of the 
Milky Way galaxy, a point around which all stars, in- 



January 

■ Publication The graphic results of a 20-year survey of 
molecular clouds in the Milky Way conducted by two 
identical 1.2-meter radio telescopes, one on the roof of 
the observatory complex in Cambridge, MA, and the other 
on a mountaintop in Chile, was published by SAO as a 
large-scale color poster and made available to students, 
researchers, and amateur astronomers worldwide. 

January 

■ Grant Mrs. Jefferson Patterson contributed funds to 
the Smithsonian Institution Libraries to support for 
three years the position of curator of Natural History 
Rare Books in the Special Collections Deparrment. 
Leslie K. Overstreet, who was appointed to the posi- 
tion, is involved with the development of the projected 
Natural History Rare Book Library now under construc- 
tion in the East Court of the National Museum of 
Natural History. 

January 

■ Corporate Membership The Smithsonian Institution 
Libraries brought in Leonard Jaques of the Jaques Ad- 
miralty Law Firm in Detroit as a Smithsonian Corporate 
member at the $25,000 level. Jaques Admiralty is the 
first member to be brought into the SCMP by a unit of 
the Institution. 

January 

■ Agreements Several agreements were negotiated with 
the Presidential Inaugural Committee for Inaugural 
activities at Smithsonian sites and for other services 
provided to the Inaugural Commirtee during the cele- 
bration of the second inauguration of President Clinton. 

January 

■ Special Event Ten Smithsonian scholars reached more 
than 7,000 people in nearly 100 presentations as part of 
The Smithsonian Associates' Smithsonian Voices of Dis- 



23 



covery program in Houston, Texas. Topics ranged from 
the First Ladies to marine biology, Latino culture, and 
contemporary art. Houston public television station 
KUHT produced and aired a 30-minute documentary 
about the Smithsonian Voices of Discover}' program, 
which was also made available to other Texas public 
television stations. The scholars also participated in a talk 
show on public television, numerous radio interviews, and 
distance learning opportunities with students. 

January 8 

■ Film Premiere The Center for Folkhfe Programs and 
Cultural Studies sponsored the premiere of the film 
Talk to Me: Americans in Conversation, produced and 
directed by film-maker Andrea Simon. The film won 
the NEH "National Conversation" competition in 1995 
and was conceived as a means to engage broad public 
audiences and policy-makers in dialogue about the uses 
of culture for the exploration of group and national iden- 
tity, the bridging of social conflicts, and the develop- 
ment of state and civic institutions. 

January 8 

■ Publication The National Science Resources Center 
published Science for All Children: A Guide to Improving 
Elementary Science Education in Your School District. The 
book presents the NSRC's model for systemic science 
education reform. 



accessible to all visitors; by presenting the finest ex- 
amples of traditional African art, as well as the work of 
modern African artists; and by reaching beyond the 
walls of the museum and beyond the nation's capital by 
sponsoring traveling exhibitions and tapping into 
electronic media. 

January 16 

■ Grant Awarded The Brown Foundation, Inc., 
Houston, Texas, made a $500,000 matching challenge 
grant to the Archives of American Art to establish the 
William E. Woolfenden Endowment fund in honor of 
the Archives' first director. The gift, the largest single 
grant ever awarded to AAA in its forty-three-year 
history, will support the publication of the Archives' 

Journal, a quarterly publication. 

January 20 

■ Special Event The National Postal Museum hosted a 
Presidential Inaugural Ball attended by Vice President 
Gore. 

January 20 

■ Inaugural Exhibits and Activities The Office of Public 
Affairs coordinated with the Inaugural Committee to 
publicize museum exhibits and activities during the 
Presidential Inaugural weekend. 



January 13—24 

■ Course In collaboration with Panama's Natural 
Resources Institute and the Fundacion NATURA, the 
Tropical Research Institute sponsored a training course 
on environmental monitoring techniques for partici- 
pants from Panama and other Central American 
countries, conducted as part of Si's Man and the Bio- 
sphere Program. 

January 15 

■ Appointment Roslyn A. Walker, a longtime senior 
curator at the National Museum of African Art and a 
specialist in Yoruba art, was named director of the 
museum. Dr. Walker plans to take the museum in excit- 
ing new directions as it enters its second decade on the 
National Mall by expanding the ways the museum com- 
municates with its many audiences through new media; 
by ensuring the facilities, exhibitions, and programs are 



January 26 

■ Radio Advertising Campaign The first radio advertise- 
ment ran in the Office of Public Affairs' Black History 
Month campaign, one of three radio advertising cam- 
paigns this year aimed at local African American audien- 
ces, ages 25 to 45. OPA prepared the ad copy, and three 
local radio stations— WMMJ, WHUR, and WTOP— 
produced the advertisements. The other two campaigns 
were geared to the Folklife Festival and encouraging 
late summer visitors to come to the Smithsonian "now 
that the crowds are gone." 

January 29— March 23 

■ Exhibition The popular exhibition "A King and His 
Cloth: Asantehene Agyeman Prempeh I" focused on a 
magnificent adinkra cloth from the National Museum 
of African Art's important collection of textiles. The 
exhibition included a multimedia presentation that 



24 



invited visicors to explore the history and symbols of 
the cloth, as well as an original play, cosponsored by 
The Smithsonian Associates, which brought both King 
Prempeh and the cloth to life. 

January 30-March 25 

■ Exhibition The Archives of American Art presented 
the exhibit "A Shared Experience: One Hundred Years of 
Art at the MacDowell Colony" in the Gallery Space of the 
New York Regional Center. This project was generously 
funded by a grant from the Ruth Bowman Philanthropic 
Fund of the Jewish Communal Fund. The show, compris- 
ing papers and photographs pertaining to the establish- 
ment of the MacDowell Art Colony and the artists, writers, 
and composers who worked there, was organized by The 
Currier Gallery of Art, Manchester, New Hampshire. 

January 30 

■ Dedication The Tropical Research Institute officially 
opened its new Center for Tropical Paleoecology and Ar- 
chaeology after extensively renovating the 1919 building 
that originally housed all of STRI. 

January 31- -September 14 

■ Exhibition "Breaking Racial Barriers: African 
Americans in the Harmon Foundation Collection" was 
on view at the National Portrait Gallery. In 1944, the 
Harmon Foundation mounted an exhibition of portraits 
of distinguished African Americans, which was in- 
tended to combat racial inequity. Titled "Portraits of 
Outstanding Americans of Negro Origin," the exhibi- 
tion was expanded for a tour of rhe United States that 
ended in 1954. NPG selected twenty-one portraits — 
most from its collection — that were included in that 
tour, along with pamphlets and other memorabilia. 

January 31— September 14 

■ Exhibition "Le Tumulte Noir" was on view at the 
National Portrait Gallery. In 1929, Josephine Baker's 
friend and advocate, the French poster artist Paul Colin, 
captured Baker's explosive performing presence in a 
portfolio of forty-four lithographs titled "Le Tumulte 
Noir" ("The Black Rage"). More than any other work of 
art, Colin's vivid portfolio conveyed the extraordinary 
impact of Baker's talent, and the passionate and profound 
reaction to black culture in Paris during the 1920s. 



February 

■ Public Program "lion Lion Zion: Bob Marley 
Birthday Tribute" was sponsored by the Anacostia 
Museum and Center for African American History and 
Culture to commemorate the life and music of this 
master of reggae. 

February 

■ Fund-Raising A new Corporate Membership pro- 
gram was launched at the George Gustav Heye Center. 
Goldman, Sachs & Co., an international investment and 
brokerage firm was one of the first corporations to join 
the program, which is aimed at raising endowment 
funds for the New York museum. 

February 

■ Exhibition Building on the success of the small- 
exhibition format (which the Office of Exhibits Central 
designed in 1995 in collaboration with SITES and the 
State Humanities Council), OEC produced four copies 
of the SITES exhibition Barn Again! The new format, 
which includes a scaled barn model, lets underserved 
communities enjoy an affordable exhibition about barn- 
building in the United States. Another small-format ex- 
ample that OEC designed and produced was Vanishing 
Amphibians, a collaborative effort with SITES and the 
National Museum of Natural History that combines a 
scientific overview of the world's frog population with 
an appeal for conservation. 

February 

■ Agreement An agreement was made with Blue Note 
Records to write liner notes for Blue Note's 4 CD 
release called "Hot Jazz on Blue Note." 

February 

■ Agreement An agreement was made with NOVUS 
Services, Inc., concerning the establishment of a 
NOVUS affinity card program using the Smithsonian 
name and images. 

February 

■ Agreement An agreement was made with Visible 
Interactive for an Audio Tour of the National Air and 
Space Museum's "Star Wars" exhibit. The Visible Inter- 



ns 



active tour equipment, now in use at a few of the 
Smithsonian's museums and at the America's Smith- 
sonian Exhibition sites, provides selectable audio and 
video text tour information about objects in the collec- 
tion. This popular visitor aid is compliant with the 
Americans with Disabilities Act. 

F ebruary— March 

■ Exhibition Office of Physical Plant, Horticulture Ser- 
vices Division produced a Bulb Show in the Arts & In- 
dustries Building. 

February $—8 

■ Public Program and Symposium In collaboration with 
numerous Smithsonian offices, the National Museum of 
American History organized "La Francophonie Noire: 
The Roots and Evolution of the Franco-Creole Diaspora 
in the Americas," a three-day conference and public pro- 
gram series to help the public understand the historic 
roots of the African American experience through the 
prism of the black, French-speaking world. Events in- 
cluded a film festival, music and performances, lectures, 
demonstrations, and a "cultural marketplace." 

February y—io 

■ Benefit The Detroit Chapter of the Archives of 
American Art incorporated its legendary annual black- 
tie gala, Lundi Gras XXXVII, into "A Splash of Sun- 
shine," a weekend of art-related activities in Palm 
Beach, Florida. Traditionally held on the Monday 
preceding Mardi Gras, this was the first time that Lundi 
Gras was held outside of the metropolitan Detroit area. 
The event contributed nearly $74,000 to support 
Archives' operations. 

February /—May 7 

■ Exhibition The Tropical Research Institute's exhibi- 
tion "Our Reefs: Caribbean Connections" opened at the 
Miami International Airport, a gateway for visitors to 
the Caribbean. 

February 10 

■ Smithsonian Card The launch of the Smithsonian 
Card was announced by Novus Services, Inc. and Smith- 
sonian Secretary I. Michael Heyman. When consumers 



use these credit cards, a percentage of each purchase is 
donated to the Institution. 

February 13 

■ Members andVisitors For the first time, museum 
members were invited to visit places in the George 
Gustav Heye Center that are rarely seen — the photo lab, 
exhibition workroom, resource center stacks, and others. 
One week after the event, the National Museum of the 
American Indian welcomed its millionth visitor. 

February 18—28 

■ Children's Theater Production The Smithsonian 
Associates' Discover}' Theater presented an original new 
production, King Prempeh. based on the life of the remark- 
able 19th-century king of the Asante nation (now called 
Ghana). The play, presented in celebration of Black His- 
tory Month, marked the first time Discovery Theater col- 
laborated directly with a Smithsonian museum — the 
National Museum of African Art in this case — to create 
a production that highlighted an exhibition. 

February 28 

■ Endowment The Joseph F Cullman 3rd Endowment 
for the Preservation of Natural History Rare Books was 
established at the Smithsonian Institution Libtaries. 
The $100,000 Endowment will support rare book 
preservation as part of the Libraries' campaign to endow 
the new Natural History Rare Book Library, now under 
construction in the National Museum of Natural His- 
tory East Court. 

February 28 

■ Special Announcement The Smithsonian announced its 
first agreement under the Affiliates Program, which per- 
mits museums and nonprofit organizations to borrow 
collections from the Institution on a long-term basis 
and to use the phrase "in association with the Smith- 
sonian Institution." 

Spring 

■ Enron Donation The Enron Corporation donated 
$32,400 to the National Zoo's Conservation and Re- 
search Center in Front Royal, Virginia, to support Asian 
elephant research. The Malaysian Elephant Satellite 
Tracking Project, run in cooperation with at the 



26 



Malaysian Wildlife Department, will use the funding to 
follow wild elephants after they are relocated. In return, 
the Tracking Project staff will help identify an or- 
phaned elephant calf that Enron will be able to bring 
back to the United States for che Washington Park Zoo 
in Portland, Oregon. 



Spr 



■ Research The unique cylindrical mirrors designed by 
an SAO scientist to form the heart of the Advanced X- 
ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), a space observatory 
scheduled for launch in late 1998, were successfully 
tested by NASA and found to exceed all premanufac- 
ture specifications. In space, the mirrors should have a 
resolving power 10 times greater than those in any pre- 
vious x-ray telescope. 

Spring— Summer 

■ Internships A visiting professional librarian from 
Romania, a library student form Germany, a graduate 
student from University of Maryland, and a graduate of 
the University of Oklahoma, received professional train- 
ing in cataloging, Natural History branch collections, 
preservation of special collections, and assisted with 
preservation of fragile library materials in the 
Anthropology Branch. 

March 

■ Exhibition Newborn Ancestors: The Art and Articles of 
Plains Indian Children, an exhibition created by NMAI 
deputy assistant director for cultural resources George 
Horse Capture (Gros Ventre), opened at the San Francis- 
co airport. The collaboration between the NMAI and 
the San Francisco Airport Authority demonstrates the 
museum's desire to bring Native culture to a broad 
range of individuals. 

March 

■ Exhibition Agayuliyararput: Our Way of Making 
Prayer — The Living Tradition ofYup'ik Masks opened at 
the NMAI's George Gustav Heye Center in New York. 
Planned by Alaskan Native peoples in collaboration 
with the Anchorage Museum of History and Art, the 
creation of this exhibition offered Yup'ik people the 
first opportunity to exhibit their masks in the context 
of the dances, the stories, and the complex cosmology of 
the people who created them. 



March 

■ Exhibition An Office of Exhibits Central editor and 
designer began collaboration with the International Gal- 
lery (IG), rhe Cooper-Hewitt, and an outside curator 
and exhibit designer to produce The Jewels of Lalique. 
based on an exhibition that opened in Paris. The 
adapted exhibition, which opens in New York in 
February 1998 and will be on view later at IG, presents 
more than 200 rare pieces of art nouveau jewelry by 
Rene Lalique, a prominent French artist best known for 
his art deco glass designs. 

March 

■ Documentary A production agreement was made 
with Marge Ostroushko for a two hour Radio Smithson- 
ian documentary on the Lemelson Center's "Electrified, 
Amplified, and Deified" symposium. 

March 

■ Agreement An agreement was made with Razorfish, 
Inc., to create a demonstration version of the "Smithson- 
ian Without Walls" internet exhibit. 

March 

■ Agreement A preliminary agreement was reached 
with Voyager Expanded Learning, Inc., on behalf of the 
National Museum of Natural History, providing for col- 
laboration on "Joint Learning Projects" to provide 
educational programs and curriculum for elementary 
age children's after school programs. 

March I 

■ Reorganization The Office of Sponsored Projects 
(OSP) was moved organizationally to report to the Pro- 
vost rather than to the Chief Financial Officer. The Chief 
Financial Office retained responsibility for OSP insti- 
tutional level financial activities such as overhead and 
contract cash flow. 

March 3-28 

■ International Assistance Nancy Fuller, Research Man- 
ager at the Center for Museum Studies, spent a month 
in Zimbabwe consulting with museum staff and teaching 
two museum studies workshops designed to increase 
museum -community partnerships. The Si's International 



- _ 



Speakers Tour sponsors the program, in collaboration 
with the U.S. Information Agency. 



together scientists interested in using the construction 
crane as an ecological tool to study the forest canopy. 



March 4-7 

■ Presentation In Queretaro, Mexico, National Science 
Resources Center Executive Director Douglas Lapp and 
Deputy Director Sally Goetz Shuler participated in a 
conference on elementary school science that was attend- 
ed by government officials, university scientists, and 
teachers. They discussed science education reform and 
presented a workshop on inquiry-centered science teach- 
ing. They also visited schools where adaptations of 
science units from the NSRC's Science and Technology 
for Children curriculum are being piloted. 

March $ 

■ Public Lecture A "Star Wars" lecture was the 
Smithsonian Institution Libraries' contribution to the 
Washington Collegium for the Humanities lecture 
series on "Belonging and Acceptance in History, 
Culture and Art." In "Star Wars: Belonging and Ac- 
ceptance of the Hero," Mary Henderson, curator of 
NASM's exhibition, Star Wars: The Magic of Myth, 
examined themes of classical and ancient mythology 
recreated by George Lucas in his film trilogy before an 
audience of 260 people. The lecture was co-sponsored 
by the Smithsonian Institution Libraries and the 
National Air and Space Museum. The Smithsonian 
Institution Libraries is one of the nine members of the 
Washington Collegium for the Humanities. 

March 5 

■ Training Seminar The Smithsonian Accessibility Pro- 
gram conducted a "Two-Cents Seminar on Accessible 
Exhibition Design" for staff and people with disabilities 
from its Advisor}' Council. Participants, including two 
experts from Canadian and Boston cultural organiza- 
tions, shared problems and solutions in applying acces- 
sible design guidelines to their exhibitions. The 
presentation was one of four training sessions focusing 
on guidelines prepared by the Accessibility Program to 
improve access to museums for visitors with disabilities. 

March 10-13 

■ Meeting The Tropical Research Institute and the 
United Nations Environmental Programme hosted the 
Tropical Forest Canopy Symposium that brought 



March 10 

■ Publication Seeing the Smithsonian in Washington. DC — 
A Quick Guide was produced by the Visitor Information 
and Associates' Reception Center for distribution at all 
information desks. 

March 14 

■ Exhibit Photographs by Barbara Beirne and objects 
from the National Museum of American History's col- 
lections were brought together in a display of environ- 
mental portraits made in the Appalachian region in the 
1990s. The exhibit, "Women of Southern Appalachia: 
Serving Home and Communiry," detailed the difficult 
lives and economic hatdships of women as they struggle 
ro support and care for their families. 

March 16-22 

■ Meeting The Meeting of the 8th International Council 
of Zooarchaeology, held at the Tropical Research Institute's 
Earl S. Tupper Research and Conference Center, brought 
together scientists from around the world who study 
animal remains to reconstruct past environments. 

March ip 

■ Special Event The National Portrait Gallery 
presented "A Conversation with Dorothy Height" as a 
feature in its Living Self-Portrait Series. Marc Pachter, 
Counselor to the Secretary, interviewed Dr. Height, 
President of the National Council of Negro Women 
since 1958, and a recipient of the Citizens Medal Award 
in 1989 by President Reagan for distinguished service to 
the country. In 1994, President Clinton awarded her the 
Presidential Medal of Freedom. 

March 27 

■ Publication The Center for Museum Studies began 
publication of "CMS Reports to the Smithsonian," a 
semi-annual newsletter for Smithsonian staff. 

March 28 

■ Digital Publication The Smithsonian Institution 
Libraries published a second full-text electronic edition 



28 



from the Smithsonian's Bureau of American Ethnology 
(BAE) publications on its Home Page (www.sil.si.edu). 
This contribution to SIL's Digital Library is the List of 
Publications of the Bureau of American 'Ethnology. Bulletin 
200 (End of Series) (print edition 1971, digital edition 
1997), and includes an index of authors and titles with 
selected place-names, subjects, and see references for the 
entire 94 years of published BAE annual reports, bulletins, 
and othet contributions to North American ethnology. 

March 31 



which includes a multipurpose classroom, library, 
exhibit hall, and office, will host more than 10,000 
students and teachers participating in environmental 
education each year. 

April 

■ Exhibition Office of Smithsonian Institution Archives 
opened the exhibition "Pages from the Past," a brief 
visual overview of the Archives' collection strengths and 
highlights. 



■ Meeting The Provost opened the Smithsonian Acces- 
sibility Program's Joint Advisory Council Meeting on 
the Institutional five-year Plan on Accessibility. The 
formation of an Accessibility Oversight Council was 
announced whose charge would be to develop recom- 
mendations for the Provost, Under Secretary, and 
Secretary regarding Institutional priorities for efficiently 
implementing the units' five-year accessibility improve- 
ment plans. The Joint Advisory Council created a list of 
accessibility issues for submission to the Oversight 
Council. 

April— August 

■ Exhibition "Invitation to Contemporary Art" was on 
view in the New York Regional Center, Archives of 
American Art. The exhibit consisted of sixty-five fanci- 
ful announcements from the Archives' collection of the 
papers of art historian Ellen Hulda Johnson (1910—1992). 
The display, curated by Archives Southeast Regional Col- 
lector Liza Kirwin, provided a personal and, at times, 
amusing look at the creative means of art promotion. 

April 

■ Research The belief that giant, Jupiter-like planets 
might be common to stars like our Sun throughout the 
Galaxy was bolstered by the discovery of such an object 
orbiting the star Rho Coronae Borealis by a team of 
SAO astronomers and colleagues from two other institu- 
tions using a special spectrograph on the 1.5-meter tele- 
scope at Smithsonian's Whipple Observatory in Arizona. 



April 

■ Acquisition The Smithsonian Institution Libraries 
purchased the Charlotte and Lloyd Wineland collection 
of Native American and Western exploration literature, 
a collection of 48 titles (88 volumes) of rare books of sin- 
gular importance to the study of the American West 
and Indians of North America, which complements the 
Libraries' strong Native American collection. The collec- 
tion includes the first edition of Prince Maximilian's 
beautifully illustrated Reise in das Innere Nord- America in 
denjahren 1832 bis 1834 (published 1839-41), a work 
fundamental to the study of early exploration in U.S. 
western territories. The purchase was made possible 
through the efforts of the Office of the Secretary, the 
Office of the Provost, the Smithsonian Institution 
Libraries, and the National Museum of Natural History 
and its Anthropology Department. 

April 

■ On-line Exhibition In partnership with ASTC, SITES 
launched the on-line exhibtion "Rotten Truth (About 
Garbage)." The exhibition provides information to 
educators, students and home user regarding the com- 
plex environmental issues surrounding daily trash dis- 
posal. Links to related web sites give users easy access to 
wide ranging information and opinions on the topic. As 
visitors review the exhibition, they will find suggestions 
for activities they can do at home or in the classroom. 
"Rotten Truth (About Garbage)" was made possible in 
part by support from Rodale Press Inc., Artrain. 



April 

■ Building Opening At the Smithsonian Environmental 
Research Center, the new Philip D. Reed Education 
Center opened for use by visiting school groups from 
Maryland, Washington, D.C., and Virginia. The center, 



April 

■ Agreement An agreement was made with Filmmakers 
Collaborative, Inc. for the coproduction of a four-hour 
TV series and eight-hour radio series called "River of 
Song: A Musical Journey Down the Mississippi River." 



-9 



April 



April y 



■ Award Smithsonian magazine won che 1997 National 
Magazine Award in the category of "Special Interests." 
The award was presented for a three-part series on inver- 
tebrates by Richard Conniff, which ran in the February, 
May, and July issues in 1996. The National Magazine 
Awards program is sponsored by the American Society of 
Magazine Editors, and administered by the Graduate 
School of Journalism of Columbia University. Established 
in 1966 to honor editorial excellence, the program this year 
drew 1,183 entries from 281 different magazines. 

April-May 

■ Public Program The Smithsonian Associates 
presented a four-part course commemorating Jackie 
Robinson breaking major league baseball's color barrier 
in 1947. Sports writers, former players, and historians 
discussed Robinson's impact on the game and on the 
emerging civil righcs movement. 

April I 

■ Publication The Center for Museum Studies and the 
American Association of Museums published the 
proceedings from the September 1996 symposium 
"Museums for the New Millennium." 

April 3-6 

■ Outreach At the National Science Teachers Associ- 
ation's annual convention in New Orleans, the National 
Science Resources Center exhibited its programs, con- 
ducted presentations, and gave workshops on its Science 
and Technology for Children curriculum. 

April 4-5 

■ Primate Intelligence Symposium "Exploring the Primate 
Mind," held at the National Zoo, featured five eminent 
scholars, Frans de Waal, Sue Savage-Rum baugh, Tetsuro 
Matsuzawa, Sally Boysen, and William McGrew, plus the 
Zoo's Benjamin Beck and Rob Shumaker, speaking on 
various topics related to primate cognition and intelli- 
gence. The Zoo's orangutan language acquisition project 
was a special focus of the meeting. 

April 4 

■ Dedication The Tropical Research Institute dedicated 
its Barro Colorado Island Visitors Center to Martin H. 
Moynihan for his contributions to tropical biology. 



■ Public Program The National Portrait Gallery 
presented Cultures in Motion: "The Berlin Legacy." 
Irving Berlin's daughtet, Mary Ellin Barrett, and 
granddaughter, Mary Ellin Lerner, remembered the life 
and songs of the great American composer. 

April 10 

■ Training Developed an Institution-wide forum, 
known as the Smithsonian Learning Community, for 
discussing and exchanging ideas about organizational 
development and change, innovation, and management 
tools and techniques. This year's sessions included four 
nationally known guest speakers. 

April 14-October iy 

■ Exhibit In celebration of the 50th anniversary of 
Jackie Robinson's first game with the Brooklyn 
Dodgers on April 15, 1947, the National Museum of 
American History presented "Jackie Robinson and the 
Integration of Major League Baseball," an exhibit explor- 
ing Robinson's career and its historical significance. 

April 15 

■ Development Project The American Indian Museum 
Studies program at the Center for Museum Studies created 
the American Indian Museum Development Award Pro- 
gram. The first recipient is the People's Center of the Con- 
federated Salish and Kootenai Tribes in Pablo, MT The 
year-long program provides consultations, expert assis- 
tance, information, staff training, and development. 

April 15 

■ Publication The Office of Public Affairs issued the 
fourth in its seties of Institution-wide "Resources" 
brochures, "Asian Pacific American Resources at the 
Smithsonian." The "Resources" brochures encourage 
readers to participate in and partake of cultural ac- 
tivities, as well as research, employment, internship, 
and fellowship opportunities at the Smithsonian. 

April 16-August iy 

■ Exhibition The National Museum of African Art 
presented the exhibition "Adire: Resist-Dyed Cloths of 
the Yoruba," a collection of newly acquired adire cloths 
from Nigeria. 



30 



April 16 

■ Panda Anniversary The National Zoo celebrated the 
25th anniversary of the arrival of the giant pandas. To 
the delight of the large crowd of panda fans that 
gathered for the occasion, Hsing-Hsing was given an 
anniversary cake containing blueberries, one of his favorite 
foods. Smithsonian Secretary I. Michael Heyman and 
representatives from the Embassy of China and the 
American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) spoke 
about the significance of the occasion and the impor- 
tance of giant pandas. The festivities received national 
coverage in newspapers, and on television and radio 
broadcasts. The public was invited to a symposium, "A 
Passion for Pandas: 25 Years of Care and Study of Giant 
Pandas at the National Zoo." Dr. Susan Mainka, who 
worked extensively with pandas in China; the Zoo's 
giant panda curator, Lisa Stevens; Zoo biologist and 
panda expert, Dr. Devra Kleiman; and the American 
Association of Zoos and Aquariums' executive director, 
Sydney Butler, provided a retrospective on the story of 
pandas at the National Zoo. 

April 16 

■ Special Event The Annual Appreciation Reception 
for the Visitor Information and Associates' Reception 
Center's behind-the-scenes volunteers included remarks 
by Secretary Heyman. 



Deirdre Prins, an educator at Robben Island, visited the 
center to research education outreach programs at the 
Smithsonian. 

April 23 

■ Meeting The Office of Membership and Develop- 
ment and the Office of the Secretary convened the in- 
augural meeting of the executive committee of the 
Smithsonian Washington Council. The Washington 
Council is chaired by Washington attorney and philan- 
thropist R. Robert Linowes. The other executive com- 
mittee members are Oliver T Carr, Donald E. Graham, 
Elliott S. Hall, J. Roderick Heller, III, Mario M. Monno, 
Irene Pollin, John R. Risher, Jr. and Vicki Sant. Two more 
meetings, on June 2 and September n, were held during 
the year. The group of Washington-area business and 
philanthropic leaders was formed to extend and deepen 
Smithsonian services to local residents. 

April 24-27 

■ Public Program The Smithsonian Women's Commit- 
tee Annual Craft Show was held again at the National 
Building Museum, and featured 120 artisans from across 
the countty. Proceeds from the show are used to fund SI 
projects in the Women's Commirree's competitive grant 
program. The commirtee is under the umbrella of the 
Office of Membership and Development. 



April 16-2$ 



April 25 



■ Study Tour Smithsonian Study Tours, a division of 
The Smithsonian Associates, offered its first joint Ox- 
ford University/Smithsonian study voyage, a cruise of 
the Greek Islands aboard the MTS Arcadia. In addition 
to site visits, the 149 participants attended seven on- 
board seminars on subjects including ancient philosophers 
and the Bronze Age Aegean given by Oxford tutors. 

April 20-May 2 

■ International Assistance Rex Ellis, director of the Cen- 
ter for Museum Studies, traveled to South Africa with 
other Smithsonian staff to give presentations at the South 
African Museums Association (SAMA) annual meeting 
and to consult with the South African government's 
Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology 
on their initiative to begin a National Heritage Training 
Institute. The visit created a reciprocal learning oppor- 
tunity for South African museum personnel; in June, 



■ Exhibition "Life on the Road: The Photographs of 
Milt Hinton" was exhibited at the Anacostia Museum 
and Center for African American History, and Culture 

April 2$ 

■ Grant Awarded The Getty Grant Program of the J. 
Paul Getty Trust approved a grant of $214,500 to sup- 
port the arrangement and description of three archival 
collections in the Archives of American Art. The collec- 
tions include the papers of rhree important art galleries: 
the Jacques Seligmann Galleries, Kraushaar Galleries, 
and the Robert Schoelkopf Gallery. 

April 26- May 26 

■ Exhibit and Public Program Produced in collabora- 
tion with the District of Columbia Public Schools, 
"Duke Ellington Youth Festival and Art Exhibition," a 



31 



National Museum of American History exhibit, fea- 
tured dynamic artwork done by students from the 
Washington, D.C., area depicting Edward Kennedy 
"Duke" Ellington during his career. Ellington's life and 
career was also celebrated in art, poetry, and musical 
performances. 

April 2J-29 

■ Presentation In Stockholm, Sweden, National Science 
Resources Center Executive Director Douglas Lapp and 
Deputy Director Sally Goetz Shuler made presentations 
on science education reform and inquiry-centered 
science teaching to members of the Royal Swedish 
Academy of Sciences, the Royal Swedish Academy of 
Engineering Sciences, and Swedish corporate and 
government leaders. They also visited the city of 
Linkoping, where they met with city and school offi- 
cials and university scientists who were interested in 
piloting adaptations of science units from the NSRC's 
Science and Technology for Children curriculum. 

April 30 

■ Research The balloon-borne Far Infrared 
Spectrometer 2 (FIRS-2), designed and built at SAO, 
made its 10th successful probe of the Earth's strato- 
sphere and, during a 5-hour flight over Alaska, meas- 
ured high-altitude gases vital to understanding 
atmospheric photochemistry, especially those processes 
linked to ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect. 

May 

■ Publication Reading Records: A Researcher's Guide to the 
Archives of American Art by Garnett McCoy, Curator 
Emeritus, was published. The monograph is a marvel- 
ous introduction to the variety of documentation in the 
Archives' collections, including letters, diaries, account 
books, and rare catalogs of obscure exhibitions so dear 
to researchers and other serious students of American 



May 

■ Exhibition The National Air and Space Museum 
opened 'Space Race,' a major exhibition that traces fifty 
years of international competition and, more recently, 
cooperation between the United States and the former 
Soviet Union. The exhibition was curated by the mem- 
bers of the Space History Division and designed and ex- 



ecuted by the Exhibits Division. It contains a stunning 
and unique array of artifacts, including a Soviet Merkur 
spacecraft, a full-scale mock-up of the Hubble Space 
Telescope, and a camera identical to those used in the 
first U.S. reconnaissance satellites. 

May, July 

■ Research Series Thirty-one Rio Grande basin stu- 
dents, scholars, educators, and community scholars par- 
ticipated in a Folklife Field Research Series. The Center 
for Folklife Programs and Cultural Studies Latino Cul- 
tural Resources Network initiated the series to engage 
people in the region in the fieldwork for the Folklife 
Festival and to offer a training program for the research 
and production of public folklife programs in general. 

May 

■ Exhibition For the International Gallery exhibirion 
American Voices: Latino Photographers in the United States. 
the Office of Exhibits Centtal worked with an outside 
registrar and outside designers, oversaw design and 
fabrication contracts, edited and produced graphic 
panels, and provided installation services. The opening 
of the exhibition of 210 photographs, videos, and instal- 
lation art by 39 Puerto Rican, Cuban-American, and 
Mexican-American artists coincided with Secretary I. 
Michael Hey man's announcement of the creation of a 
new Center for Latino Initiatives. Special assistance for 
the exhibition was provided by the Counselor to the 
Secretary for Community Affairs and Special Projects. 

May 

■ Exhibition The Smithsonian Institution Libraries 
opened Audubon & the Smithsonian, its exhibition featur- 
ing the National Audubon Society's double-elephant 
folio edition (68 X 101 cm; 27 X 40 in.) of The Birds of 
America (on long-term loan to the Libraries), other 
Audubon volumes, and a variety of Smithsonian books, 
manuscripts, specimens, personal memorabilia, and 
artworks in the Libraries' Exhibition Gallery (located in 
the National Museum of American History). A number 
of specimens and a variety of Audubon-related objects 
came to the Smithsonian as a direct consequence of 
Audubon's friendship with Spencer Baird, the Smithson- 
ian's first assistant secretary and the man credited with 
creating the U.S. National Museum, according to guest 
curator Helena Wright of the National Museum of 
American History. 



32 



May 



May y-io 



■ Agreement An agreement was made with Sony Music 
Special Products to clear rights to recordings for the 
Smithsonian Folkways Recordings rerelease of "The 
Anthology of American Folk Music Edited by Harry 
Smith" as a six-CD set, which received strong popular 
acclaim. 

May 

■ Agreement An agreement with IMAX Corporation 
and Lockheed Martin for National Air and Space 
Museum participation in the IMAX format film 
"Mission to Mir." 

May 5 

■ Special Event The Office of Membership and 
Development's Smithsonian Corporate Membership Pro- 
gram held its Annual Luncheon Meeting, which was at- 
tended by 120 corporate representatives. Attendees 
joined Secretary Heyman, Regent Thad Cochran, and 
Smithsonian National Board Member Joan Noto for a 
luncheon to discuss the theme "Innovative Relation- 
ships: How Public and Private Sector Goals Converge to 
Create Economic and Cultural Value." Regent Frank 
Shrontz gave the keynote address. Nissan Motor Cor- 
poration U.S.A. received the inaugural Smithsonian 
Institution Corporate Leadership Award. 

May 5 

■ Exhibition The National Postal Museum opened the 
Undercover: The Evolution of the American Envelope. 

May 7 



■ Public Program The Office of Membership and 
Development's Smithsonian Treasures, the annual behind- 
the-scenes tour for Contributing Members, brought 70 
people to Washington, D.C. for tours of the National 
Portrait Gallery exhibition Red, Hot & Blue: A Salute to 
the American Musical, the Smithsonian Environmental 
Research Center (SERC), the National Museum of 
American History's Hall of Musical Instruments, and 
other events. 

May 7 

■ Exhibit "Los Insectos: Amigos y Enemigos" (Insects: 
Friends and Foes) produced and curated by Annette 
Aiello of the STRI staff opened to the public at the Earl 
S. Tupper Exhibit Hall. 

May p 

■ Publication Science magazine published a cover story 
on research by Dr. Bruce Smith, curator in the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology at the National Museum of 
Natural History. By studying early seeds under an 
electron microscope, Dr. Smith established that people 
in the Americas cultivated squash as early as 10,000 
years ago — much earlier than previously thought and 
close to dates published for early agriculture in other 
parts of the world. 

May 9 

■ Visit Panamanian President Ernesto Perez Balla- 
dares and members of his cabinet visited STRI's new 
construction crane donated by the Government of Den- 
mark and located in a very wet forest on the Atlantic 
side of Panama. 



■ Training Seminar The Smithsonian Accessibility Pro- 
gram conducted a "Two-Cents Seminar on Accessible 
Publication Design" for staff and people with dis- 
abilities from its Advisory Council. A panel composed 
of a person who has low vision, a person who is blind, 
and a person with cognitive disability examined a 
sampling of Smithsonian publications for access and 
discussed their reactions with the staff participants. 
The presentation was one of four training sessions 
focusing on guidelines prepared by the Accessibility 
Program to improve access to museums for visitors 
with disabilities. 



May 10 

■ Milestone The National Postal Museum created an 
international Council of Philatelists to advise and guide 
the museum in philatelic matters. 

May 15 

■ Wet and Wild Zoo¥ an ZooFari, Washington's wild- 
est party and the Friends of the National Zoo's largest 
fundraiser, drew a large crowd. The theme, Wet and 
Wild, reflected the UN's designation of 1997 as the year 



33 



of the coral reef. Guests grazed through the Zoo on sam- 
plings from ioo of Washington's finest restaurants, then 
danced to live music provided by the legendary Orioles, 
the fabulous Hubcaps, and other entertainers. In the 
past three years, ZooFari has raised more than $200,000 
for Zoo conservarion, education, and exhibition 
programs. 

May 20— September 1 

■ Exhibit "American Families in Photographs," a Na- 
tional Museum of American History display of historic 
photographs from the collection, examined the chang- 
ing ways American families have been photographed 
since the mid-nineteenth century. Photographs of Nikki 
Giovanni and her son, Ernest Hemingway and his son, 
and Theodore Roosevelt's family were included. 

May 21-2} 

■ Symposium Two dozen textile conservators from all 
over the United States gathered at the Conservation 
Analytical Laboratory to attend the symposium "Four 
Approaches to Textile Conservation" in which four 
textile conservators of international renown discussed 
their individual approaches to a variety of problems put 
forward by the attendees. Discussions addressed various 
conceptual and methodological approaches to preserva- 
tion, care, restoration, and research on historical textiles 
for conservators. 

May 22 

■ Meeting The Provost convened a meeting of the 11- 
member Accessibility Oversight Council to assist rhe 
Smithsonian Accessibility Program in developing 
recommendations for Institutional priorities on acces- 
sibility for people with disability. 

May 23 

■ Recording Release The Center for Folklife Programs 
and Cultural Studies supported a kickoff event on the 
National Mall to announce a major new recording, 
American Warriors: Songs for Indian Veterans. The 
Rykodisc release is a compilation of songs honoring 
Indian veterans of all branches of the armed forces. 
Produced in collaboration with the National Museum of 
the American Indian, Rykodisc, and the National 
Congress of the American Indian, the event featured a 



performance and remarks, and was held on the future 
siteofNMAI. 

May 2J 

■ Special Event The National Portrait Gallery with the 
Smithsonian Associates and the National Museum of 
American History, cosponsored "The Prince of Broad- 
way: An Evening with Hal Prince," an evening of 
reminiscences with Tony Award— winning producer and 
director Hal Prince and Amy Henderson and Dwight 
Blocker Bowers, curators of the exhibition "Red, Hot & 
Blue: A Salute to American Musicals." The evening was 
videotaped for broadcast on the Ovation arts cable 
network. 

May 2J 

■ Program The Office of Smithsonian Institution 
Archives created an Electronic Records Program to 
develop Institution-wide policies on electronic records 
and to provide guidance to all SI staff on the creation, 
receipt, and disposition of electronically generated 
information. 

May 28 

■ Open House OHR held its first ever open house in 
the S. Dillon Ripley Center. More than 1,000 employees 
attended and were able to speak one-on-one with OHR 
represenratives about career enhancement, benefits, 
policy issues, employee assistance, family leave 
programs, and more. 

May 29-June 8 

■ Exhibition The National Postal Museum participated 
in the PACIFIC 97 international philatelic exposition. 

June 

■ Publications Two important publications appeared: 
(1) Paris: A Guide to Archival Sources for American Art His- 
tory by Susan Grant, Coordinator of the Archives' Paris 
Survey Projecr. This monograph was underwritten by a 
grant from the Florence Gould Foundation, a supporter 
of cooperative French-American ventures. (2) A Finding 
Aid to the Walter Pach Papers by Nancy Malloy, Archives 
Reference Specialist in the New York Research Center, 
and Catherine Stover, Archivist in the Washington 
Processing Center. The Walter Pach papers were ac- 



34 



quired in 1988 with major supporr from The Brown June 

Foundation, Inc., Houston, Texas. 



June 

■ Exhibition A temporary exhibition, "Women and 
Flight," opened. The exhibition — currently traveling 
the country — showcases the photographs of NASM staff 
photogtapher Carolyn Russo. Russo traveled around the 
country and as far away as Russia to capture images of 
women fliers as diverse as an astronaut, Eskimo bush 
pilot, aerobatic pilot, aerial artist, skywriter, hang 
glider, airline pilot, and many other women ranging 
in age from 18 to 85. The photographs are accompanied 
by excerpts from interviews Russo conducted with 
the women about their experiences and their love of 
flight. 

June 

■ Publication The National Postal Museum published 
the Create-a-Postage Stamp Coloring and Activity Book. 



■ Exhibition The opening of Audubon and the Smithson- 
ian at the Dibner Library, National Museum of Natural 
History (NMNH), reflected the close collaboration of 
the Office of Exhibits Central design/editing team with 
curator Helena Wright of NMAH and the SI Libraries 
to esrablish a focus and framework for a multi-layered 
exhibition. The SI Libraries exhibition, which high- 
lighted the publishing history of John James Audubon 
through wateicolors, lithographs, and his book The 
Birds of America, garnered positive media coverage, 
including a full-page review with color photograph in 
Time magazine. 

June 

■ Concert Agreement An agreement was made with 
Carnegie Hall, New York City, for the "Folkways 50th 
Anniversary Concert," scheduled for May I, 1998. 

June 



June 

■ Rare Oryx Births Collaboration between the Zoo's 
Conservation and Research Center in Front Royal, Vir- 
ginia, and the Wilds, an animal conservation facility in 
Ohio, produced four scimitar-horned oryx through the 
use of artificial insemination (AI). Two males and two 
females were born between June 13 and June 20, 1997. 
These healthy calves represent the largest number of 
oryx offspring ever produced by AI. The successful out- 
come of the artificial breeding procedure marks an ad- 
vance in conserving this highly endangered species. 

June 

■ Exhibition The Office of Exhibits Central began 
design and editing of Between a Rock and a Hard Place: A 
History of American Sweatshops, 1820-Present, a traveling 
exhibition initiated by the National Museum of 
American History (NMAH). Featuring a re-creation of 
the widely publicized El Monte, Calif., sweatshop, this 
is one of an ongoing series of NMAH exhibitions on the 
history of work. Its primary focus on the garment in- 
dustry later drew protests from the retail and fashion in- 
dustries. Opening at NMAH's Taylor Gallery in April 
1998, the exhibition will later travel to several sites in 
the United States. 



■ Donation Collaboration with OGC on a gift agree- 
ment with Peter R. Tyson was established for donation 
of a house to the Smithsonian Marine Station at 

Ft. Pierce. 

June 

■ Contract A master contract was entered into with 
Chtisties auction house to allow for deaccessioned ob- 
jects to be placed up for auction without having to 
renegotiate a full agreement each time. Individual 
museum's objects are consigned through amendments 
to the basic agreement, saving resources and providing 
a consistent framework for such activities. 

June 

■ Agreement An agreement was made with Totally 
Secure Transactions, Inc., to provide a secure transaction 
services/shopping cart program on the Smithsonian's 
World Wide Web sites to protect credit card trans- 
actions over the Internet. 

June 

■ Award Smithsonian magazine's Web site won the 
1997 Clarion Award for "Best World Wide Web Site — 



35 



Non-profic." The Clarion Awards are sponsored by the 
Association for Women in Communications. 

June J 

■ Award Ceremony The first annual Finance Recogni- 
tion awards ceremony was held. Eight awards tied to 
the Finance Vision and Values were presented. The 
Under Secretary opened the event, and staff were very 
positive about the program. 

June 4 

■ Exhibit "The Forest Speaks," the new bilingual 
permanent exhibit at the Tropical Research Institute's 
Martin H. Moynihan Visitor Center on Barro Colorado 
Island, produced under the direction of Elisabeth King, 
opened to the public. 

June 6 

■ Exhibition Amber: Window to the Past, a major travel- 
ing exhibition on view at the National Museum of 
Natural History, explored amber's scientific value and 
timeless aesthetic appeal. Displays of amber-based 
research at the museum, docent tours, and public 
programs on paleobiology, cultural anthropology, and 
molecular systematics completed the exhibition. 
Hundreds of visitors also took advantage of several days 
when museum paleobiologist Dt. Francis Hueber was 
available with infinite interest and patience to tell them 
when and where the amber in their jewelry and other 
treasures formed. 

June 7 

■ Anniversary BugFest '97 doubled as the 20th anni- 
versary celebration of the much-loved O. Orkin Insect 
Zoo at the National Museum of Natural History. For 
two decades, Insect Zoo staff and volunteers have shared 
their passion for six- and eight-legged creatures with 
tens of thousands of small children and have educated 
museum visitors of all ages about the important roles 
insects play in maintaining the environment. 

June p 

■ Internship The Center for Museum Studies and Penn- 
sylvania State University created a pilot internship 
project with the center's Museum Intern Partnership 
Program. Funded by the Penn State College of Liberal 



Arts, a Penn State student is selected for an intern 
partnership between the Arctic Studies Center at the 
National Museum of Natural History and Penn State's 
Mattson Museum of Anthropology. 

June 10 

■ Agreement Panamanian Foreign Relations Minister 
Ricardo Alberto Arias and Tropical Research Institute 
Director Ira Rubinoff signed an agreement that ensures 
the Institute's operations in Panama, including STRI's 
custodianship of the Barro Colorado Nature Monument, 
after the termination of the Panama Canal Treaties and 
into the next century. 

June 12, June 24 

■ Awards Program The National Science Resources 
Center cohosted programs for teachers who received the 
1996 Presidential Awards for Excellence in Elementary 
and Secondary Mathematics and Science Teaching. 

June 12 

■ Public Relations Award Director of Communications 
David J. Umansky accepted a Silver Anvil award from 
the Public Relations Society of America for the 150th 
anniversary public relations campaign carried out by the 
Office of Public Affairs. 

June 13 

■ Special Event The Smithsonian Legacy Society, a pro- 
gram of the Office of Membership and Development's 
Planned Giving Office, held its inaugural luncheon. 
Thirty Legacy Society members from around the 
country met in the Castle for a gala luncheon with 
Secretary Heyman and Founding Chairman Gloria Shaw 
Hamilton. The group was founded to honor people who 
make long-term commitments to the Smithsonian 
through bequests, charitable annuities, remainder 
trusts, and other legacy gifts. 

June 18 

■ Training Seminar The Smithsonian Accessibility Pro- 
gram presented a "Two-Cents Seminar on Audiovisual 
and Internet Presentations" to staff and people with dis- 
abilities from its Advisory Council. A panel of experts 
and consumers discussed the methods of and rationales 
for making websites and audiovisuals accessible to 



36 



people with disabilities. The presentation was one of 
four training sessions focusing on guidelines prepared 
by the Accessibility- Program to improve access to 
museums for visitors with disabilities. 

June 21— September I 

■ Exhibit "The Family Car" featured classic cars from 
the Smithsonian collections in settings depicting typi- 
cal family life. The National Museum of American His- 
tory also displayed kids' cars and home photos 
showcasing ways Americans have made automobiles a 
part of the family since the 1920s. 

June 21 

■ Exhibition The National Postal Museum opened 
1847. The First Federal Postage Stamp Issue. 

June 22— 2 J, July 20—25 

■ Institutes The National Science Resources Center 
conducted two K-8 Science Education Leadership In- 
stitutes for 29 teams from school systems in 15 states, 
Puerto Rico, and Sweden. Most teams included a school 
superintendent or assistant superintendent, a science 
coordinator or director of curriculum and instruction, 
an experienced teacher, and a senior scientist repre- 
senting a company or academic institution. The teams 
developed strategic plans to improve the teaching of 
science in their elementary schools. 

June 23— 2 j 

■ International Workshop In collaboration with the 
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Con- 
servation Analytical Laboratory organized and hosted a 
workshop on "Applications of Neutron Activation 
Elemental Analysis in Latin American Archaeological 
Research," focusing on interdisciplinary research, espe- 
cially involving nuclear analytical techniques for 
characterization of inorganic archaeological materials, 
and the development of facilities to conduct such 
investigations in Latin America. Seven teams from 
six Latin American countries, each consisting of an 
archaeologist and a nuclear chemist, attended this 
workshop, which served as the kick-off of a three- 
year, IAEA sponsored, coordinated research program. 
CAL experts will provide coordination and 
standardization. 



June 25— October ip 

■ Exhibition The U.S. tour of "Treasures from Tervuren: 
Selections from the Belgian Royal Museum for Central 
Africa" was coordinated by The Tribal Art Centre of 
Basel, Switzerland. 

June 25—29, July 2—6 

■ Exhibition The Center for Folklife Programs and 
Cultural Studies produced the 31st annual Festival of 
American Folklife featuring "The Mississippi Delta," 
"African Immigiant Folklife: Building and Bridging 
Communities," and "Sacred Sounds: Belief and Sociery." 

June 25—29. July 2—6 

■ Folklife Festival The Office of Public Affairs 
developed a local and national publicity campaign for 
the 1997 Festival of American Folklife, which featured 
participants from the Mississippi Delta. Media coverage 
included network and local morning shows, a number 
of articles in the Washington Post, and coverage in the 
New York Times, U.S.A. Today, the Baltimore Sun, 
Washingtonian, and Southern Living. 

June 26 

■ Program The Center for Museum Studies collabor- 
ated with the Smithsonian Internship Council to offer 
the annual Intern Ice Cream Social. Ben and Jerry's 
contributed 15 gallons of ice cream, toppings, and man- 
power for the program. 

June 27 

■ Special Visit The Secretary greeted Prime Minister of 
Australia John Howard, Mrs. Howard, and Australian 
Ambassador to the United States Andrew Sharp 
Peacock, here for a tour of the National Portrait Gallery 
conducted by Director Alan Fern. 

June 28 

■ Concert The Center for Folklife Programs and Cul- 
tural Studies held the third annual Friends of the 
Festival Ralph Rinzler Memorial Concert, featuring 
Mike Seeger and the New Lost City Ramblers, and 
celebrating the revival of old-time southern music 
and dance. 



57 



July 

■ Family 'Program The Anacostia Museum and Center 
for African American History and Culture celebrated 
"Juneteenth," a festival of arts, crafts, storytelling, and 
historical reenactment celebrating emancipation day in 
Texas. 

July 

■ Lectures/Exhibition In advance of the 1997 U.N. 
Negotiations on Climate Change held in Kyoto, Japan, 
the National Museum of Natural History presented a 
series of six lectures and discussions on scientific 
evidence of climate change, including fossil records of 
climate change in the distant past, the role of climate 
change in the evolution of humankind, and what is 
known and not known about climate change today. In 
conjunction with the lecture series, the museum hosted 
Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast, a traveling 
exhibition produced by the Environmental Defense 
Fund. 

July 

■ Agreement A renewal agreement was made with 
BerkelyCare, Ltd., to provide Study Tour and Seminars 
participants with an option for traveler's insurance. 

July 

■ Agreement An agreement was made with ProTix to 
provide ticketing services for the "Star Wars" exhibition 
at the National Air and Space Museum, in anticipation 
of record crowds. 

July 

■ Redesign Smithsonian magazine's redesign — the first 
in its 27-year history — made its debut with the July 
1997 issue. Designer Don Morris did not radically alter 
Bradbury Thompson's original layout, but the changes 
were significant. The logo was outlined and enlarged to 
run across the top of the page, the typeface was 
changed, and a flexible system of layouts now allows for 
different design treatments for different types of stories. 

July 7-11 

■ Course Organized and taught by the Conservation 
Analytical Laboratory staff, "Technology and Preserva- 



tion of Artifacts" was a five-afternoon survey of the 
materials, fabrication, deterioration, and preservation of 
furniture, paper-based artifacts, and paintings for two 
dozen attendees from the George Washington Univer- 
sity Appraiser's Institute program. The course included 
lectures and demonstrations and was intended to inform 
prospective caretakers and appraisers on the nature of 
these artifacts. 

July 21 

■ Appointment Dr. Nancy E. Gwinn began serving as 
Director of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries. She 
had served as Assistant Director, Collections Manage- 
ment for the Libraries since 1984. She holds a doctorate 
in American civilization from The George Washington 
University, a master's degree in library science from the 
University of Michigan, and an undergraduate degree 
from the University of Wyoming, and was a Fulbright 
Scholar at Oxford University. 

July 23-25 

■ Course A three-day "Stain Removal" course was held 
at the Conservation Analytical Laboratory. It was designed 
for conservators and caretakers of historic textiles with a 
particular interest in the removal of accidental soiling 
and staining of porous materials. A review of surfac- 
tants, solvent systems, and reagents was followed by a 
discussion and laboratory exercises on treating the most 
common stains. 

July 24 

■ World Wide Web The Center for Museum Studies 
posts the complete text of "Internship Opportunities at 
the Smithsonian Institution" on the World Wide Web. 

July JO 

■ Reception The National Museum of African Art 
hosted a reception in conjunction with the U.S.— South 
Africa Binational Commission meeting. Speakers at the 
reception included U.S. Vice President Al Gore and 
South African Deputy President Thabo Mbeki. 

August 

■ Recording Release Smithsonian Folkways Recordings 
released the updated reissue of Harry Smith's Anthology 
of American Folk Music. The anthology, originally 



58 



produced in 1952, became an inspiration for the folk and 
blues revivals and a creative source for Bob Dylan, Jerry 
Garcia, and Joan Baez, among others. 

August 

* NSF Award The Department of Zoological Research 
along with the University of Maryland received a five- 
year, §1.5 million National Science Foundation Research 
Training Grant on the Biology of Small Populations. The 
grant will fund studies on the biological consequences of 
small population sizes and train students and postdoctoral 
scientists. Funds are available for activities at the under- 
graduate, graduate, and postdoctoral levels; technical train- 
ing sessions to develop hands-on experience in laboratory, 
software, and other specific tools; seminar courses explor- 
ing different aspects of the general research theme; and an 
annual research symposium with invited speakers and 
presentations by members of the program. 

August 

■ Research Ultraviolet and optical images of the giant 
star Mira and its hot companion obtained by two SAO 
scientists and their colleagues using the Hubble Space 
Telescope's Fine Object Camera represent both the first 
ultraviolet images and the first separate spectra of the 
two stars. These unique views suggest that material 
from Mira's extended atmosphere is being drawn onto 
the smaller companion, the first time such a mass trans- 
fer has been observed. 

August 

■ Exhibition After designing and producing the SITES 
photography exhibition The Art of Jack Delano, Office of 
Exhibits Central management and design and production 
staff traveled to Puerto Rico to install the exhibition and 
advise Banco Popular — the exhibition's funder and first 
venue — on objects handling, lighting, floor plan, layout, 
and other aspects of presenting museum exhibitions. 

August 

■ Agreement An agreement was made with Apple Com- 
puter, Inc., to create interactive software for the Nation- 
al Museum of Natural History's new Geology, Gems, 
and Minerals Hall. 

August 8 

■ Fellowships The Center for Museum Studies received 
a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation to implement 



a three-year humanities fellowship program, "Latino 
Cultural Research in a National Museum Context: 
Issues of Representation and Interpretation." The 
fellowships, a mix of residencies for scholars and 
museum professionals, will be interdisciplinary and will 
support Latino/Latina-focused scholarship using the 
extensive cultural, archival, historical and professional 
resources at the Smithsonian. Projects will link art and 
the politics of public display, encompass in-depth and 
advanced research in the museum and curatorial fields, 
and contribute much-needed Latino-focused perspec- 
tives and interpretations to topics within many 
Smithsonian collections. 

August 11 

■ Staff Appointment As the new Executive Director for 
Development, Robert V. Hanle will oversee the opera- 
tions of the Office of Membership and Development. 

August 14 

■ Training The Smithsonian Accessibility Program 
and the National Zoo cosponsored training for staff on 
service of animals for people with disabilities. A speaker 
from the Delta Society National Service Dog Center 
engaged participants in a dialogue on accommodating 
zoo visitors who have service animals. 

August 15 

■ Exhibition The Anacostia Museum and Centet for 
African American History and Culture exhibited "Carib- 
bean Visions: Contemporary Painting and Sculpture." 

August 27 

■ Program An Individual Development Plan Program 
was developed for the Finance area. This program will 
provide the opportunity for all staff members and their 
supervisors to develop training plans for the year that 
will address meeting core job requirements and oppor- 
tunities for career enhancement. 

Fall 

■ Exhibition Working with Veta Hyatt, Program 
Director for African/Caribbean Programs of the Office 
of International Relations, the Office of Exhibits 
Central (OEC) continued to engage in exchange with 
the Cape Coast Castle Museum project in Cape Coast, 



39 



Ghana. Four Cape Coast staff interns spent several 
months at OEC gaining experience in exhibit design 
and production; OEC staff traveled to Ghana to share ex- 
pertise in exhibit production techniques. OEC also 
worked with a museum staffer from the South African 
National Gallery in Cape Town, South Africa, as part of 
the office's mandate of outreach in training in exhibit 
processes and techniques. The arrangement was in- 
tended to lay the groundwork for a future Folklife 
Festival program, as well as for the development of a 
national support organization akin to OEC/SITES that 
would service South Africa's national museum network. 



tional Museum of Natural History capped a two-and-a- 
half-year modelmaking effort by the Office of Exhibits 
Central (OEC). Major modelmaking components of the 
renovated space include full-size dioramas of mines in 
Arizona, Missouri, and Virginia; a Coyote Creek Fault 
trench peel and model; a model of a pyroplastic flow 
from Crater Lake; a re-creation of a San Diego tour- 
maline pocket; and an eight-foot-diameter fiberglass 
and epoxy model of the Moon. OEC's work was based 
on extensive on-site research, photographs, sketches, 
and ongoing experimentation with modelmaking 
materials and techniques. 



September, October 

■ Rhino Births National Zoo efforts to breed the 
greater one-horned Asian rhinoceros were rewarded 
with the birth of two calves. On September 18, 1996, 
Chitwan, a female, was born to 11 year-old Mechi; on Oc- 
tober 31, Himal, a male, was born to Kali, also II. The 
births are a critical achievement in the Zoo's continuing 
efforts to breed this endangered species, because only 
about 2,000 greater one-horned Asian rhinos are still 
living in the wild. 

September 

■ Grant The Howard Hughes Medical Institute 1997 
Precollege Science Education Initiative for Science 
Museums, Aquaria, Botanical Gardens and Zoos 
awarded a four-year, $100,000 grant to the National 
Zoo. The funds will support refurbishing and expand- 
ing the Zoo's existing science education materials, 
developing new materials and activities for teachers, 
and expanding and updating the Teacher Workshop 
Program. 

September 



September 

■ Exhibition The Office of Exhibits Central provided 
design, editing, and production services for We Shall 
Overcome: Photographs from the American Civil Rights Era, a 
SITES exhibition of landmark photographs of voter- 
registration drives, literacy training, and acts of civil dis- 
obedience. To open in abbreviated form at the National 
Museum of American History (NMAH) in January 
1998, the exhibition features about 70 black-and-white 
photographs by Gordon Parks and other major 
photojournalists. The photographs are noteworthy not 
only as visual documentation of historic moments, but 
also as works of art. 

September 

■ Special Program Office of Exhibits Central managers 
met with representatives of the U.S. Holocaust 
Memorial Museum to discuss the prospect of providing 
modelmaking and graphic production services. OEC 
agreed to create reproductions of an armband and a desk 
calendar, both belonging to the police in the Jewish 
ghetto of Kovno, Lithuania, and which will appear in an 
upcoming exhibition. 



■ Public Outreach "Minds of Our Own," a PBS educa- 
tional series for parents and teachers developed and 
produced by SAO's Science Media Group and funded by 
the Annenberg/CPB Math and Science Project, explored 
how students' long -held and often erroneous beliefs can 
block learning and confound even the most dedicated 
and talented instructors. 

September 

■ Exhibition The opening of the Janet Annenberg 
Hooker Hall of Geology, Gems, and Minerals at the Na- 



September 

■ Agreement The Chesapeake Information and Re- 
search Library Alliance (CIRLA), of which the Smith- 
sonian Institution Libraries is a founding member, 
implemented a reciprocal borrowing program that 
facilitates direct borrowing from the seven other mem- 
ber libraries by Smithsonian staff. This service speeds 
along research through prompt response to loan re- 
quests and reduces costs associated with interlibrary 
loans. Other members of CIRLA, a regional consortium, 
are Georgetown University, Howard University, Johns 



40 



Hopkins University, University of Delaware, University 
of Maryland College Park, the National Agricultural 
Library, and the Library of Congress. 

September 

■ Agreement An agreement was made with WGBH- 
TV in Boston, MA, for the closed captioning system 
and the related software used in the Langley Theater at 
the National Air and Space Museum. 

September 

■ Settlement A settlement was negotiated with Follett 
College Stores, a firm previously hired to run the 
Museum Shops at the America's Smithsonian Exhibi- 
tion venues. Unanticipated low volume of sales placed 
the vendor in an inappropriate financial position and a 
mutually agreeable arrangement was reached. 

September 

■ Agreement A coproduction agreement was made with 
the Wolf Trap Foundation for presentation of "Harry 
Smith Anthology" concerts ar the Barns at Wolf Trap. 

September 

■ Agreement An agreement was made with Steve 
Schecter Films on behalf of the National Museum of 
Natural History's Anthropological Film Archives and 
Dr. Bill Crocker, providing for the filming and ediring of 
new footage, to be combined with existing footage, of 
Dr. Crocker's study of the Canella Indians in South 
America. The finished film will be presented on public 
television. 

September, October 

■ Agreements Agreements were made with the Cor- 
poration for Public Broadcasting for work related to 
the audio programs "Slaves No More" and "River of 
Song," each containing a significant body of source 
material related to the African American experience 
in America. 

September 

■ Award In partnership with the American Society of 
Travel Agents (ASTA), Smithsonian magazine awarded 
the seventh annual ASTA/Smithsoman Magazine En- 



vironmental Award to Maho Bay Camps, Inc., and Sea- 
Canoe Thailand, Co. Ltd. The award recognizes out- 
standing achievements and contributions by 
individuals, corporations, and countries roward further- 
ing the goals of environmenral conservation. 

September i 

■ Curriculum Development The National Science - 
Resources Center published Rocks and Minerals, the 
final unit in its Science and Technology for Children 
(STC) curriculum for grades I to 6. Six other units — 
Animal Studies. Changes. Land and Water. Motion and 
Design. Sound, and The Technology of Paper — were 
published earlier in the year. The 24 units in this 
hands-on program cover ropics in four major areas: 
life, the earth, physical sciences, and technological 
design. 

September 5—5 

■ Symposium Supported by a grant from the National 
Centet for Preservation Technology and Training of the 
National Parks Service, the Conservation Analytical 
Laboratory organized a Symposium on the Museum 
Environment. Based on the model of the so-called 
Gordon Conferences in the sciences, this symposium 
gathered, by invitation only, a group of experrs repre- 
senting a wide range of disciplines, including con- 
servation scientists, conservators, HVAC engineers, 
architects, collection managers, and museum directors. 
Discussion topics included the building envelope, 
HVAC technologies, chemical, biological and mechanical 
deterioration, relative humidity, temperarure and pollu- 
tion, and energy and cost savings strategies. The sym- 
posium covered historic houses, museums, libraries, and 
archives, both in historic structures or in buildings spe- 
cially designed to house collections. A significant 
amount of time was devoted to risk assessment and the 
planning and decision-making process. The par- 
ticipants discussed the state of knowledge based upon 
recent research and produced a communique with 
guidelines for decisions in serting parameters for collec- 
tions environments. 

September 5 

■ Exhibit Banners promoting Smithsonian Member- 
ships, a project of the Visitor Information and 
Associates' Reception Center, were completed for dis- 
play in the Smithsonian Information Center. 



41 



September 5 

■ Exhibition "Visual Thinking: Sketchbooks from the 
Archives of American Art" opened in the New York 
Regional Center. The show, which was also featured on 
the Archives' website, featured sketchbooks from 
prominent as well as little-known nineteenth- and twen- 
tieth-century American artists, including William Har- 
nett, John White Alexander, Luis Mora, Robert Henri, 
Oscar Bluemner, and David Park. 

September 12 

■ Contract Award At a ceremony in Cambridge, MA, 
September 12, NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin 
officially transferred responsibility for flight operations 
and management of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics 
Facility (AXAF) to SAO. AXAF will be the first 
major spacecraft to be controlled in space by a non- 
NASA center. 

September 13 

■ Accreditation Renewal The National Zoo received con- 
tinuation of accreditation from the American Zoo and 
Aquarium Association (AZA). For a 200 or aquarium to 
become a member of the AZA, an extensive accredita- 
tion process must take place. Besides a lengthy applica- 
tion, a two-day on-site inspection by a team of zoo and 
aquarium professionals must be conducted. The visiting 
team observes and evaluates all aspects of a zoo's opera- 
tions. Accreditation was made mandatory for member- 
ship in the AZA in 1980. 



hibit in the AA/PG Library of the newly acquired papers 
of scholar Tomas Ybarra-Frausto, chair of the Smithsonian 
Council and of the Latino Oversight Committee. Dr. Ybarra- 
Frausto has written and published extensively on Latin 
American and U.S. Latino cultural issues. 

September 20 

■ Permanent Exhibition The National Museum of 
Natural History proudly welcomed the public to see the 
results of the most ambitious exhibition renovation ever 
undertaken on the Mall: the Janet Annenberg Hooker 
Hall of Geology, Gems, and Minerals. Galleries devoted 
to mineralogy, earth sciences, and the formation of the 
solar system showcase the museum's extraordinary col- 
lections of gemstones and crystals, take visitors into 
mine dioramas, outline the theory of plate tectonics, 
and describe how scientists use meteorites to crack the 
secrets of the early solar system. 

September 20 

■ Public Program The National Postal Museum spon- 
sored a special musical performance entitled Music on a 
Block of Four: Appreciating American Songivriters. 

September 20 

■ Special Event The Smithsonian Associates' Young 
Benefactors produced its eighth annual black-tie gala at 
the National Air and Space Museum. This glittering 
event raises more than $100,000 each year for the Smith- 
sonian Institution. 



September 16-18 

■ Workshop "Preservation Management of Photograph 
Collections — Saving Images for the Digital Age" was a 
Conservation Analytical Laboratory RELACT course 
and workshop that included, through lectures and 
demonstrations, an introduction to care and manage- 
ment of photographic materials, identification of photo 
prints and negatives, and preservation of special media, 
concentrating on the challenges of preserving 
photographs through digitization as one component of 
an overall strategy. 

September 18— October 24 

■ Exhibition In commemoration of Hispanic Heritage 
month, the Archives of American Art presented an ex- 



September 23—25 

■ International Workshop An audience of artists, conser- 
vators, curators, and collectors attended the workshop 
"Preservation oilmdgenes: Hispanic American Religious 
Images on Wood" at the Conservation Analytical 
Laboratory. Hispanic religious artifacts, bultos, and 
retablos were surveyed including their history, 
materials, polychrome fabrication and decoration, and 
preservation and restoration. The workshop included lec- 
tures and studio exercises revolving around the examina- 
tion of artifacts and techniques, enhanced by the 
connoisseurship of scholars, and provided technical in- 
formation on preservation concerns. Made possible 
through financial support by the Office of the Provost, 
this workshop was the first of a series of similar events, 
planned as part of an outreach effort to the Latino com- 



42. 



munity, and will be held ac various locations in the 
United States. 

September 24 

■ Project An Institution-wide team was fotmed to look 
at indirect cost and overhead issues. The team 
developed a list of issues and concerns that it will begin 
to take action to resolve in fiscal year 1998. 

September 25 

■ Public Program The National Postal Museum an- 
nounced the winners of the Graceful Envelope calligraphy 
contest at a special public program. 

September 26— January 4 

■ Exhibition "Mathew Brady's Portraits: Images as 
History, Photography as Art" was on view at the 
National Portrait Gallery. This was rhe mosr com- 
prehensive exhibition devoted to Brady's career in more 
than a century. More than one hundred images were on 
view, representing Brady's work in every form, includ- 
ing, for the first time, examples of his collaboration 
with artists to create oil paintings, lithographs, and 
wood engravings based on phorographs. 

September 26— January 25 

■ Exhibition "Edith Wharton's World: Portraits of 
People and Places" was on view at the National Portrait 
Gallery. Born into an atmosphere of material luxury, 
Edith Wharton (1862— 1937) transformed het careful 
observations of the elite, cosmopolitan society in which 
she moved into such American classics as The Age of 
Innocence and The House of Mirth. 

September 29 

■ Collections Management The Office of Smithsonian In- 
stitution Archives, on behalf of eleven SI archives and 



special collections units, arranged for the storage of 
archival collections at National Underground Storage in 
Boyers, PA. Over the next ten years, OSIA will coordin- 
ate records transfers to this remote, environmentally 
controlled storage facility on behalf of its Smithsonian 
sistet repositories. 

September 50 

■ Milestone The National Postal Museum gained full 
status as an independent Smithsonian museum and the 
Director began reporting directly to the Smithsonian 
Institution's Provost. 

September 30 

■ SI Policy The Office of Smithsonian Institution Ar- 
chives ovetsaw issuance of Smithsonian Announcement 
97—10, entitled "Email and Record Keeping," which of- 
fers SI staff insttuction and guidance on the creation, 
receipt, and disposition of electronic mail messages. 

September 30 

■ Planning A 5-year Finance-wide draft strategic plan 
was developed. The plan will be reviewed in fiscal year 
1998 by customers. The plan was developed to be consis- 
tent with the Smithsonian-wide strategic plan and 
provides a blueprint fot financial management improve- 
ments over the next several years. 

September 30 

■ Meeting A monthly meeting format was developed 
fot fiscal year 1998 for sharing information on financial 
issues among the major offices involved in these issues. 
This meeting will include the Finance offices, as well as 
the Office of Planning, Management, and Budget and 
the Office of Sponsored Projects. 



4? 



Reports of the Bureaus 
and Offices of 
the Smithsonian 
Institution for Fiscal 
Year 1997 



Office of Planning, Management, 
and Budget 

L. Carole Wharton, Director 

Mission Statement 

The Office of Planning, Management, and Budget (OPMB) as- 
sists the Secretary and Board of Regents in setting priorities, 
determining the best allocation of resources, and measuring 
performance. OPMB gathers, analyzes, and presents resource 
needs and information to the Office of Management and 
Budget, Congress, and the Board of Regents to facilitate wise 
and favorable evaluation. OPMB also provides services to 
central and unit managers that foster the planning, allocation, 
and management of Institutional resources. 

In addition, the Office also develops and disseminates In- 
stitutional announcements and policy directives. 

Budget Management, Planning, and 
Policy Systems 

Budget Management, Planning, and Policy Systems 
(BUMPPS) fully automated the Unit Budget Allocation and 
Budget Transfers process for Federal and General Trust resour- 
ces. The Unit Budget Allocation module allows the museums, 
research institutes, and offices to spread their initial budget al- 
location to the detailed accounting classification key. This 
module also provides the funds control and budget records for 
upload to the Office of the Comptroller's accounting system. 
The Budget Transfer module allows the user to adjust their 
current budget allocation within the organization and be- 
tween other organizations. 



The Call for Plans and Budgets requirements were 
developed, screens were created for data entry, reports were 
developed, and testing began. The BUMPPS team was able to 
automate the Call for Plans and partially automate the Call 
for Budgets. 

During the year the users were fully installed with the 
BUMPPS software and trained to use the modules, and a 
BUMPPS User Guide was written that included screen shots. 

Strategic and Performance Plans 

OPMB assisted the Secretary, Under Secretary, and Provost in 
developing a five-year Institutional strategic plan that was 
responsive to the Government Performance and Results Act 
(GPRA) of 1993. The plan was developed based on the report 
of the Commission on the Future of the Smithsonian, and in- 
volved extensive reviews throughout 1997 with senior manage- 
ment, the Board of Regents, and the Institution's House and 
Senate oversight and appropriations subcommittees. The final 
plan was approved by the Board of Regents and submitted to 
the Office of Management and Budget in September 1997 
and, later, to the Congress. 

OPMB worked with numerous units across the Institution 
to develop the first Smithsonian annual performance plan, 
also in response to the GPRA. The performance plan was 
linked to the goals and objectives of the strategic plan and in- 
cluded annual goals, milestones, and targets. The performance 
plan also included measures for research, collections care and 
access, exhibitions and public programs, administrative work 
processes, fundraising, and facilities improvements. 



Office of Membership and Development 



Robert V. Hanle, Executive Director for Development 

In 1997 the Office of Membership and Development spear- 
headed and oversaw a wide range of public-private partner- 
ships to support the Smithsonian. 

The America's Smithsonian traveling exhibition visited five 
more cities — St. Paul, MN, Houston, TX, Portland, OR, 
Birmingham, AL, and San Jose, CA. To date, the exhibition 
has reached nine cities and has been visited by more than 
3 million Americans. 

The innovative relationship the Smithsonian established 
with the 150th Anniversary Corporate Partner Program con- 
tinued as our four partners, Discover® Card, Intel Corpora- 
tion, MCI Communications Corporation, and Trans World 
Airlines, Inc., reached audiences nationwide through their 
support of America's Smithsonian. Out of the 150th celebrations, 
the Smithsonian's relationship with Discover Card has grown 
to include the Smithsonian Card, a Novus Services affinity 
credit card that will generate additional revenue for the 
Institution. 



44 



OMD recognized several firsts, including the inaugural meet- 
ing of the Smithsonian Legacy Society, a group formed to honor 
individuals who have made a legacy gift such as a bequest, pooled 
income fund, or charitable annuity to the Instirution. The 
Smithsonian Washington Council, a group of cultural and 
philanthropic leaders in the Washington, D.C., area, was formed 
and met several times to explore ways to strengthen the 
Smithsonian's services to local residents. The Smithsonian Cor- 
porate Membership Program gave its first Corporate Leadership 
Award to Nissan Motor Corporation, U.S.A. 

In addition, the OMD administered Smithsonian awards 
through the Smithsonian Benefactors Circle and the James 
Smithson Society. At its 1996 meeting in October, the Circle 
honored Mr. and Mrs. Jerome Lemelson with its Annual 
Award. The Lemelsons were recognized for their visionary sup- 
port, which enabled the Smithsonian to establish the Jerome 
and Dorothy Lemelson Center at the National Museum of 
American History. The Center documents, interprets, and 
disseminates information about invention and innovation, 
encourages inventive creativity in young people, and fosters 
an appreciation for the central role invention plays in the 
United States. The Joseph Henry Medal was given to William 
Gordon Bowen, President of the Andrew Mellon Foundation, 
in recognition of his long-standing support of the Smithson- 
ian. Mr. Bowen served as a Smithsonian Regent for twelve 
years and continues to advance the Smithsonian's mission 
during his tenure at the Mellon Foundation. The Hon. Ruth 
Bader Ginsburg joined Secretary Heyman in bestowing 
honors upon these philanthropists. 

The James Smithson Society met twice this fiscal year, as 
its meeting was permanently moved to the spring. At its 
October 1996 meeting, the Society bestowed its Foundet 
Medal on Agnes Cowles Bourne in recognition of her support 
for the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum. In May, 
members Mr. and Mrs. Philip D. Reed, Jr., accepted the 
medal on behalf of the Philip D. Reed Foundation in recogni- 
tion of the foundation's support of SI conservation biology 
programs. Mary Marvin Breckinridge Patterson also received 
the medal for her lifetime of support for the Institution. 

To better serve the Institution-wide development com- 
munity, the central development office was restructured this 
year into three major areas: membership and volunteer rela- 
tions, development, and development services. 

Major gifts received this year include the following: 

• $2.7 million from Nissan Motor Corporation U.S.A. in sup- 
port of the SITES Earth 2U: Exploring Geography exhibition; 

• $2.6 million pledged from Professor Ikuo Hirayama for the 
Ikuo Hirayama Endowment Fund of the Arthur M. Sackler 
Gallery; 

• $1.5 million from Apple Computer, Inc., for the Janet 
Annenberg Hooker Hall of Geology, Gems, and Minerals 
in the National Museum of Natural History. 

The Contributing Membership and the James Smithson 
Society continued to provide significant sources of un- 



restricted revenue for the Smithsonian. The Contributing 
Membership Program increased its gross unrestricted support 
for the Smithsonian to $8. 9 million. 

In addition to their commitment to the America's Smith- 
sonian galas and regional reunions, the Smithsonian National 
Board worked tirelessly for the Institution across the country. 
Led by Chair Jean Mahoney and Vice Chair Clive Runnells, 
the Smithsonian National Board's 52 current, no advisory, 
and 15 honorary members continued to provide dedicated 
service — advising the Secretary, providing programmatic 
support, and advocating around the country for the Institu- 
tion. The Board continues to build bridges for the Smithson- 
ian to corporate America and the philanthropic world, as well 
as to leaders nationwide, and its members are some of our best 
goodwill ambassadors. 

In calendar year 1996, Jane Bradley was chairman of the 
Board's Annual Giving Committee. Under her leadership, cur- 
rent, honorary, and advisory board members' strong financial 
commitment to the Institution raised Si. 183 million directly 
for two Smithsonian science research and biodiversity projects 
for which the Secretary had requested support, as well as other 
projects across the Institution designated by board members. 

In addition, the Board generously gave $815,014 to the 
Smithsonian Fund for the Future, which is providing long- 
term support for the Institution. The board's support is criti- 
cal to the success of many promising projects that could not 
move forward without their directed philanthropy. 

This year the Smithsonian's World Wide Web site on the 
Internet attracted 10 million hits per month, and more than 
23 million visitors came to the actual museums on the Nation- 
al Mall. The Internet will continue to be a place for ex- 
perimentation and a fertile ground for exploring new ways of 
getting Smithsonian resources to people where they live. 

Building on the success of the Smithsonian's World Wide 
Web site, the Office of Membership and Development en- 
hanced its own pages. The Corporate Membership Program 
(www.si.edu/youandsi/join/corp/scmp), Contributing Member- 
ship (www.si.edu/youandsi/join/members/cm), and Smithson- 
ian Women's Committee (www.si.edu/youandsi/craftshow/ 
start.htm) all enhanced their presence on the Smithsonian site 
by launching interactive pages that will generate even more 
support and help people everywhere to understand the crucial 
need for funding beyond the operational support we receive 
from the federal government. 

The Smithsonian has always been about the big picture and 
reaching out to new constituencies. In FY97, innovative use 
of technology and public-private partnerships helped us to 
reach the largest audience possible in new and exciting ways. 

Smithsonian National Board 

Jean Mahoney, Chair 
Clive Runnells, Vice Chair 

Smithsonian National Board members work for the advance- 
ment of the Institution as advocates and as private-sector ad- 



45 



visors co che Secretary' and Under Secretary, as well as through 
personal financial support and fund-raising activities. 

This year a Fund for the Future and Capital Campaign 
Planning Committee under the leadership of Allison Cowles 
commenced work ro structure the Smithsonian's first-ever 
Institution-wide capital campaign. 

In calendar year 1996, Jane Bradley chaired the Board's 
Annual Giving Committee. Under her leadership, board 
members' cumulative annual contributions tocaled Si. 183 mil- 
lion, the largest amount to date. This support wenr toward 
Smithsonian science research and biodiversity projects for 
which the Secretary had designated support, benefit events for 
the America's Smithsonian exhibition, and other projects across 
the Institution designated by board members. 

Smithsonian Women's Committee 

Paula Jeffries, Chair 

The Smithsonian Women's Committee serves as an ongoing 
source of support for a variety of Institutional programs 
through volunteer fund-raising and public relations services. 
In 1997, the Committee distributed $295,000 in competitive 
grants to 25 projects in 11 museums and offices across che 
Smithsonian. The commirtee's awards program is rhe result of 
its successful and profitable annual Smithsonian Craft Show, 
which this year celebrated its fifteenth anniversary and was 
held at the National Building Museum April 24—27. From 
over 1,300 applicants, 120 exhibitors in all media were selected 
ro show rheir wares. The annual event presencs the nation's 
finest contemporary crafts and also raises money for che 
committee's educational and outreach programs beneficing 
the Smithsonian. 



Scephen Marc," "Life on che Road: The Phocography of Mile 
Hinton," and "Caribbean Vision: Contemporary Painting and 
Sculpture." 

The Museum's commitment to community-based educa- 
tional programs is evinced in ics six-year parcnership with the 
Lucy Ellen Moten Elementary School. The parcnership is 
based at the school where the Museum staff has builc relation- 
ships with administrators, teachers, students, and parents. 
The parcnership incegraces learning activities in African 
American history and culture with the day-co-day educational 
offerings of the school. The project engages scudencs in a 
broad variecy of accivicies including an undemanding of che 
hiscory of rhe local communicy through field study projeccs 
and engagemenc wich communicy hiscorians, an under- 
scanding of African American hisrocy and culcure through spe- 
cial projects, and field trips to local cultural resources. The 
partnership is funded through a generous grant from the Fred- 
die Mac Foundation and has been ciced by Leland C. Brendsel, 
chairman and CEO of Freddie Mac and chairman of che Fred- 
die Mac Foundacion, as "providing an engaging, creacing 
learning environment." Additional assistance comes from the 
Smithsonian Institucion Educational Outreach Fund. 

The exhibition project "Speak co My Hearc: African 
American Communicies of Faich and Concemporary 
Society" is under development. The project cakes a unique 
approach co engaging che communicy in exploring che 
dynamic relationship between African American com- 
munities and religious institutions. This project has 
received a generous granc from che Lilly Endowmenc, 
Inc., in che amount of $600,000. 



Archives of American Art 



Anacostia Museum and Center for 
African American History and Culture 

Steven Cameron Newsome, Director 

The Anacostia Museum and Cencer for African American 
Hiscory and Culcure expanded the tradicion of leadership in 
increasing public underscanding of che hiscorical experiences 
and culrural expressions of people of African descenc living in 
che Americas. Ac the same time, the museum enhanced its 
stracegies for engaging constituencies in the development of 
research projects, public programs, and exhibitions, especially 
chose chac focus on concemporary social and culcural issues. 

During the year, rhe Museum presenced cricically ac- 
claimed exhibitions including "Feeling che Spirit: Searching 
che World for che People of Africa," "Invoking che Spirit: 
Worship Tradirions in che African World," "The Black Trans- 
adantic Experience: The Photography of Chester Higgins and 



Richard J. Wattenmaker. Director 

Fiscal Year 1997 was a year of oucscanding achievement for rhe 
Archives of American Art as it concinued co affirm its posi- 
cion as che world's largesc reposicory of original documencs 
relacing to American arc and culcure by acquiring imporcanc 
new colleccions. In addicion, it furthered ics mission of serv- 
ing che research communicy chrough increased accessibility to 
colleccions, facilitated by several new publicacions and on- 
going colleccions processing projeccs. In che area of oucreach 
and educacion, che Archives used the gallery space in rhe New 
York Regional Cencer co showcase documents both from irs 
own colleccions as well as chose of ocher arc inscicutions. The 
Archives also coordinated an ambitious internship program, 
wich parcicular emphasis on Lacino participanrs. Throughouc 
che year che Archives managed a nacionwide program of col- 
leccing and reference services ac ics various cencers in 
Washingcon, D.C., New York, Boscon, Decroic, San Francisco, 
and San Marino, California. 



46 



Collections Acquired 

Among the most important collections acquired in 1997 is the 
Klaus Perls Gallery collection. The Perls Gallery, founded in 
1935 by Klaus G. Perls, handled modern masters such as 
Alexander Calder, Pablo Picasso, Joan Miro, Georges Rouault, 
Marc Chagall, and Maurice de Vlaminck. The history of the 
Perls Gallery is part of the history of the reception of modern 
art in America. The Perlses were Europeans who brought old- 
world authority and skill to the selling of modern art. The 
gallery closed in 1997. Its records contain correspondence 
( I 93) _I 997) w ith artists, dealers, museums, and collectors; 
photographs (1935— ca. 1977) of artists' work handled by the 
gallery; installarion views (1948— 1969) of gallery exhibitions; 
and photographs of installations at other galleries and 
museums. Also included are negatives of works of art for 
gallery artists, including a large collection of negatives of 
works by Alexander Calder and a card index file to the nega- 
tives. There are also artists' files for artists not represented by 
the gallery. Other aspects of the collection include exhibition 
catalogs (ca. 1935— 1985) and clippings and publicity files 
(ca. 1935— 1997). These are the complete records of rhe gallery 
covering its entire history. The acquisition of the Perls Gal- 
lery papers is a major addition to the Archives' substantial 
body of dealers' papers and will greatly foster research in the 
field of modern American collecting. 

Also acquired in 1997 were the papers of Tornas Ybarra- 
Frausto, a scholar and chair of the Smithsonian Council and of 
the Latino Oversight Committee. His papers, comprising 
20,000 items, consist of correspondence, photographs, and 
rare printed material gathered for his research on Latino 
artists. These papers constitute a major addition to the hold- 
ings already documented in the Archives' publication, The 
Papers of Latino and Latin American Artists (1996), and will be 
the subject of a separate finding aid to be published in 1998 
by the Archives. Dr. Ybarra-Frausto's book, Arte Chicano: A 
Comprehensive Annotated Bibliography of Chicano Art. 1965-1981 
(1985), coauthored with Shifra Goldman, is the best source for 
bibliographic information on Chicano artists. These impor- 
tant papers have already been the inspiration for a display in 
commemoration of Hispanic Heritage Month entitled "Tomas 
Ybarra-Frausto and the Chicano Art Movement, 1965-1997" 
in the NMAA/NPG Library. An augmented version of the dis- 
play will open in the Archives' New York Regional Office 
Gallery space in 1998. 

Other important collections in FY 1997 include additions 
to the Abraham Walkowitz papers (1880— 1965), which aug- 
mented documents already in the collection. These included 
exhibition announcements, catalogs, and magazines contain- 
ing articles about the artist donated by Howard Schulman, 
cousin of the artist. The Archives also acquired the papers of 
superrealist sculptor Duane Hanson (1925-1996), known for 
his lifelike, life-size figures of molded polyester resin and 
fiberglass of everyday people. The papers consist of material 
dating from 1969 to 1989, including thousands of letters from 
artists, dealers, curators, collectors, and fans; newspaper clip- 



pings and other printed material; financial records; and con- 
tracts and miscellany. 

Publications 

Reading Records: A Researcher's Guide to the Archives of American 
Art by Garnett McCoy, Curator Emeritus, was published in 
FY 1997. The 120-page publication, lavishly illustrated with 
numerous black-and-white illustrations and twelve color 
plates, provides a comprehensive overview of the Archives' col- 
lections engagingly written by the Archives' longume Journal 
editor. The monograph is a marvelous introduction to the 
variety of documentation in the collections, including the let- 
ters, diaries, account books, and rare catalogs of obscure ex- 
hibitions so dear to researchers and other serious students of 
American art. 

Another important publication in FY 1997 was Paris: A 
Guide to Archival Sources for American Art History by Susan 
Grant, Coordinator of the Archives' Paris Survey Project. This 
monograph was a result of more than five years' research con- 
ducted by Ms. Grant that was underwritten by a grant from 
the Florence Gould Foundation, a supporter of cooperative 
French-American ventures. Until now, scholars have had no 
central reference work to help them locate the many original 
documents on American artists to be found in Parisian 
archives. This material, though plentiful and of considerable 
interest, remains inaccessible simply because it has not been 
systematically identified. The objective, now realized, of the 
Archives' Paris Survey Project, has been to redress this situa- 
tion and make the records and papers of American artists in 
Paris known to researchers throughout the wotld. 

A Finding Aid to the Walter Pack Papers by Nancy Malloy, 
Archives Reference Specialist in the New York Research Cen- 
ter, and Cathenne Stover, Archivist in the Washington 
Processing Center, is the tesult of a long-term project and 
provides researchers with a comptehensive detailed descrip- 
tion of the papers of one of the pivotal figures in American art 
circles in the first half of the twentieth century. Walter Pach 
(1883—1958) was a painter, etcher, journalist, author, critic, ex- 
hibition organizer, dealer, and catalyst for an outstanding 
variety of projects over a lifetime devoted to art. Best known 
for his organization of the European section of the 1913 
Armory Show, together with Arthur B. Davies and Walt 
Kuhn, Pach was a consistent champion of such Americans as 
Copley, Eakins, and Maurice Prendergast. The Walter Pach 
papers were acquired in 1988 with major support from The 
Brown Foundation, Inc., Houston, Texas. Researchers will 
find a wealth of unpublished materials embracing an enor- 
mous number of artists, critics, dealers, and collectors. 

Fund-Raising 

FY 1997 saw the donation of the largest single grant ever 
awarded to the Archives in its forty-three-year history. The 
Brown Foundation, Inc., made a $500,000 matching chal- 
lenge grant to establish the William E. Woolfenden Endow- 



4" 



men: Fund in honor of the Archives' first director. The grant 
will support the publication of the Archives' Journal, a 
quarterly publication. The Archives has until December 15, 
1998, to raise the matching $500, 000 in cash contributions 
and pledges. 

In FY 1997. the Archives received the second installment of 
a $240,000 grant from the Henry Luce Foundation for the 
processing and microfilming of the papers of Rockwell Kent, 
as well as the papers of Downtown Gallery and the papers of 
the American Federation of Arts. Each of these collections 
will be described in published finding aids. 

Also in FY 1997, the Archives was awarded a grant in the 
amount of $214,500 by the Getty Grant Program of the J. 
Paul Getty Trust for the processing of three important collec- 
tions. The collections include the papers of three important 
art galleries: the Jacques Seligmann Galleries, Kraushaar Gal- 
leries, and the Robert Schoelkopf Gallery. These gallery 
records have been among the highest prioriry for processing. 
All three of these collections have been actively consulted and 
are in constant demand by researchers. 

Also in FY 1997, the Archives received a $29,000 grant 
from the Ahmanson Foundation to process and microfilm the 
Millard Sheets Collection. Millard Sheets (1907-1989) was a 
painter, muralist, educator, and designer in various mediums. 
He provided architectural designs for more than 100 build- 
ings and taught art at the Scripps College for 26 years, as well 
as serving as director of the Otis Art Institute. The collection 
documents Sheets's personal, artistic, and business activities 
for over 50 years. 

Completed in FY 1997 was the processing, arrangement, 
and description of the personal papers of Abraham Rattner, 
funded by a $21,000 grant from the Judith Rothschild Foun- 
dation. Abraham Rattner (1895-1978), abstract expressionist, 
was primarily known for his brightly colored canvases depict- 
ing religious and social protest themes, as well as for his work 
with stained glass, mosaic, and tapestry. 

Another significant gift to the Archives was made by Mrs. 
Viola Goldberg in December 1996. Her gift of $10,000 will 
be used to support the Archives' oral history program, as well 
as Archives' publications. 

The Archives received $40,686 from the 1997 SI Latino 
Pool Allocation Fund for two Latino projects: a field survey to 
locate art-related manuscript material in Puerto Rico, and an 
oral history project to interview eleven key figures in the 
Cuban-American art community in Miami. Both efforts 
promise to increase the Smithsonian's unique sources for the 
study of Latino and Latin American art and to promote new 
scholarship. 

Exhibitions and Education 

The exhibit "A Shared Experience: One Hundred Years of Art 
at the MacDowell Colony" was on view January 30 through 
March 25, 1997, in the Gallery Space of the New York 
Regional Center. This project was generously funded by a 
grant from the Ruth Bowman Philanthropic Fund of the 



Jewish Communal Fund. The show, which consisted of papers 
and photographs pertaining to the establishment of the Mac- 
Dowell Art Colony and artists, writers, and composers who 
worked there, was organized by The Currier Gallery of Art, 
Manchester, New Hampshire. 

"Invitation to Contemporary Art" was on display in the 
New York Regional Center from April to August 1997. The 
exhibit consisted of sixty-five fanciful announcements from 
the Archives' collection of the papers of art historian Ellen 
Hulda Johnson (1910— 1992). The announcements, dating from 
1961-1986, are made of a variety of materials — paper, plastic, 
textiles, sand, and wood. They are printed, perforated, folded, 
encapsulated, and intended to attract attention. The display, 
curated by Archives Southeast Regional Collector Liza Kir- 
win, provided a personal and, at times, amusing look at a crea- 
tive means of art promotion. 

"Visual Thinking: Sketchbooks from the Archives of 
American Art" opened in the New York Regional Center on 
September 5, 1997. The show, which was also featured on the 
Archives' website, contained sketchbooks from prominent as 
well as little-known nineteenth- and twentieth-century 
American artists, including William Harnett, John White 
Alexander, Luis Mora, Robert Henri, Oscar Bluemner, and 
David Park. The sketchbooks surprise in their variety and 
reveal intimate glimpses into the workings of the creative 
process. 

The Archives has arranged for loans of works from its collec- 
tions to a number of sister organizations during 1997. Among 
these are loans to the Parrish Art Museum, Southampton, 
New York, for "The Tenth Street Studio Building: Attists- 
Entrepreneurs from the Hudson River School to the Impres- 
sionists" (August to November 1997) and to the Paul Robeson 
Cultural Centet at Rutgers University for "Paul Robeson: 
Here I Stand," to be shown at the Jane Voorhees Zimmerli 
Art Museum (on view April to July 1998). 

The Archives managed an effective internship program in 
the summer of 1997. The Archives was among the first 
Smithsonian units to be selected to participate in the new 
James E. Webb Internship Program for Minority Graduate 
Students in Business and Public Administration. The 
graduate intern's project was to assist in the planning of an 
intensive project to collect documentation on Puerto Rican 
artists and arts organizations active in Puerto Rico and New 
York. Another intern, a participant in the Minority Internship 
Program, worked on the arrangement, preservation, and 
description of papers of Tomas Ybarra-Frausto. 

West Coast Regional Director Paul J. Karlstrom traveled to 
Australia March 10-17, I 997. co participate in a program joint- 
ly sponsored by the Smithsonian and the USIA. Dr. Karlstrom 
conducted a full schedule of lectures and media interviews in 
Canberra, Sydney, Brisbane, and Melbourne, speaking on such 
topics as California art and culture and their influence on 
popular culture in the U.S., American popular culture, and 
other topics related to American art. In May Dr. Karlstrom 
traveled to Taiwan as part of the Smithsonian International 



48 



Speakers Program (cosponsored by the U.S. Information Ser- 
vice) and delivered the keynote talk at the American Studies 
Association of Taiwan: "American Popular Culture and its 
Impact Abroad." He also spoke to students and faculty at the 
New National College of the Arts and met with various 
museum directors and colleagues in Taiwan. 



Center for Folklife Programs and 
Cultural Studies 



Richard Kurin, Director 

Fueled by the national and worldwide growth of self- 
consciousness about community-based cultural representation 
and production, the Center's operations evolve, and our rep- 
ertoire of activities is expanding. We encourage exemplary 
tradition bearers to maintain and extend their cultures, the 
Smithsonian Folklife Festival on the National Mall perhaps 
being the most visible and dramatic illustration of this effort. 
The rwo-week 1997 Festival hosted more than 800,000 
visitors. Cultural vitaliry was strikingly demonstrated at this 
year's Festival with programs about the Mississippi Delta, 
African immigrants, and sacred music and song. "The Missis- 
sippi Delta" showed that the mighty river defined a region 
that is not only agriculturally rich with black, fertile soil, but 
also culturally rich, in spite of economic hardships that much 
of the Delta's population has lived with for generations. The 
program on the Mall opened with speakers that included 
Mississippi's First Lady, Pat Fordice, and Louisiana's Lt. 
Governor Kathleen Blanco, and for the next two weeks the 
program addressed life in the Delta through four major areas: 
home, work, play, and worship. Discussions and presentations 
by participants from Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, and 
Tennessee included gardening, home crafts, foodways, catfish 
and cotton farming, hunting and fishing, oratory skills, wor- 
ship crafts, gospel, and Easter Rock. The Delta Dance Hall 
featured the music that had its roots in that region — blues, 
rockabilly, and Dixieland jazz — and included a special eve- 
ning performance and interview by R&B master Rufus 
Thomas and his band. "The Mississippi Delta" program broke 
many stereotypes, among which, as seen by thousands of 
viewers of NBC's Today Show, included interviews by mem- 
bers of the Chinese community in the Delta and their presen- 
tations of wok barbecue and a southern breakfast, 
Chinese-style. The Mississippi Delta program will be restaged 
in Greenville, Mississippi, and portions of it were brought to 
Monroe, Louisiana, in September. 

"Sacred Sounds: Belief & Society" riveted audiences and 
kindled extended discussions with religious tradition bearers 
and social activists about their belief systems, musical expres- 
sions of their faiths, the role of sacred songs in social strug- 
gles, and comparisons with other religious and musical 



traditions. From the intensity of feeling expressed in the 
songs and running -circle-dance of the women and men of the 
International Christian Church of Pietersburg, South Africa, 
to the solemn readings of biblical passages by the male song- 
leaders of the Old Regular Baptists from Kentucky coal- 
mining country in the southern Appalachian Mountains, 
audiences were treated to a powerful and moving lineup of 
sacred sound traditions. From Jerusalem, Palestinian Sunni 
Muslim chanters shared the stage with Israeli Sephardic Jews, 
and the large sounds from the choir of St. Augustine Catholic 
Church in Washington, D.C., presented a gospel contrast to 
the sweet-sounding voices of the local Seven Sons gospel 
quartet. Mountain bluegrass from Elaine Purkey and Friends 
and the Black women a capella singers from Sweet Honey In 
The Rock showed where sacred sounds cross over into every- 
day social struggles. Along with traditional Yoruba praise 
songs, Shinto traditional chants, rap-gospel by Brothers Inc. 4 
Da Lord, and Karuk music of Nancy Richardson, visitors ex- 
perienced the special artistry and passion of sacred sounds 
communicated by individuals and groups. 

The culmination of four years of documentation and plan- 
ning resulted in the successful program, "African Immigrant 
Folklife in Washington, D.C.: Building & Bridging Com- 
munities." The program was a collaboration between the Cen- 
ter and community scholars originally from all parts of the 
African continent, now living in the metropolitan Washing- 
ton, D.C., area. The program had six theme areas: A large 
music and dance tent hosted groups who played music rang- 
ing from North African rai to South African township music, 
and on July 3, Ghanaians from all parts of the United States 
and Canada gathered to witness a durbar — installment of a 
leader for the Asante peoples in the United States. At the 
"Foodways and Home Life" area Ethiopian coffee ceremonies 
were scheduled back to back with Kenyan cooking. The 
"Enterprise" area housed craftspeople such as a Senegalese 
glass painter and Malian woodcarver, as well as businesses that 
included hairbraiding salons and dressmaking shops. The 
"Palaver Place" served as a community hall where performan- 
ces included a Somali women's social dance and an Ebo girl's 
coming-of-age ceremony. At the "Teaching and Learning Cul- 
ture" area, children and parents learned Sierra Leone Creole 
and had African geography lessons. The "Community Talk" 
stage was designed as a talk-radio venue where participants 
told stories about their immigration experiences. In the 
aftermath of this program, community scholars and many 
participants are working toward forming their own not-for- 
profit organization to present cultural programs and further 
document cultural traditions. 

This year's third annual Friends of the Festival Ralph 
Rinzler Memorial Concert celebrated the revival of old-time 
Southern music and dance. Featuring Mike Seeger and the 
New Lost City Ramblers, Wade and Julia Mamer, and the 
Original Fat City String Band, along with other musicians, 
dancers, and callers, the program traced the revival of 
Southern traditional music over the past forty years and of the 



49 



community of musicians and dancers that has developed with 
it. The concert was timed with rhe new release of a New Lost 
City Ramblers recording on Folkways. 

We have continued to extend the reach of our work through 
other media and other formats. Our big Folkways hit was the 
reissue of Harry Smith's Anthology of American Folk Music. First 
released in 1952 as a six-LP set, it was an inspiration for the 
folk and blues revivals and a creative source for many of 
today's well-known musicians. Not only did this seminal his- 
torical collection sell out of music stores and go through three 
pressings in its first week, but it has generated unprecedented 
reviews, features, and critical essays in the media. The list of 
more than 100 full- and multipage stories (in for example, the 
New York Times. Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Rolling 
Stone. Newsweek. Billboard. The Nation) is impressive and rarely- 
generated even for the most popular musical releases. 

We are particularly interested in encouraging children to 
learn of the cultural traditions closest to them. Some 1,000 
schools in Iowa received Iowa Folklife: Our People. Communities, 
and Traditions. This multimedia learning guide is based on 
work with the Iowa Sesquicentennial Commission and the 
1996 Festival. The kit includes lesson plans, a video essay and 
documentary, Smithsonian Folkways CD, and a resource direc- 
tory, and relied on the cooperation of the Iowa Arts Council, 
Iowa Public Television, the Iowa Historical Society, and 
generous funding from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. 

This summer the Center also sponsored a two-day meeting, 
"Revisiting Talleres." for teachers, principals, and specialists in 
early childhood education from the U.S. -Mexico border. All of 
the teachers had attended one of the earlier workshops that in- 
troduced the Center's education kit, Borders and Identity. At 
the meetings, teachers gave their reactions to using the materials 
in the classroom, and many of the participating teachers agreed 
to serve as advisors to the education kit that will come out of the 
1998/99 Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin program. 

In preparation for the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin program, 
31 Rio Grande basin students, scholars, educators, and com- 
munity scholars participated in a Folklife Field Research Series 
during May and July to complement the field research. The goals 
were to engage people in the region in the fieldwork for the Fes- 
tival and to offer a training program for the research and produc- 
tion of public folklife programs in general. 

The Center has also been collaborating with the South 
African Department of Arts, Culture, Science, and Technology 
on Festival-related initiatives and exchanges. Five South 
Africans observed the Festival and engaged in planning with 
Center staff and with other Smithsonian organizations. In 
April Smithsonian staff organized a panel at the South African 
Museum Association conference in Pietermarizburg and met 
with the director and staff of the Robben Island Museum 
project in Capetown. 

We continue to use various media — television, radio, air- 
line in-flight programs, video encyclopedia, museum exhibits, 
enhanced CDs, a World Wide Web site, and books — to com- 
municate broadly. 



Hirsbborn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

James T. Demetrion, Director 

The Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, the Smithson- 
ian Institution's center for modern and contemporary art, is 
committed to increasing the awareness and understanding of 
art through acquisitions, exhibitions, publications, research 
activities, public programs, and the presentation of the collec- 
tion in its galleries and outdoor exhibition spaces. The 
museum provides a public facility for the exhibition, study, 
and preservation of 19th- and 20th-century art while present- 
ing a spectrum of contemporary work. 

Two new publications appeared in November, each bring- 
ing a fresh perspective to works encountered at the 
Hirshhorn. A free Family Guide encourages interactive gal- 
lery responses among parents and children. Supported by the 
Smithsonian's Special Exhibition Fund, the full-color packet 
containing 12 "art cards" won honorable mention in the 1997 
American Association of Museums publications competition. 
Also well received was Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden: 
150 Works of Art, a chronological panorama of 20th-century art 
in succinct, informative essays and color images. Copublished 
with Harry N. Abrams, Inc., this 166-page volume provided a 
capstone to the Smithsonian's 150th anniversary celebration 
and marked the first substantive publication on the 
Hirshhorn since the inaugural catalog of 1974. 

Through acquisitions funds as well as gifts from generous 
donors, the Hirshhorn continued to acquire significant works 
by modern and contemporary artists. Among highlights for 
the year were Joseph Beuys's metaphonc wax-and-tallow 
sculpture Memory of My Youth in the Mountains (1977), the first 
work by this influential artist to enter the permanent collec- 
tion; a painting by Alberto Giacometti, Annette Seated in the 
Studio (1954); Wayne Thiebaud's oil on canvas Girl with Ice 
Cream Cone (1963); two works combining sculpture and 
photography — by Alfredo Jaar (1988), and Thomas Schutte 
(1994); and an important gift of 14 modern and contemporary 
paintings and sculptures from the Lannan Foundation. The 12 
artists represented in the gift were John Ahearn, Carlos 
Alfonzo, Robert Arneson, Rafael Coronel, Edward Dugmore, 
Vernon Fisher, Robert Morris, Manuel Neri, Julian Schnabel, 
John Storrs, Richard Stankiewicz, and Christopher 
Wilmarth. 

Providing an overview of earlier acquisitions, "The 
Hirshhorn Collects: Recent Acquisitions, 1992-1996" opened 
June 4 and was accompanied by an illustrated catalog. Reflect- 
ing the fruits of five years of active purchasing and the 
generosity of 70 donors of art, the exhibition of 129 works by 
78 artists was praised by a Washington Post critic, who wrote 
that it marked the Hirshhorn 's "coming of age" as "Washing- 
ton's most important contemporary art museum [and] national 
museum of modern and contemporary art." An accompanying 
ten-week program of talks and films (part of "Art Night on 



JO 



the Mall" on chursday) drew an average 500 additional visitors 
per evening to the museum. 

Other exhibitions added to the year's spectrum of 20th- 
century art. "Richard Lindner: Paintings and Watercolors, 
1948— 1977," the first broad look in more than 20 years at the 
richly symbolic, Pop Art-era imagery of this German-born 
American artist (1901-1978), opened October 17. Accom- 
panied by several public programs and a scholarly 172-page 
catalog by Hirshhorn curator Dr. Judith Zilczer, the exhibi- 
tion traveled to the Haus der Kunst in Munich for a spring 
1997 showing. The project was made possible by the 
Smithsonian's Special Exhibition Fund. An additional grant 
from Ellen and Max Palevsky was matched by the Jerome L. 
Greene Foundation, the Jacob and Charlotte Lehrman Trust, 
the Sydney and Frances Lewis Foundation, Conde Nast Publi- 
cations, Inc., and an anonymous donor. 

"JeffWall," a twenty-year retrospective of backlit photo- 
graphic tableaux by this Canadian artist — staged scenes of 
suburbia, home life, and the workplace — launched its three- 
city tour at the Hirshhorn on February 20. The artist was 
present to lead some 80 visitors on an exhibition tour and 
returned March 13 for a public dialog with art historian 
Michael Fried. Accompanied by a catalog by Kerry Brougher, 
the show was organized by the Museum of Contemporary Art, 
Los Angeles, to where it traveled next, followed by the Art 
Center Mito in Japan. The Smithsonian's Special Exhibition 
Fund and the Embassy of Canada supported the Washington 
presentation. 

"Directions — Juan Muhoz," an exhibition featuring a new 
installation of cast-resin works by a Madrid-based sculptor 
(b. 1953) in the forefront of a current resurgence in figurative 
sculpture, opened March 7. Munoz, whose popular quintet of 
bronze figures Conversation Piece (1994— 1995), is installed out- 
doors near the Hirshhorn 's entrance, spoke at a noontime slide 
presentation in dialog with Neal Benezra, the Hirshhorn's 
Assistant Director for Art and Public Programs, and on 
March 22, a mime and theater program was presented for chil- 
dren. The exhibition was supported by the Glen Eagles Foun- 
dation, Anita and Burton Reiner, and William Goldiner, M.D. 

The two other "Directions" exhibitions this year — "Direc- 
tions — Rudolf Schwarzkogler" (November 7, 1996— January 
20, 1998) and "Directions — Louise Lawler: Monochrome" 
(July 17-October 19, 1997) — revealed two approaches to 
photography as a tool rather than as an end product in con- 
temporary art. The late, influential Schwarzkogler's 37 black- 
and-white images from the 1960s documented his staged 
"Actions," prototypes of performance art, and received largely 
positive reviews in the press. The exhibition was funded by a 
private donation with additional support from the Austrian 
Cultural Institute, a government organization promoting that 
country's culture in the United States. The later show of 
Lawler's work focused on her use of the photographic medium 
both to create pictorial records of art objects in different 
spaces and situations and to evoke a mood through mono- 
chromatic color. 



In a second-floor gallery beginning November 20, Paul 
Gauguin's Hina with Two Attendants, a tamanu-wood sculp- 
ture carved in Tahiti in 1892, was the focus of a small interpre- 
tive show enriched by documents and objects from various 
Smithsonian sources. A similar presentation of Raymond 
Duchamp- Villon's 1914 masterwork The Horse followed on 
May 23. Part of the ongoing "Collection in Context" series 
supported by the Smithsonian Special Exhibition Fund, these 
shows sought to deepen understanding of a single art object 
by exploring technical, scientific, sociological, and eth- 
nographic undercurrents and implications of its creation. 

Complementing more than a dozen lectures and gallery 
presentations relating to exhibitions, this year's Mordes Lec- 
ture in Contemporary Art on November 3 featured a slide-il- 
lustrated talk, "Histories, Encounters, and Engagements: 
Showing Modern Art in the Museum," by Nicholas Setota, 
the Director of the Tate Gallery in London. Serota, a widely 
respected contemporary art specialist and museum admin- 
istrator, spoke mainly about the Tate Gallery's plans to open a 
new building in 1999. It was the fourth such presentation by 
an international figute in the field in this annual series spon- 
sored by Dr. Marvin and Elayne Mordes of Baltimote. 

Novel approaches to educating an uninitiated public were 
particularly successful this year. A Resource Center focusing 
on complex art — a concept inaugurated for exhibitions 
("Bruce Nauman" in 1994 and "Distemper" in 1996) — was 
implemented in 1997 for works in the permanent collection 
installed on the third floor. For several hours each week a 
trained staff member interacted with visitors at a "station" in 
the Abram Lerner Room there. Earlier in the year a Writers' 
Workshop engaged 65 aspiring authors, who used images 
from backlit photographs in the Jeff Wall exhibition as sources 
for their literary works. 

Museum educators introduced young people to the 
museum through performances and hands-on activities. 
Eleven "Young at Aft" programs brought several hundred six- 
to-mne-year-olds and accompanying adults to six museum 
exhibitions to engage in creative activities — such as T-shirt 
design, storytelling, and improvisational theater and dance. 
Several times during the year, teachers explored the galleries 
and developed methods for bringing their insights back to 
the classroom. Workshops (for credit) were offered to teachers 
of all disciplines from Prince George's County, Maryland. The 
D.C. Art Teachers Association had an all-day session with 
museum educators. Class presentations by artists focused on 
the collection and inspired many young people to visit the 
museum on their own. 

Summer programs for "Art Night on the Mall" at the 
Hirshhorn brought together the disciplines of film and art. In 
conjunction with "The Hirshhorn Collects: Recent Acquisi- 
tions 1992—1996," a weekly Thursday-evening gallery talk on 
a single object was followed by a screening of a film whose ap- 
proach, subject, atmosphere, or technique made for thought- 
provoking parallels. Earlier in the year, the Hirshhorn's film 
series again presented several programs in collaboration with 



P 



D.C. FilmFest, a cooperative venture thar continued to help 
galvanize a growing local film community and bridge the 
fields of contemporary art and film. 

The death of Willem de Kooning on March 19 marked the 
passing of one of America's most influential 20th-century 
painters and brought renewed attention to the Hirshhorn 
Museum's comprehensive collection of his works. In addition 
to numerous mentions in the print media and a local news 
report taped at the Hirshhorn, the "News Hour with Jim 
Lehrer," as an appreciation, ran a five-minute live interview 
with Dr. Judith Zilczet, Curator of Paintings. Zilczer orga- 
nized an exhibition of 50 key works by de Kooning from the 
museum's collection — a 90th birthday homage — that was 
seen during 1993—94 in Washington, Barcelona, Houston, 
Boston, and Atlanta. 

The Hirshhorn's six curators continued to visit galleries 
and studios, serve on panels, consult art periodicals, and pur- 
sue scholarly research to keep abreast of contemporary art. 
Neal Benezra, Assistant Director for Art and Public Programs, 
was one of 3 Americans invited to join an international panel 
of 33 art experts whose mission was to propose 99 artists for 
"Movements in Time," a large-scale exhibition to mark the 
millennium in Bonn, Germany. Also this year Benezra and 
Assistant Curator Olga Viso, who had collaborated on the 
1996 exhibition "Distemper: Dissonant Themes in the Art of 
the 1990s," began work on their second joint show, to mark 
the Hirshhorn's 25th-anniversary in 1999. The exhibition, 
expected to travel to at least one European venue, will be 
titled "Regarding Beauty: Perspectives on Art Since 1950." 



National Air and Space Museum 



Donald D. Engen. Director 

In 1997 the National Air and Space Museum enjoyed its 
highest attendance of the decade, with nearly 9.2 million 
visitors. Significant progress was made toward making the 
Dulles Center a realiry and achieving our goal of opening the 
building by the end of 2003. This facility will provide the 
museum with space to house and restore its collection of 
airplanes and spacecraft. 

Collections and Research 

The Aeronautics Division continues to pursue a broad range 
of programs in research and publications. This year will mark 
the tenth anniversary of the History of Aviation series, edited 
by curator Von Hardesty. The two latest books in the series 
are Space and the American Imagination, by Howard McCurdy 
and Stalin's Aviation Gulag, written by L.L. Kerber and edited 
and translated by Von Hardesty. Recently, as reflected in the 
McCurdy book, the series has inaugurated a new list of titles 
related to space history. 



In preparation for the upcoming centennial of the Wright 
brothers' historic first flights in 1903, the Aeronautics 
Division of the National Air and Space Museum is planning 
and working on a number of projects on the Wright brothers. 
This past year, curatot Peter Jakab made significant progress 
on an edited volume of the Wright brothers' own published 
writings. Although the Wright's personal letters, diaries, and 
technical notebooks have been available in published form for 
many years, the numerous articles and technical papers that 
they published during their lives have never been compiled. 
Most of these writings by the famous brothets are in obscure, 
defunct, or hard-to-find journals and magazines. Jakab's 
volume, which will be published by the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Press in 1999, will assemble these valuable materials in 
annotated form for the first time. 

Curator Michael Neufeld shared the 1997 Dexter Prize, 
given by the Society of the History of Technology, for his 
book The Rocket and the Reich. Curator Rick Leyes has com- 
pleted his wotk on the history of small gas-turbo jet engines. 

Members of the Space History Division pursued research on 
a variety of topics ranging from the early career of rocket 
pioneer Robert Goddard to the history of Soviet space suits. 

In May 1997 the museum opened "Space Race," a major 
exhibition that traced fifty years of international competition 
and, more recently, cooperation between the United States 
and the former Soviet Union. The exhibit was curated by the 
members of the Space History Division and designed and 
executed by the Exhibits division. It consists of five sections: 
Military Origins of the Space Race, Secret Eyes in Space, 
Racing to the Moon, Exploring the Moon, and A Permanent 
Presence in Space. It contained a stunning and unique array of 
artifacts. These included a full-scale mock-up of the Hubble 
Space Telescope, a Soviet Merkur spacecraft, and a camera 
identical to those used in the first U.S. reconnaissance satel- 
lite. As part of the opening of "Space Race," the Museum 
hosted a symposium on the history of the Corona satellite 
reconnaissance program. 

Complementing "Space Race" is a new IMAX film, Mission 
to Mir, which also premiered in May 1997. Featuring U.S. 
astronauts Norman Thagard and Shannon Lucid and their cos- 
monaut companions, the film depicts the human aspects of 
the joint U.S. -Russian space missions and takes viewers into 
the snug interior of the Mir space station. 

The Space History Division and the Center for Earth and 
Planetary Studies (CEPS) developed a unit in the "Where 
Next, Columbus?" exhibition consisting of two monitors to 
display data from the Mars Pathfinder mission. The monitors 
are updated daily so that museum visitors can view the latest 
Mars images and rover "movies" from Pathfinder. 

Center for Earth and Planetary Studies staff developed a 
new display for the Venus area of NASM's Exploring the 
Planets Gallery. This upgrade used new Magellan radar images 
of the surface and a variety of more recent geologic interpreta- 
tions to better inform gallery visitors about the nature of 
"Earth's sister planet." 



52 



Through the Regional Planetary Image Facility, CEPS 
continued its mandate to serve NASA-funded Principal 
Investigatots, other interested researchers, and the general 
public by providing access to catalogued collections of imag- 
ing data from all American spacecraft mission. 

Among the items added to the museum's collection this 
year was a set of Smithsonian 150th anniversary commemora- 
tive coins flown on the Space Shuttle (STS-79) mission in 
1996. These were the first U.S. commemorative coins to be 
flown in space, and were presented to the directors of both 
NASM and the NMAH in a ceremony at NASM in December 
1996. The Space History Division also arranged for the loan of 
numerous objects, including the loan of the Apollo 14 Com- 
mand Module to the Astronaut Hall of Fame in Titusville, 
Florida. The Aeronautics Division added an Allied Signal 85- 
12(H) auxiliary propulsion unit and an AGM-129 to the pro- 
pulsion collection along with a cruise missile with a turbojet 
engine that flew halfway around the world and was designed 
by the Williams Company. 

The museum also acquired two suits used by Ametican 
astronauts on Mir: the spacesuit worn by Norm Thagard, and 
one designed to imitate the effects of gravity on the muscles 
and bones during long spaceflights used by Shannon Lucid 
during her six-month stay on Mir. 

In February 1997 NASM received the Herbert Stephen 
Desind Collection that consists of 84 cubic feet of material, 
primarily photographs of aerospace topics. The bulk of the 
material relates to U.S. space exploration, including extensive 
photo files on crewed missions through the Space Shuttle. 
The collection is one of the most thorough in its coverage of 
this field and contains both NASA and manufacturer- 
generated photographs. 

The Collections Division has five major ongoing restora- 
tion projects at the Paul E. Garber Preservation, Restoration, 
and Storage Facility. A World War II RAF Hawker Hurri- 
cane, a World War II Japanese Aichi Sieran, a World War I 
vintage Neiuport 28, a Soviet SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air 
missile, and Betty Skelton's famous Pitts S-lC "Little Stinker" 
are being restored. In addition, several loans have required ex- 
tensive work in the shop including the Waterman Aerobile, 
the Fulton Airphibian, and the Berliner Helicopter. 

Other major projects of the Collections Division include 
the creation of the first conservation lab within the Paul E. 
Garber Preservation, Restoration, and Storage Facility and the 
building of another temperature-and-humidity-controlled 
storage container for the NASM art and poster collection. 

Exhibits and Public Services 

In addition to those mentioned above, the Exhibits Division 
designed and executed several other exhibits. 

"Women and Flight," a temporary, traveling exhibition, 
opened in June 1997. The exhibition showcased the photo- 
graphs of NASM staff photographer Carolyn Russo. Russo 
traveled around the country and as far away as Russia to cap- 
ture images of women fliers as diverse as an astronaut, Eskimo 



bush pilot, aerobatic pilot, aerial artist, skywriter, hang 
glider, airline pilot, and many other women ranging in age 
from 18 to 85. The photogtaphs were accompanied by excerpts 
from interviews Russo conducted with the women about their 
experiences and their love of flight. 

In November 1996 a number of exhibits opened around the 
museum commemorating the 50th annivetsary of the U.S. Air 
Force, including a Korean War era F-86 Sabre jet fighter, a 
collection of models of Air Force aircraft, and extensive works 
of art from the Air Force collection. 

The Spirit of Texas, the helicopter that Ross Perot, Jr., and 
J. Coburn flew around the world in 1982, was installed in the 
"Pioneets of Flight" gallery. Other artifacts that have gone on 
display include a motorcycle that aircraft builder Glenn Cur- 
tiss built in 1906 (in "Early Flight") to test an engine for 
aircraft use (he also set a world land speed record with it) and 
a GOES weathet satellite model (in "Looking at Earth"). A 
popular exhibit on aerobatic champion Patty Wagstaff, featur- 
ing her Extra 260 aircraft was reinstalled. The balloon gon- 
dola in which aeronaut Steve Fossett set distance records was 
on short-term display. 

In April at the National Science Teachers Association Con- 
vention in New Orleans, the Education Unit presented "Ex- 
ploring the Planets," an on-line gallery, and related student 
activities. They also conducted workshops on "Exploring the 
Planets" to show teachets and curriculum specialists how to 
use the museum's internet resources for planetary studies. A 
third offering was a course on "How Things Fly," which gave 
teachers a basic understanding of the principles of flight and 
how to use the resources of the museum, especially the "How 
Things Fly" exhibition. 

The Education Unit developed two new educational publi- 
cations for the "How Things Fly" exhibition: a Field Tup 
Guide to assist teachers who are planning bring a class to the 
museum and a visitor guide that applies the science in the 
exhibition to selected aircraft in the collection. 

In FY 1997, the museum's Docent Program gave school 
tours and demonstrations to more than 13,000 students and 
reached tens of thousands of the general visitots through 
the public tours. They also gave tours to 8,184 visitors to 
Paul E. Garber Preservation, Restoration, and Storage 
Facility. 



National Museum of African Art 

Rosiyn A. Walker, Director 

The National Museum of African Art celebtates the rich 
visual traditions and extraordinarily diverse cultures of Africa 
and fosters an appreciation of African art and civilizations 
through its collections, exhibitions, research, and public 
programs. 



>'? 



Acquisitions 

Among the most significant art works acquired by the 
museum in the past year were several works of modern art 
(a mixed-media assemblage, "The Notorious Green Car," by 
the South African artist Willie Bester (b. 1956), and the three- 
meter-high sculpture "Erosion" by El Anatsui of Ghana (b. 1944) 
and important works of traditional African art (a striking 
Ibibio mask from Nigeria, a highly original Dogon sculpture 
from Mali, and a superb carved altar tusk from the Benin 
Kingdom in Nigeria). In addition, a collection of some 5,000 
black-and-white photographs of South Africa by Constance 
Stuart Larrabee, a renowned and frequently exhibited photog- 
rapher, were donated to the museum by the artist. 

Exhibitions 

The first level of the National Museum of African Art houses 
several permanent exhibitions drawing on the museum's 
collection: "Images of Power and Idenrity," "The Art of the 
Personal Object," and "The Ancient West African City of 
Benin, A.D. 1300-1897." Another popular installation, 
"Purpose and Perfection: Pottery as a Woman's Art in Central 
Africa," closed in July after being on view for six years. In 
addition, in collaboration with the Museum of Fine Arts, 
Boston, the museum offers "The Ancient Nubian City of 
Kerma, 2500—1500 B.C.," a loan exhibition of works from the 
permanent collection of the Museum of Fine Arts, featuring 
objects from Kerma, an ancient Nubian city that was located 
on the Nile River. The exhibition was organized by the Museum 
of Fine Arts, Boston, and its Department of Ancient Egyptian, 
Nubian, and Near Eastern Art; all objects are from the Harvard 
University— Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Expedition. 

Also located on the first level is the Point of View Gallery, 
which presents small temporary exhibitions that focus on 
specific themes or objects. This gallery was the site of four 
exhibitions this year. "Ceramic Gestures: New Vessels by 
Magdalene Odundo" featured the work of the Kenyan 
ceramist. The critically acclaimed "A King and His Cloth: 
King Asantehene Agyeman Prempeh I" featured an important 
textile as well as a multimedia presentation that invited 
visitors to explore the history and symbols of the magnificent 
adinkra cloth. The museum also cosponsored with The 
Smithsonian Associates an original play that brought both 
King Prempeh and the cloth to life. In additon, the museum 
offered "Adire: Resist-Dyed Cloths of the Yoruba," featuring a 
collection of newly acquired adire cloths from Nigeria. The 
year came to a close with the opening of the exhibition, "Gifts 
to the National Collection of African Art." 

The museum's second-level gallery was the site of two im- 
portant exhibitions of traditional African art: "Memory: Luba 
Art and the Making of History," organized by the Museum for 
African Art in New York City, and 'Treasures from Tervuren: 
Selections from the Belgian Royal Museum for Central Africa." 
The U.S. tour of "Treasures from Tervuren" was coordinated 
by The Tribal Art Centre of Basel, Switzerland. 



Also, this year three contemporary works of art by Nigerian 
artist Sokari Douglas Camp were installed in the museum's 
pavilion. The kinetic sculptures, which "perform" twice each 
hour during museum hours, were part of the museum's loth 
anniversary celebration. 

Education and Outreach 

The museum's educational offerings, which spring from the 
permanent collections and special exhibitions, provide audiences 
with provocative and insightful views of the world of African 
art. An array of tours, workshops, and focus programs gave 
students of all ages their first encounters with real works of 
African art. One highlight was an all-day symposium, "Four 
Rivers of Africa: Historical Archaeology and Art in Africa," 
which drew a standing room only audience. Papers from the 
symposium will be published by the museum. 

In addition, workshops and demonstrations by practicing 
artists engaged attentive audiences eager to meet and talk with 
pracricing artists. For example, well-known Kenyan ceramist 
Magdalene Odundo, whose work was featured in the exhibition 
"Ceramic Gestures: New Vessels by Magdalene Odundo," visited 
the museum several times. The museum also sponsored "African 
Ceramics in Perspective," a series of six programs focusing on the 
ceramic arts of Africa and the African disapora. 

Another highlight of the year was the museum's participa- 
tion in the Quadrangle-wide party celebrating 10 years on the 
National Mall. 

The museum continues to make itself accessible to people 
with special needs. Tours for hard-of-hearing visitors were 
made possible through a portable FM Assistive Listening Sys- 
tem. This system also allowed hard-of-hearing visitors to par- 
ticipate in educational programs in the workshop and lecture 
hall. Sign language interpreters for deaf visirors were available 
upon request for all museum programs. 

Publications 

Throughout the year, the museum published informational 
materials to accompany exhibitions. This included brochures 
relating to "Ceramic Gestures: New Vessels by Magdalene Odun- 
do," "Memory: Luba An and the Making of History," "A King 
and His Cloth: Asantehene Agyeman Prempeh I," "Adire: Resist- 
Dyed Cloths of the Yoruba," and "Gifts to the National Collec- 
tion of African Art;" and a family guide published in conjunction 
with "Memory: Luba Art and the Making of History." 

In addition, the museum published a catalog in conjunc- 
tion with the exhibition "The Ancient Nubian City of Kerma, 
2500—1500 B.C." The fully illustrated book was written by 
Timothy Kendall, associate curator at the Museum of Fine 
Arts, Boston, which loaned the objects in the exhibition to 
the National Museum of African Art. 



Photographic Archives and Library 

The museum continues to be a leading research and reference 
center for the visual arcs of Africa. The Warren M. Robbins 



54 



Library, a branch of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, con- 
tains more than 20,000 volumes on African art and material 
culture. The Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives specializes 
in the collection and preservation of visual materials on African 
art, culture, and the environment. This year the Archives 
received a donation of the Michael and Lona Kenney Col- 
lection of black-and-white prints and negatives taken by 
Dr. Michael Kenney in the Belgian Congo in the 1930s. In 
addition, the Archives purchased an album with more than 53 
albumen prints from the Belgian Congo, dating to the 1880s; 
a vintage album with 146 images from the Nupe region in 
Nigeria dating to 1900— 1905; and an album with 152 prints 
from Ghana, dating to around 1890— 1920. 



National Museum of American History 



Spencer R. Crew, Director 

The National Museum of American History dedicates its col- 
lections and scholarship to inspiring a broader understanding 
of our nation and its many peoples. Drawing on more than 17 
million objects in its collections and the holdings of its 
Archives Center, the museum creates learning opportunities, 
stimulates imaginations, and presents challenging ideas about 
our nation's past through original research, exhibitions, publi- 
cations, and public programs. 

In FY 1997 the museum presented a wide range of exhibi- 
tions reflecting the breadth of its collections and the diversity 
of the American historical experience. In honor of the 
Smithsonian's 150th anniversary, the museum contributed a 
large number of its collections and staff to the Institution's 
traveling exhibition, "America's Smithsonian" and also orga- 
nized "Mr. Smithson's Legacy," an exhibit highlighting the 
history of the exchange of scientific ideas between the United 
States and the United Kingdom. An international video 
conference with the Science Museum of London was held on 
October 22, 1996, in conjunction with this exhibition. 

"Red, Hot, and Blue: A Salute to American Musicals" was 
a joint project between the Museum of American History and 
the National Portrait Gallery. This major exhibit interpreted 
the history of the Broadway and Hollywood musical from its 
immigrant roots in 19th-century vaudeville, through its 
heyday on both "The Great White Way" and the silver screen, 
to its redefined cultural role today. Curators Dwight Blocker 
Bowers and Amy Henderson produced the catalogue for the 
exhibit and created a traveling version. The exhibit was 
supported by Discover® Card. 

The invention and evolution of the electric guitar was the 
topic of "From Frying Pan to Flying V: The Rise of the 
Electric Guitar." This display, produced by the museum's 
Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation 
showcased inventors, makers, and players involved in the 



process of inventing and popularizing the electric guitar. 
Historic instruments, photographs, and guitar accessories 
illustrated how innovators combined the guitar with a pickup 
(sensor) and amplifier to create a new instrument and a new 
sound that profoundly changed popular music — blues, 
country, jazz, and rock and roll — in the 20th century. 

"Twenty-Four Hours In Cyberspace" was a photo exhibition 
that depicted how the Internet affects people's lives. The photos 
were taken by more than 150 photojournalists who, on February 
8, 1996, fanned out across the globe to document how people use 
the Internet. These compelling photographs presented an in- 
timate and emotional portrait of people whose lives have been 
influenced and changed by the on-line revolution. 

Another documentary photography exhibit, "Serving 
Home and Community: Women of Southern Appalachia," 
featured 60 photogtaphs taken by Barbara T Bierne and 
showing women who have survived the hardship of life in 
the Southern Appalachians. Taken in 1990, the portraits 
depict women who have coped with hard lives and economic 
hardships to support and care for their families. Beirne's richly 
detailed photographs were accompanied by quotations drawn 
from interviews in which these women told their grim but 
inspiring stories. 

The 50th anniversary of baseball legend Jackie Robinson's 
first game with the Brooklyn Dodgers (April 15, 1947) was 
commemorated with a showcase exhibit, "Jackie Robinson 
and the Integration of Major League Baseball." The exhibit 
explored Robinson's career and its historical significance in 
spawning racial integration in American sports. The exhibit 
included Robinson's Dodgers uniform shirt, autographed 
baseballs, Rookie of the Year button, baseball cards, and 
photographs of the Negro Leagues. 

Ella Fitzgerald and Duke Ellington, seminal figures in the 
history of American music, were featured in two exhibits. 
"Ella Fitzgerald: Photographs by Herman Leonard" presented 
samples from the jazz photographer's notable collection of - 
images, which in this exhibit, included Fitzgerald at the Olym- 
pia Theatre in Paris and the Downbeat Club in New York City 
with luminaries such as Duke Ellington and Benny Goodman. 
The annual "Duke Ellington Youth Art Exhibition: Artistic Im- 
pressions of Ellington" presented the artistic work of students 
from public schools in the District of Columbia. Based on the 
museum's model Duke Ellington Curriculum Project and inspired 
by the rich collection of Ellington materials in the museum's Ar- 
chives Center, the displayed art revealed the varied interpreta- 
tions that students created about Ellington and his times. 

"American Families in Photographs" presented an intimate 
portrait of some of the many ways that American families 
have appeared in photography since the mid-nineteenth cen- 
tury. The images reflected both continuity and change in 
family life over the past 150 years. The exhibit included 
photographs from the Smithsonian's collections and others 
solicited from families nationwide. All submitted 
photographs were accessible through interactive kiosks. The 
exhibit was supported by Discover® Card. 



S5 



American families were also celebrated in the exhibition 
"The Family Car," which displayed classic cars from the 
museum's collection in settings depicting typical family life. 
Kids' cars and home photos showcasing the ways American 
have made automobiles a part of the family since the 1920s 
were also on display. 

The museum's interests in the history of science and the 
history of medicine were supported by two significant exhibits. 
"Science Projects: A Taxonomy of Images" illustrated the use 
of photography to promote and popularize science. Culled 
from the museum's Science Service collection, the 
photographs offered important insights about the authority of 
science, modernity,, invention, gender relations, and the power 
of journalistic photographs. "About Faces: The Post-War 
Boom in Craniofacial Knowledge" explored the assumptions 
Americans have about what a "normal" face looks like and 
how these assumptions are influenced by complex relation- 
ships among society, economics, aesthetics, and especially, the 
state of medical science. The exhibit further explained how 
the application of medical research to everyday life in the past 
fifty years has changed our perceptions and understanding of 
the way we look. 

The museum's commitment to outreach and education was 
underscored by the launch of its new website, which featured 
virtual exhibitions, special activities for children and teachers, 
music files, finding aids for archival materials, and more. 
Museum visitors and electronic audiences joined in a rwo-week 
festival, "Electrified, Amplified, and Deified: The Electric 
Guitar and Its Makers and Players." Programs included an 
exhibition of guitars from rhe collection of Scott Chinery, a 
symposium, films, informal talks with guitar makers, an inter- 
view with legendary guitarist and inventor Les Paul, evening 
concerts with guitar greats, and a video conference. 

Beyond Category: The Duke Ellington Education Kit was com- 
pleted and distributed to classrooms throughout the country. 
This one-of-a-kind curriculum for grades 6 and up explores 
Ellington's life and music in the context of social and cultural 
history. Activities incorporated music, history, art, drama, 
creative expression, and language arts. The kit took much of 
its inspiration from The Duke Ellington Youth Project, a con- 
tinuing collaboration between the museum and the District of 
Columbia public schools. 

The Lemelson Center continued "Innovative Lives," its 
lecture-demonstration series that introduced middle school 
students to the lives of inventors and entrepreneurs. Speakers 
included Wilson Greatbatch, the inventor of the implantable 
cardiac pacemaker, and Patsy Sherman, whose discoveries led 
to the development of Scotchgard. To celebrate the 150th 
birthday of Thomas Edison, the museum joined the Henry 
Ford Museum and Greenfield Village in Michigan in an 
electronic field trip for middle students. 

The museum's Hands-on Science Center debuted its new 
"Water Wonderworks" curriculum kit and activity. Designed for 
students in grades 5 through 8, the free program focused on 
drinking water quality, distribution systems, and wastewater 



treatment. The program also included the Hydro-Investigator 
Casebook, which contains pre- and post-visit classroom ac- 
tivities and extension opportunities. These programs were 
developed with the support of the American Chemical 
Society, with additional assistance from the Hach Company. 

"La Francophonie Noire: The Roots and Evolution of the 
Franco-Creole Diaspora in the Americas" was this year's 
African American History Month program, produced by the 
museum's Program in African American Culture. The film 
festival, oral histories, demonstrations, music and dance per- 
formances, symposium, and cultural marketplace revealed the 
links between modern American culture and the Creole cul- 
ture of Louisiana, the Caribbean, and Africa. The Program in 
African American Culture also produced, in commemoration of 
the birthday of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., "Of Songs, Peace, 
and Struggle," a program featuring civil rights activists Anne 
Braden and C. T Vivian, entitled "Two Voices in the Ongoing 
Struggle for Freedom and Justice." The SNCC Freedom Singers 
presented "Songs of Struggle." The Duke Ellington Youth 
Project, also organized by the Program in African American 
Culture, included the previously mentioned exhibition and the 
"Duke Ellington Youth Festival," a day devoted to student 
poetry readings and performance inspired by Ellington. 

Concerts by the Smithsonian Jazz Masterworks Orchestra 
and the ensembles of the Smithsonian Chamber Music Society 
brought audiences great music and performances illuminated 
by the study of music history. The Chamber Music Society 
inaugurated "Future Music," a collaboration in education 
with Washington's Levine School of Music that brought 
students to the museum for performances, workshops, and 
tours of the Collection of Musical Instruments. The Smithson- 
ian Jazz Masterworks Orchestra continued its series highlight- 
ing the works of seminal figures in American jazz. Concerts 
included "Celebrating Benny Carter on His 90th," "Blues and 
the Abstract Truth: The Music of Oliver Nelson," and, 
"Monk's Mood and Early Autumn: Thelonius Monk and 
Woody Herman." Discussions and scholarly essays accom- 
panied each performance. 

Other programs in the "American Sampler Series" and 
"American Song Series" emphasized combined scholarship, 
curriculum materials, and public performances as a way of 
focusing attention on the expressive traditions of the 
American people and their rich histories. Programs included 
"Swingtime at the Smithsonian" featuring Kansas City's 
Claude "Fiddler" Williams, Keter Betts, and Steve Abshire. In 
conjunction with the exhibition "Women of Southern Appala- 
chian a program of the same title featured Daron Douglas and 
Betty Smith performing on fiddle, dulcimer, guitar, autoharp, 
and psaltery; Ann Grimes and folklorist Joe Hickerson dis- 
cussing and playing traditional songs; singer-songwriter 
Hazel Dickens; and photographer Barbara Bierne. 

The "American Song Series" presented "The Streets of New 
York" in which members of the American Song Company 
explored the early years of the American musical in the songs 
of Jerome Kern, Irving Berlin, and others. This program was 



56 



held in conjunction with the exhibition, "Red, Hot & Blue: A 
Salute to American Musicals." A tribute to producer Vincente 
Minnelli, "That's Entertainment," was also held in conjunc- 
tion with the exhibition. 

"OuiStory." a new series of family programs designed to 
bring history- to life for museum visitors from pre-schoolers to 
adults through storytelling and hands-on activities, was 
launched this year. The first session, held in conjunction with 
Hispanic Heritage Month, was devoted to "Santos of Puerto 
Rico." Other notable education, outreach, and public programs 
included a celebration of National Chemistry Week. National 
Engineer's Week Future City Competition. National History Day. 
the Kids Learning History Conference, the Transportation in 
American History Symposium, and the American Landmarks Con- 
ference. "The People, the Language: Preserving Endangered 
Languages of the United States," an exploration of the en- 
dangered Native languages of the United States and their 
preservation through the arts and innovative educational 
efforts, was cosponsored by the museum's American Indian 
Program. The museum's popular "Looking American Series" 
featured informal discussions with staff about clothing and 
textile objects collected, studied, and cared for by the 
museum. The annual Holiday Celebration brought more than 
one hundred musicians, craftspeople, storytellers, dancers, and 
artists into the museum in order to demonstrate the wide 
variety of holiday traditions celebrated and enjoyed by 
Americans at the end of the year. 



National Museum of the American Indian 

W. Richard West, Director 

The National Museum of the American Indian is dedicated to 
the preservation, study, and exhibition of the life, languages, 
literature, history, and arts of the Native peoples of the Western 
Hemisphere. In consultation, collaboration, and cooperation with 
Native peoples, the museum works to protect and foster their 
cultures by reaffirming traditions and beliefs, encouraging artis- 
tic expression, and providing a forum for Indian voices. Through 
innovative public programming research, and collections, the 
museum works to fulfill its mission. 

Construction of the NMAI's Cultural Resources Center in 
Suitland, Maryland, continued on schedule this year. The Cul- 
tural Resources Center, which is the heart of the National 
Museum of the American Indian, has three purposes: to house, 
protect, and care for the more than 800, ooo objects in its col- 
lection; to serve as the focal point for research, community ser- 
vice, and outreach; and to support the museum's public 
facilities on the National Mall and at the George Gustav 
Heye Center in New York City. The center will open in 1999. 

The NMAI was awarded a $500,000 challenge grant by the 
Kresge Foundation to help fund construction of the Cultural 
Resources Center. Before the grant is disbursed, the foundation is 



requiring the NMAI to raise more than Si. 5 million in needed 
construction funds in order to encourage private giving. 

"Woven by the Grandmothers: Nineteenth-Century 
Navajo Textiles from the National Museum of the American 
Indian" opened in October at the George Gustav Heye Cen- 
ter. This exhibition of some 45 spectacular examples of Navajo 
weavings from the museum's unparalleled collection is travel- 
ing to museums in Arizona and Washington, D.C., under the 
sponsorship of the Mobil Corporation. Efforts to further the 
museum's mission to "consult, collaborate, and cooperate with 
Native peoples" throughout the hemisphere were realized in a 
special training program held in conjunction with "Woven by 
the Grandmothers" in August. The program, which began in 
Window Rock, Arizona, the capital of the Navajo Nation, 
brought together several aspiring Navajo museum profes- 
sionals to learn about exhibition installation, conservation, 
and registration while the exhibition was on view at the 
Navajo Nation Museum. The Navajo trainees continued their 
instruction in Washington, D.C., when the exhibition tra- 
veled to the National Museum of Women in the Arts. The 
NMAI also reached out nationally with another exhibition, 
"Newborn Ancestors: The Art and Articles of Plains Indian 
Children," which went on view for a year beginning in March 
1997 at the San Francisco International Airport. 

On March 27, just two and a half years since the Center's 
opening in October 1994, attendance totaled one million. 
Weekly attendance soared during the summer months to 
13,000 visitors per week, a 54.5 percent increase over last 
summer's figures. Year-end attendance topped 600,000, 
almost double last year's attendance. 

The museum continued its commitment, under federal law 
and museum policy, to repatriate human remains and objects 
of religious and cultural patrimony to Native groups through- 
out the hemisphere. Among the most significant returns this 
year was 19 strands of wampum — Iroquois history documented 
in meticulously stranded shells — to the Haudenasaunee (Iroquois 
Confederacy) in May. This was the second return of wampum to 
the Iroquois people in less than year. 

A traditional Native American star-pattern quilt commis- 
sioned by the museum was installed in May in the Rayburn 
House Office Building on Capitol Hill. The quilt was made 
by Nellie Menard (Rosebud Sioux) and replaces a quilt pre- 
viously on loan from the Anacostia Museum Director W. 
Richard West and Representative Ralph Regula (R-Ohio), 
chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations, were 
on hand for the dedication. 



National Museum of Natural History 

Robert W. Fri, Director 

The opening of the Janet Annenberg Hooker Hall of Geology, 
Gems, and Minerals highlighted fiscal year 1997 at the Na- 
tional Museum of Natural History. At its inauguration, the 



57 



new hall represenced the most ambitious public-private 
partnership ever undertaken by the museum. Corporations, 
foundations, and individuals contributed more than $13 mil- 
lion toward its creation. Their generous support is reflected in 
every part of the new space, from the dazzling fiber-optic 
lighting in the Harry Winston Gallery and National Gem 
Collection, to the sections of actual mine walls incorporated 
into the Mine Gallery dioramas. 

The new hall also represents the museum's efforts to pro- 
vide visitors to the Mall with a rewarding experience. At the 
same time, staff were working to strengthen the museum's 
role as a national institution for science education. During the 
first year of the IWonder program — a three-year collaboration 
between the museum's Naturalist Center and students and 
faculty members at Indiana's Ball State University — nine 
Washington-area teachers developed innovative ways to help 
young scientists take science education into their own hands. 
The approach they created, which encourages students to pose 
questions and approach problems on their own, is being 
adapted for distance learning via the Internet. 

The museum's Natural Partners program also continued to 
expand the museum's reach, through initiatives like summer- 
school programs created in partnership with the Dallas-based 
company Voyager Expanded Learning and interactive science 
labs conducted in the museum's Electronic Classroom and, in- 
creasingly, from research sites in the field. 

The museum continued to expand its role in science educa- 
tion at the university and professional levels as well. In 1997 
museum scientists offered the undergraduate course Biodiver- 
sity and Wildlife Conservation at Duke University and Johns 
Hopkins. The curriculum, prepared by the Biodiversity pro- 
gram, with support for the Smithsonian's new Institute for 
Conservation Biology, covered such topics as the biology of 
small populations, species interaction and the generation of 
biodiversity, bioprospecting, and international conservation. 
Biodiversity 's Dynamics of Forest Fragments program also 
conducted a four-week summer course in conjunction with 
the Brazilian Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia. 
The course, Ecology of the Amazonian Rainforests, brought 
students together with museum botanists, entomologists, and 
zoologists to learn techniques of field research in the world's 
largest and most diverse ecosystem. 

Every summer since 1980, the Research Training program 
has offered outstanding undergraduates in systematic biology, 
geology, and anthropology an opportunity to learn about col- 
lections-based research by working side by side with museum 
scientists. Students and their advisors identify critical scien- 
tific questions, then design and conduct original research. In 
1997, 28 students from the United States, Belize, Mexico, 
Ecuador, Russia, and the United Kingdom researched topics 
ranging from the description of a new species offish found in 
the Cook Islands to the study of the Bencubbin meteorite for 
insights into the early evolution of Earth's solar system. To 
date, 338 students have taken part in the program. A recent 
survey showed that more than 70% of the alumni have 



entered graduate programs, most pursuing fields that build 
on their experiences at the museum. 

Graduate and postdoctoral students continued to con- 
tribute to virtually every one of the museum's scientific 
departments and programs. To give just one example from 
1997, Dr. Diego Rasskin-Gutman completed a two-year 
postdoctoral fellowship on the development of theoretical con- 
cepts of morphological design in vertebrates. Dr. Rasskin-Gut- 
man, whose work here was supported by the government of 
Spain, also edited a book on principles and applications of 
geometric morphometry. 

Highlights in research by curators and other staff scientists 
included the following: 

• Dr. Douglas Owsley, Anthropology, identified four 
skeletons from the 17th-century colony at Jamestown, Vir- 
ginia, as the oldest known remains of African Americans. 
The remains were recovered from a burial site decades earlier 
but had mistakenly been described as Native American. 

• Dr. Brian Schmidt, Vertebrae Zoology, took part in an 
expedition to the Mongolian Republic to collect and docu- 
ment bird species living in the rocky steppe west of Ulan 
Bator, the Gobi Desert, and mountains north and west of 
the desert. Boldbaatar Shagdarusen, a member of the Mon- 
golian Academy of Sciences, led the expedition. 

• Dr. Brian Huber, Paleobiology, served as microbiologist on 
the team that recovered the best-preserved record yet found 
of the asteroid strike that ended the Age of Dinosaurs. That 
record — a core sample recovered from below the ocean floor 
off the coast of Florida — is now the centerpiece of a 
museum exhibit describing Dr. Huber's research. 

• Dr. Clyde Roper, Invertebrate Zoology, undertook the 
second phase of a three-part quest to be the first person to 
see a giant squid alive in its habitat. Dr. Roper's research in 
the deep water of Kaikoura Canyon, off the coast of New 
Zealand's South Island, was posted daily to a giant-squid 
website, where it was followed avidly by schoolchildren 
throughout the United States and around the world. Although 
the giant squid remained elusive, Dr. Roper and his col- 
leagues documented previously little-known behaviors of 
sperm whales, the squid's only known predator. 



National Portrait Gallery 



Alan Fern, Director 

The National Portrait Gallery is dedicated to the exhibition 
and study of portraits of people who have made significant 
contributions to American history and culture and to the 
study of the artists who created such portraiture. The gallery 
sponsors a variety of scholarly and public activities for audiences 
interested in American art and American history. 



58 



Collections Acquisitions 

The gallery acquired the earliest recorded photographic 
porttait of abolitionist John Brown, a daguerreotype by- 
Augustus Washington. The purchase was made possible by a 
generous contribution from Betty Adler Schermer whose 
great grandfathet fought next to John Brown in Kansas. 
Other notable acquisitions included a self-portrait drawing by 
Jacob Lawrence, screen prints of Marilyn Monroe by Andy 
Warhol, the gallery's first acquisition of animation eels by the 
Walt Disney Studio, a sculpture of Irving Berlin, and paint- 
ings of Merce Cunningham, Joseph Brant, and Lionel 
Hampton. 

Research 

The gallery celebrated two years of presenting its collections, 
programs, and exhibitions to tesearchers and the public on 
the Internet. A monthly portrait quiz on America Online 
attracted a regular following of participants with gallery 
exhibition catalogues awarded to the winners. The website 
(http://ww-w.npg.si.edu) has received several awards that in- 
cluded CNET Best of the Web. Education Index Top Site. Lycos 
Top f7c. and TbirdAge Special Site. The Catalog of American 
portraits added collections in Oregon and the Dakotas to its 
tesearch database, which is accessible on the web. The Peale 
Family Papers submitted, and Yale University Press has ap- 
proved for publication, volume 5 of The Autobiography of 
Charles Willson Peale. 

Exhibitions 

"Red, Hot, & Blue: A Salute to American Musicals," a col- 
laboration between the National Potttait Gallery and the Na- 
tional Museum of American History, was a major exhibition 
presented at the Gallery from October 25, 1996 through July 
6, 1997, and was sponsored by Discover® Card with addition- 
al funding provided by The Shubert Foundation, the Ira and 
Lenore Gershwin Philanthropic Fund, Hal and Judy Prince, 
and the Smithsonian Institution Special Exhibition Fund. Ap- 
proximately 200,000 visitors (including Tony Bennett, Liza 
Minnelli, Carol Channing, and Gregory Peck) came to view 
the exhibition, and museum shop sales surpassed previous 
records. The lavishly illustrated book accompanying the ex- 
hibition became a Book of the Month Club alternate. Public 
programs offered in conjunction with the exhibition ranged 
from original musical performances at both museums to a 
"conversation" between curators Dwight Bowers and Amy 
Henderson and Broadway legend Hal Prince. The evening 
was cosponsored with The Smithsonian Associates and the Na- 
tional Museum of American History, and was videotaped for 
broadcast on the Ovation arts cable network. The curators are 
developing a touring version of the exhibition with the Smith- 
sonian Institution Traveling Service and a documentary film 
spotlighting the role of musicals in American culture. 

"Edith Wharton's World: Portraits of People and Places" 
marked the 100th anniversary of the publication of Wharton's 



book The Decoration of Houses, and featured artifacts that 
reflected the writer's cosmopolitan life. Support for this 
exhibition was provided by The Citibank Private Bank, Ms. 
Charlotte Thotne Bordeaux, Dr. Thomas H. Maren, and the 
Smithsonian Institution Special Exhibition Fund; in-kind 
support was provided by Schumacher® and House Beautiful 
magazine. "Mathew Brady's Portraits: Images as History, 
Photography as Art" was the first comprehensive study in this 
century of Brady's entire career. The exhibition included early- 
daguerreotypes, majestic Imperial photographs, and the tiny 
cartes-de-visites that were made by the millions at the time of 
the Civil Wat. Generous support was provided by Siemens 
with additional funding from The Marpat Foundation, the 
Smithsonian Institution Exhibition Fund, and the Smithson- 
ian Scholarly Studies Program. Portraits from the gallery's col- 
lection in "Breaking Racial Barriers: African Americans in the 
Harmon Foundation Collection" recreated the 1944 exhibition 
organized by the Harmon Foundation to combat racial pre- 
ludice. "Le Tumulte Noir: Paul Colin's Jazz Age Portfolio" 
featured a colorful portfolio of lithographs by Paul Colin 
celebrating Josephine Baker and the jazz craze in 1920s Paris. 

Education 

The gallery continues to reach out to new audiences and to 
share its collections and mission with Americans who are un- 
able to visit. The education department offered a variety of 
shows, lectures, and tours for senior adults presented at the 
gallery or at sites such as nursing homes, adult day-care 
centers, etc. These focussed on themes and subjects suggested 
by the gallery's permanent collection and special exhibitions. 
Portraits in Music programs brought back the music of the 
audience's youth, featuring artists such as Irving Berlin, 
George Gershwin, Cole Porter, Lerner and Lowe, Duke Elling- 
ton and WC. Handy. Illuminated Lectures brought seniors face 
to face with American hiscory, with lectures such as "Posing 
for the Presidency," "Leading Ladies: Women and Reform in 
the United States," and "The Age of Optimism." Programs 
were offered for third- through twelfth-grade students, along 
with workshops for teachers, presented either at the school or 
in the gallery. 

Special Projects 

Susan W. Dryfoos's film The Line King: The Al Hirschfeld Story 
made its Washington, DC, premiere at the gallery. Black 
Broadway, an original "Cultures in Motion" musical produc- 
tion, was presented in conjunction with "Red, Hot & Blue." 
Singers, dancers, and actors highlighted the history of black 
music and dance on Broadway, and captivated an audience of 
unprecedented size. NPG and Discovery Channel cohosted a 
behind-the-scenes tour on the theme of Presidents Day for 
members of Congress and their families. In March Dorothy- 
Height, president of the National Council of Negro Women, 
was interviewed by Marc Pachter in the series "Living Self- 
Portraits." Hirschfeld also appeared in this series. The Prime 



J9 



Minister of Australia, John Howard, and the Australian Am- 
bassador to the United States, toured the gallery. Sylvia Jukes 
Morris gave a lecture on her new biography of Clare Boothe 
Luce. Pulitzer Prize— winning author Saul Bellow was honored 
on the occasion of the gallery's acquisition of the portrait of 
him by Sarah Yuster and the author's 82nd birthday. 



National Postal Museum 



Jim Brum. Director 

The National Postal Museum, through its collection and 
library, is dedicated to the preservation, study, and presenta- 
tion of postal history and philately. The Museum uses research, 
exhibits, education and public programs to make this rich 
history available to a wide and diverse audience. 

A Good Year by Any Measure 

Fiscal Year 1997 proved to be an exceptionally challenging 
and satisfying year for the National Postal Museum. In the ef- 
fort to fulfill the Smithsonian Institution's mission to increase 
and diffuse knowledge, rhe staff of the National Postal 
Museum established ambitious goals and then pursued them 
with vigor and purpose. Time and again, the Museum's in- 
dividual departments fused their energy together to produce 
exemplary exhibitions, public programs, educational initia- 
tives, and scholarly works of superior quality. These new 
exhibitions and programs resulted in a 24.6% increase in 
attendance over Fiscal Year 1996. The 450,288 visitors to the 
National Postal Museum in Fiscal Year 1997 marked its 
highest attendance total ever. 

Certainly among the highlights for the year was achieving 
full sratus as a Smithsonian Institution national Museum. On 
October I, 1997, the Director of the National Postal Museum 
began reporting directly to the Smithsonian's Provost. The 
National Postal Museum also assumed its place within the in- 
ternational postal museum community as it joined the Inter- 
national Association of Transport and Communications 
Museums. Other members of this organization include the 
National Postal Museum of Canada, as well as the postal 
museums of Finland, Belgium, Brazil, France, Germany, 
Hungary, Ireland, Sweden, Spain, Poland, Switzerland, The 
Netherlands, the Czech Republic, and the United Kingdom. 
The National Postal Museum also created an international 
Council of Philatelists to advise the Museum on philatelic ex- 
hibits, publications, acquisitions, and public programs. 

Exhibitions 

Exhibitions at the National Postal Museum highlight 
America's rich postal history. The exhibit, curatorial, and col- 
lections management departments worked together, combin- 



ing scholarly research with the Museum's collections, historic 
photographs, and interactive devices to present a wide range 
of stories for the visitor to explore. In Fiscal Year 1997 the 
National Postal Museum celebrated the opening of several 
new exhibitions in its galleries. The Museum also increased 
its efforts to reach audiences outside Washington, D.C., creat- 
ing traveling exhibit panels and transporting objects to 
venues around the country. 

The National Postal Museum's first fully interactive ex- 
hibit — What's in the Mail for You! — opened to the public in 
November 1996. This 1,200-square-foot exhibition explores 
business mail and the principles of direct marketing using 
innovative educational technology. Visitors learn about the 
history and impact of the direct mail industry in American 
life through computer-based interactives and innovative 
special effects. 

The Museum's Rarities Vault showcased a spectacular array 
of important and unique philatelic objects from the national 
collections, other museums, and private collectors. Through 
the generous loan of Edward Siskin, Letters of a New Republic 
featured covers and letters recording rhe transfer of power in 
America from the British Parliamentary Post of colonial times 
to an independent U.S. post following the American Revolu- 
tion. The First Federal Postage Stamp, a sesquicentennial celebra- 
tion of the first official U.S. postage stamp, followed this 
exhibit and presented original issues, covers, and dies of the 
1847 f> rst federal stamp. 

New exhibits in The Art of Cards and Letters gallery spot- 
lighted the importance of personal correspondence and letters 
between family and friends and showcased creative envelope 
designs. Ties That Bind: The Immigrant Experience dramatized 
letters from recent American immigrants. These poignant 
letters demonstrated how written correspondence — in an age 
filled with communication choices — is still used to share emo- 
tional stories and evocative images. In May 1997 the gallery 
honored the winners of the Museum's third annual envelope- 
calligraphy contest, The Graceful Envelope. This year's theme, 
Pushing the Envelope, provided contestants with marvelous op- 
portunities to stretch their imaginations. Creative educational 
and public programs contributed to the success of these 
exhibitions. 

In conjunction with the release of his latest book, The His- 
tory of Envelopes, guest curator Maynard Benjamin examined 
the creation and growth of America's envelope manufacturing 
industry in Under Cover: The Evolution of the Envelope. This 
exhibition combined the National Postal Museum's collection 
of rare envelope-making patent models with historic images 
to celebrate the inventions of the 19th century that transformed 
society and daily life. 

Three additional exhibitions rounded out the year. Stamps of 
Colombia and the States featured selected pages of the John N. 
Taylor Collection reflecting the history of Colombia from 1859 
to 1907. New Deal Architecture examined post offices constructed 
during President Franklin D. Roosevelt's massive federal 
building boom. This unique period of federal architecture 



60 



became known as the "starved classical" era and reflected the 
Roosevelt Administration's propensity for simplicity and 
thrift. Finally, in conjunction with the International Chess 
Society, the Chess On Stamps exhibition presented a selection of 
stamps featuring chess themes, pieces, and noted players. 

The National Postal Museum also reached audiences 
beyond the Museum's galleries in Fiscal Year 1997. Pacific gj 
in San Francisco provided an ideal opportunity to share 
selected pieces from the national collections with an inter- 
national philatelic community. The Museum's contribution 
to the international philatelic exposition featured many spec- 
tacular objects including rarities from China, Japan, the 
Philippines, and Hawaii, die proofs made for the 1915 Panama- 
Pacific Exposition, and the wrapper used by Harry Winston 
to ship the Hope Diamond to the Smithsonian Institution in 
1958. 

Educational Initiatives and Public Programs 

The National Postal Museum's Education Department created 
innovative and imaginative curriculum for school groups, devel- 
oped exciting activities and interesting programs to entice 
broader audiences into the Museum, and served as an ever- 
vigilant advocate for the Museum's visitors. 

The Education Department welcomed more school groups 
into the Museum, conducted more student tours, and distri- 
buted more educational curriculum for classrooms than ever 
before. The Museum's docents conducted 213 scheduled stu- 
dent tours, serving 4,215 students in Fiscal Year 1997. In addi- 
tion, more than 17,000 students toured the Museum on their 
own using either the Museum's Self Guide for Very Young 
Visitors or the Check It Out! brochure for adolescents. The 
Museum's free curriculum materials continued to be extreme- 
ly popular. The Museum received 3,346 requests for the Postal 
Pack for Elementary Students. 1,947 orders for the Postal Pack for 
Secondary Students, and 1,945 requests for the Pen Friends cur- 
riculum guide. 

Fiscal Year 1997 also featured the creation of two new 
education initiatives, including Letters Prom Home, a free cur- 
riculum guide for advanced English as a Second Language 
(ESL) students. This curriculum was presented at a local con- 
ference for ESL teachers and was distributed electronically and 
by mail. Create a Postage Stamp Activity and Coloring Book, a fun 
and instructional guide to the development of a stamp, is 
being sold through the Museum's shop. 

Creative public programs continued to attract diverse 
audience to the Museum. These events explored the lives of 
Hispanic families, Chinese Americans, African Americans, 
and women as gleaned through their correspondence. Each of 
these well-attended programs filled the Museum's Discovery 
Center to capacity. The Education Department's film and lec- 
ture series included Hispanic Families Share the Importance of Let- 
ters, Triple Feature Movie Marathon. A Portrait of African 
American Labor in the Postal Service — 191} to the Present, Madame 
C. J. Walker: Mail Order Entrepreneur, Writing the History of 
Chinese American: Using Letters to Reclaim Lives, and How En- 



velopes Evolved: A Lecture and Slide Presentation. Workshop and 
family activities included Bringing Home the Ducks: Sketch and 
Scratch Workshop, Painting and Valentine Craft Workshop. Stamp- 
Ability: An All-Day Stamp Fest for Kids, and Boldly Fold: An 
Envelope Making Workshop. 

The Education Department also served as advocates for the 
visitors to the Museum. No group was more important to this 
effort than the 32 volunteer docents, seven "behind-the- 
scenes" volunteers and four interns. Together, the Education 
Department staff and its volunteer docents served as liaisons 
to the visitors, meeting and talking with them to ensure that 
new exhibit content is understandable to all and their 
Museum visit enjoyable. The Museum's docents guided 493 
tours serving 4,132 visitors. 

Collection Management 

The care and preservation ot the 13 million objects of the Na- 
tional Postal Museum collection required the Collection 
Management Department to perform myriad functions. These 
responsibilities encompassed collection management (catalog- 
ing, accountability, storage), registration (acquisitions and 
loans), designing and maintaining catalogue standards for the 
Museum's preservation and information systems, and perform- 
ing object research and management for all exhibitions. The 
Collections Management Department's primary goals for Fiscal 
Year 1997 and continuing into Fiscal Year 1998 include greater 
accountability, greater utilization and visibility, refinement, and 
better long-term care of the Museum's vast collections. 

The National Postal Museum's collecting policy was 
revised in January 1997 at the request of the Director. This 
modified policy instructs the Museum to collect objects in 
two principal areas — philatelic and postal history material 
from the United States and truly rare, unique, or historically 
significant international philatelic material. The Museum 
receives routine government transfers of U.S. philatelic 
material from the U.S. Postal Service, the Bureau of Engrav- 
ing and Printing, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 

The Collection Management Department, assisted by a 
talented and devoted volunteer staff, made significant 
progress in cataloging the accession backlog and inventorying 
special collections. The existing backlog was reduced from 
247 to 127 transactions totaling more than 150,000 objects. 
The Collection Management Department created a feasible 
schedule for the elimination of the backlog within seven years. 

The Collection Management Department also continued to 
refine the collection inventory in specific areas: 7,880 more 
U.S. plate proofs were inventoried, bringing the total to date 
to 14,370; more than 5,000 U.S. revenue stamps were inven- 
toried in 23 stock books; and the inventory of several special- 
ized collections, including Chinese die proofs, U.S. revenue 
die proofs, and postal history documents was completed. 

In conjunction with the Museum's curatorial staff, mem- 
bers of the Collection Management Department staff began a 
major reorganization of the entire collection to reflect a more 
logical order and to simplify access to individual objects. The 



CM 



reorganization project began with the U.S. specialized collec- 
tion and expanded to the U.S. plate proof collection, postal 
history-related documents, and the U.S. and international 
map collections. The Museum's three-dimensional objects 
were relocated to a unified area in storage. 

A finding guide was completed for the anonymous dona- 
tion of an archival collection of letters (ca. 1845-1851) relevant 
to the 1847 issuance of the first federal U.S. postage stamps. 
These forty-four pieces complement two 1847 letters already 
in the permanent collection and complete our knowledge of 
the 1847 issue. Further, the research for the finding guide to 
the Benjamin Lipsner collection of air mail flight documents 
was nearly completed. Finally, new research was initiated to 
create a finding guide to the Civil War cover collection that 
will present the sociopolitical history of the covers, as well as 
the personal and corporate histories of the printers of patriotic 
cachet envelopes. 

Chief among the Collection Management Department's 
preservation activities in Fiscal Year 1997 was the rehousing of 
premier collections for safe handling, storage, and conserva- 
tion treatment of Museum and loaned objects for exhibition. 
The effort to rehouse the U.S. plate proof collection continued 
in Fiscal Year 1997. Of the total of 17,000 plate proofs, 8,900 
were completed this year, leaving approximately 8,100 to be 
rehoused in the next fiscal year. Other collections re-housed in 
Fiscal Year 1997 included the Internal Revenue Stamp collec- 
tion of more than 3,000 objects, Chinese die proofs, Henry K. 
Jarrett's counterfeit collection of Postmaster provisional 
stamps, U.S. specialized collections, and seven envelope 
patent models for off-site storage. 

Special Events 

The National Postal Museum provided a distinctive and excit- 
ing setting for many special events throughout Fiscal Year 
1997. The elegant entrance to the Museum through the Postal 
Square's historic lobby and the visual excitement of the 
Museum's atrium created an extraordinary backdrop for guests 
to meet fellow associates, colleagues, and Postal Museum 
supporters. Such special events allow visitors to explore the 
Museum's exhibitions and collections in an enhanced 
environment. 

In Fiscal Year 1997 a number of distinguished corporations 
and organizations celebrated theit special events at the National 
Postal Museum including the Ptesidential Inaugural Com- 
mittee, the Sociecy of International Business Fellows, the 
Envelope Manufacturers Association, the Greater Washington 
Society of Association Executives, and the Service Employees 
International Union. The U.S. Postal Service held many 
special events, including the Helping Children Learn stamp 
issuance ceremony and the National Dog Bite Prevention Week 
Kickoff. 

The National Postal Museum's Director and staff were 
delighted that Vice President and Smithsonian Regent Al 
Gore attended both the Inaugural Ball and the Service 
Employees International Union reception. 



National Zoological Park 



Michael H. Robinson, Director 

In its 108th year, the primary missions of the National 
Zoological Park continue to be the advancement of science, 
conservation of biodiversity, and the education and recreation 
of the people. In fulfilling its mission, the Zoo is undergoing 
a transformation from a zoological park to a biological park 
that emphasizes the interdependence of plants, animals, and 
environments. The Zoo's new Amazonia Science Gallery 
exhibit and award-winning Internet website now introduce 
zoogoers and online visitors to the many scientific studies 
undertaken by Zoo and Smithsonian researchers that reveal 
the intricacies of the living world. The 163-acre Zoo site in 
Washington, D.C., is complemented by its 3,150-acre Conser- 
vation and Research Center in Front Royal, Virginia. 

April 16, 1997, marked the twenty-fifth anniversary of the 
arrival of giant pandas at the National Zoo. The gift of the 
giant pandas, Hsing-Hsing and Ling-Ling, was made to the 
people of the United States as a symbol of friendship and 
goodwill by the people of China following President Richard 
Nixon's "Trip for Peace" in February 1972. Twenty-seven-year- 
old Hsing-Hsing is the surviving animal of the original pair 
and is very likely the most famous zoo resident in the United 
States. It is estimated that as many as 75 million people (three 
million annually) have visited the Zoo's giant panda exhibit 
since 1972. 

The Amazonia Science Gallery, which opened in December 
1996, showcases biodiversity and the work of Smithsonian 
scientists. Included in the Gallery are displays about the com- 
plex variety of life in the Amazon rainforest; a study center 
that invites visitors to use microscopes to examine insect col- 
lections; and laboratories where working scientists investigate 
animal behavior, genetics, and nutrition. A focal point of the 
new exhibit is the "Earth Situation Room," which incorpor- 
ates projected satellite images and a computerized database 
that display geophysical, biological, and human factors that 
affect life on our planet. 

Zoo efforts to breed the endangered greatet one-horned 
Asian rhinoceros resulted in a double success. On September 
18, 1996, Chitwan, a female, was born to eleven-year-old 
Mechi; and on October 31, Himal, a male, was born to eleven- 
year-old Kali. These remarkable calves grew quickly and ex- 
ceeded the 1,000-pound mark within 10 months of birth. The 
propagation of this species in zoos is critical because only a 
few thousand of these rhinos still survive. 

The Friends of the National Zoo (FONZ) supported the 
Zoo with more than $1.5 million generated by concessions, and 
more than $500,000 from fund-raising efforts such as National 
ZooFari and Adopt a Species. In addition, FONZ volunteers 
provided 100,000 hours of service. Much of the work needed 
to run Zoo education programs is provided by FONZ volun- 
teers; these programs are supported financially by events such 



62 



as FONZ's Wildlife Arcs Festival. In 1997 these programs 
reached nearly 20,000 schoolchildren with self-guides, out- 
reach kits, and other materials. In addition, public education 
programs funded by FONZ Membership reached about 
71,000 children and adults. 

The Zoo's Conservation and Research Center in Front 
Royal, Virginia, and the Wilds, an animal conservation 
facility in Ohio, collaborated on the use of artificial insemina- 
tion (A/I) to produce four scimitar-horned oryx calves. The 
birth of the two males and two females between June 13 
and June 20 is an important advance in the conservation of 
this highly endangered species. These healthy calves repre- 
sent the largest number of oryx offspring ever produced by 
A/I. 

The conservation efforts of the National Zoo were featured 
in a special satellite-to-schools teleconference on October 29, 
1996, produced by Kurds Productions, Inc. "The Battle to 
Save Endangered Species" reached an estimated 3—5 million 
students in 11,000 schools across North America. Two of the 
species featured, the black-footed ferret and the Florida pan- 
ther, are alive today due, in part, to the collaborative efforts of 
National Zoo reproductive biologists. As an added feature to 
the day's activities, the U.S. Postal Service launched the 
endangered species stamp series at the National Zoo and 
provided a special cancellation, that read "National Zoologi- 
cal Park Station: Endangered Species" and featured a drawing 
of a black-footed ferret. 

The Zoo's Conservation and Research Center in Front 
Royal, VA, conducted a special course, "Advanced Conserva- 
tion Training," for 83 scientists, managers, graduate students, 
and conservation organization representatives. CRC staff 
trained participants in the latest conservation biology methods 
and theories, as well as in remote sensing, genetics, and 
biodiversity monitoring and sampling. Throughout 1997 
CRC staff conducted similar training sessions in China, 
Burma, Thailand, and Brazil. 

The Howard Hughes Medical Institute 1997 Pre-College 
Science Education Initiative for Science Museums, Aquaria, 
Botanical Gardens, and Zoos awarded a $100,000 four-year 
grant to the Zoo. The funds will support the updating of the 
Zoo's existing science education materials, development of 
new materials and activities for teachers, and expansion of the 
Teacher Workshop Program. 

The Zoo's Latino Program recruited Latino professionals 
to develop and promote science outreach programs for 
Latino communities. In 1997 Adrian Cerezo, Education/ 
Exhibit Fellow, was instrumental in developing the educa- 
tion/interpretation programs at the new Amazonia Science 
Gallery, and Carlos Ruiz-Miranda, Coordinator of the Zoo 
Latino Program, and Michelle Garcia, Education Special- 
ist, completed a three-year science outreach program with 
local schools. 



Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 



Irwin I. Shapiro. Director 

The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), head- 
quartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, pursues research in 
close collaboration with the Harvard College Observatory 
(HCO), with many staff members holding joint appointments 
and sharing in research projects. Together, the two obser- 
vatories form the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for 
Astrophysics (CfA) to coordinate related activities under a 
single director. Although both observatories retain their 
separate identities, with each responsible to its parent 
organization, they draw on the coordinated strengths of the 
two organizations and the combined staffs in seven research 
divisions: Atomic and Molecular Physics, High Energy- 
Astrophysics, Optical and Infrared Astronomy, Planetary 
Sciences, Radio and Geoastronomy, Solar and Stellar Physics, 
and Theoretical Astrophysics. In addition, the CfA has a 
department devoted to science education. 

Facilities 

Observational facilities include the multipurpose Fred 
Lawrence Whipple Observatory (FLWO) on Mt. Hopkins in 
Arizona and the Oak Ridge Observatory in Massachusetts. 
The major instrument on Mt. Hopkins is the Multiple Mirror 
Telescope (MMT), operated jointly with the University of 
Arizona. Also located at the FLWO are a 10-m-diameter reflec- 
tor to detect gamma rays, a 1.2-m imaging optical/infrared 
telescope, and a 1.5-m spectroscopic telescope; it also houses a 
1.3-m optical telescope, operated by the University of Mas- 
sachusetts and other partners, and an optical and infrared in- 
terferometer (IOTA), built in collaboration with the 
universities of Massachusetts and Wyoming and MIT's Lin- 
coln Laboratory. 

Major support facilities in Cambridge include a panoply of 
computers connected by a local-area network, a central en- 
gineering department, a machine shop, a large astronomical 
library, design and drafting capability, and in-house printing 
and publishing services. 

Special laboratories are maintained for the petrologic and 
mineralogic studies of meteorites and lunar samples; for the 
spectroscopy of atoms and molecules; and for the development 
of instrumentation, including advanced electronic detectors 
and atomic maser clocks. Major research endeavors include 
the development of a Submillimeter Array (SMA), and the 
conversion of the MMT to a single-mirror telescope 6.5 m in 
diameter. 

SAO instrumentation is also operating in space; for ex- 
ample, the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) is 
studying the Sun's corona as one of a suite of experiments 
aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) space- 
craft launched in 1995. Development of new instrumentation 
continues for other space missions, including the Advanced X- 



63 



ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) satellite and a variety of 
other X-ray instruments, as well as the Submillimeter Wave 
Astronomy Satellite (SWAS). 

Further, the Science Education Department conducts several 
programs designed to improve the teaching of precollege 
science and mathematics, partly through the use of examples 
from astronomy. These programs include the development of 
curriculum materials and videos, and the training of precollege 
educators. 

Numerous facilities serving the general astronomical com- 
munity are located at the CfA in Cambridge as well. The 
Institute for Theoretical Atomic and Molecular Physics, 
established in 1988 to attract and encourage talented graduate 
students to enter this field, emphasizes study of fundamental 
questions in atomic and molecular physics. Other services in- 
clude the International Astronomical Union's Central Bureau 
for Astronomical Telegrams and the Minor Planet Center, 
both of which disseminate information on astronomical dis- 
coveries worldwide. The gateway for SIMBAD, an internation- 
al astronomical computer database, is also located at the 
Cambridge site, as is Harvard's extensive collection of 
astronomical photographic plates, the largest in the world. In 
addition, SAO operates the Astrophysics Data System (ADS) 
on behalf of NASA. 

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has 
selected SAO to operate both the flight control center for 
AXAF and the AXAF Science Center, which will receive, 
analyze, and archive data from the spacecraft. SAO already 
provides Guest Observer Facilities for investigators using the 
Roentgen X-tay satellite (ROSAT), a ]oint venture of Ger- 
many, the United Kingdom, and the United States. 

Research Highlights 

Research during the past year (October I, 1996, to September 
30, 1997) included these highlights, detailed by CfA division. 

Atomic and Molecular Physics 

The Atomic and Molecular Physics Division maintains re- 
search programs in three general areas: laboratory 
astrophysics; fundamental atomic, molecular, and optical 
physics; and atmospheric physics. 

AMP scientists extended their measurements of molecular 
oxygen photoabsorption cross sections of the Herzberg I, II, 
and III band systems. A detailed understanding of these bands 
is important for interpretation of satellite-based observations 
of : nightglow and for overall understanding of the oxygen 
chemistry in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. 
These measurements will complement the definitive work by 
these scientists on the molecular oxygen Schumann-Runge 
bands and continua, which utilizes the vacuum-ultraviolet 
Fast Transit Spectrograph at the Physics Department of Im- 
perial College, London. 

Researchers developed and operated a second-generation 
dual noble gas maser, containing dense, cohabiting ensembles 



of 'He and '"'Xe atoms. The maser population inversions for 
the 3 He and '"'Xe ensembles are created by spin exchange col- 
lisions between the noble gas atoms and optically pumped 
rubidium vapor. Significantly improved frequency measure- 
ment precision was achieved, under 100-nanohertz uncertainty 
on the '"'Xe Zeeman transition in about 2 hours of signal 
averaging. This performance should allow for a world-class 
search for a '" Xe permanent electric dipole moment as a test 
of time-reversal symmetry in elementary particle interactions. 

The same researchers have been involved in clinical studies 
on the use of polarized noble gas for magnetic resonance imag- 
ing. (Medical applications are limited by the availability of 
polarized gas.) Recently, the CfA group developed a system to 
produce approximately one liter per hour of polarized 3 He or 
'"'Xe gas, following a design for which they received a patent 
with their University of Michigan colleagues in 1997. They 
also developed a sensitive Adiabatic Fast Passage system to 
measure noble gas polarization in order to investigate the factors 
that limit '"'Xe polarization created using diode laser arrays. 

Division scientists report improvements in stratospheric 
(ozone layer) measurements from the SAO balloon-based Far 
Infrared Spectrometer (FIRS-z). Researchers are now able to 
make comprehensive measurements of the important reactive 
chemistries affecting stratospheric ozone balance and to deter- 
mine which types of chemistry predominate at the various al- 
titudes in the sttatosphere. Through improved underlying 
spectroscopy, SAO is now able to measure the important, but 
elusive, chlorine nitrate compound. Researchers have success- 
fully flown the instrument with improved mid-infrared 
response, permitting measurements of several additional im- 
portant ozone-layer and greenhouse gases. 

High Energy Astrophysics 

The High Energy Astrophysics Division develops instrumen- 
tation for making observations from balloons, rockets, and 
satellites of high-energy (primarily X-ray) processes in the 
universe and analyzes and interprets the resultant data. 

Observations of six X-ray novae (XN) provide rather clear- 
cut evidence for the existence of black holes: In each case, the 
large and secure value of the mass function, fM > 3 M®, estab- 
lishes a hard lower limit to the mass of the compact primary, 
which exceeds the maximum mass of a neutron star. Now, 
new evidence gathered and interpreted by CfA scientists ap- 
pears to confirm that the collapsed stars in these XN possess 
an event horizon — the defining property of a black hole. This 
conclusion is based on the advection-dominated accretion 
flow (ADAF) model and on a comparative study of nine XN, 
four with black holes and five with neutron stars. X-ray data 
for these nine XN showed, without exception, that a black 
hole primary has a larger luminosity swing from quiescence to 
outburst than a neutron star primary. This result is as ex- 
pected if the former objects have evenc horizons that hide 
most of the thermal energy and if the latter objects lack an 
event horizon and must therefore re-radiate all the thermal 
energy that they accreted. 



64 



Opcical and X-ray observations have confirmed char the X- 
rav source 1E0657— 56 is a cluster of galaxies at a redshifc z = 
0.296. The measured temperature T = 17 keV = 2.0 ± 0.3 X 
108 K makes this cluster a strong candidate for the hottest 
known. The exiscence of such a cluster at the observed red- 
shift is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models 
involving a universe with the cricical density. The tempera- 
ture measures the depth of the gravitational-potential well 
and, together with a measurement of the radial distribution of 
the gas, the mass of the cluster. A knowledge of the number 
of clusters as a function of temperature can constrain the 
spectrum of density fluctuations in the early universe. The 
standard normalization for density fluctuations that produce 
clusters refers to temperatures of 5—7 keV. Differences be- 
tween cosmological models are strongly amplified for a 
temperature of the order of 17 keV. The discovery of this high- 
temperature cluster seems to rule out models with a CDM 
power spectrum of fluctuations and CO = I. 

Optical and X-ray observations of early-type galaxies, 
groups, and clusters of galaxies show that a greater fraction of 
the gravitating mass is observable in rich clusters than in in- 
dividual galaxies. In elliptical galaxies, only a few percent of 
the gravitacing mass is observed in stars or gas, while in rich 
clusters, approximately 30% of the mass is contained in hot 
gas and galaxies. If the recent estimate of the Massive Com- 
pact Halo Objects (MACHO) abundance in our galaxy is rep- 
resentative of all galaxies, then the "observable" content of 
galaxies, groups, and rich clusters (in the form of MACHOs, 
stars, and gas) is nearly constant at 50% of the total mass. Fur- 
thermore, the MACHO detection rate in our galaxy implies 
that the stellar progenitors of MACHOs could produce the 
observed gas mass and abundance of heavy elements in rich 
clusters. There is no need to assume that any of the cluster gas 
is primordial. The observed trend of increasing gas mass frac- 
tion becween groups and clusters can be explained within the 
context of hierarchical clustering scenarios. 

Optical and Infrared Astronomy 

The Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division carries out its 
astrophysical research with optical, infrared, and gamma-ray 
telescopes. In the optical domain, the Second CfA Survey, the 
Century Survey (CS), and the 15R Survey were all completed 
this year with a total of more than 25,000 redshifts having 
been measured. These surveys confirm the nature and ampli- 
tude of the large-scale clustering of galaxies and the prior 
determination that voids in the radial direction do not generally 
exceed diameters of about 5,000 km/s. The galaxy luminosity 
function has a characteristic luminosity, M* = —20.6, in excel- 
lent agreement with the value derived from the larger Las 
Campanas Redshift Survey (LCRS), but the CS faint-end 
slope, O. = —1. 14, is substantially steeper than the (X = -0.70 
for the LCRS. The steeper CS slope agrees with the results of 
B-band surveys. The real surprise is that the amplitude of the 
luminosity function appears to increase by about 30% from 
zero redshift to z - 0.15. 



The 2-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) is now under way. 
The first (Northern Hemisphere) telescope is in operation at 
the Fred L. Whipple Observatory, a little under 9 years after 
the submission of the initial Small Explorer proposal for such 
a survey. 2MASS will produce a catalog of 500,000-1,000,000 
galaxies and 100,000,000 stars. The complementary galaxy 
redshift survey will start later this fall. 

The long-term ground-based effort to monitor the radial 
velocities of hundreds of stars in the Hyades Cluster paid a 
handsome dividend this year through the determination of 
new masses and orbital parallaxes for three Hyades binaries. 
These parallaxes establish a new benchmark for the distance 
to the Hyades Cluster, one that agrees remarkably well 
(within IO) with the just-announced Hipparcos distance of 
46.34 ± 0.27 pc. 

The monitoring of the 0957 + 561 gravitational-lens system 
continued co a successful conclusion with all parties now 
agreeing on the time delay. This result allows the Hubble 
Constant to be determined from the lens more reliably; the 
main uncertainties now devolve on those of the lens' mass dis- 
tribution. These uncertainties are believed to be of the order 
of 10%, with the current estimate of H being about 65 kms"' 
Mpc"'. 

Planetary Sciences 

The Planetary Sciences Division carries out research mainly 
on the dynamics and materials of solar-system bodies. 
Planetary scientists at the CfA have built upon earlier thermo- 
dynamic studies of the sequence of minerals that would con- 
dense from cooling disk material, looking for correspondences 
between this set of minerals and those actually observed in 
chondritic meteorites. They carried out the first study formally 
to take account of the fact that once mineral condensation 
starts, a portion of the material condensed (i.e., the interiors 
of grains) is no longer accessible for further reaction with the 
gas phase. They found that this process has a profound effect 
on both the mineralogy and the chemistry of the condensate. 
One of the condensation/isolation models they tested 
produces the minerals in the carbonaceous class of chondrites 
quite faithfully; another model accounts for the properties of 
the enstatite class of chondnces. The concept tested, in which 
slow grain growth produces carbonaceous chondrites and 
rapid growth enstatite chondrites, is the only internally con- 
sistent model that has accounted for the differences between 
these two disparate chondrite classes. 

Division members have used a microprobe/electron micro- 
scope to determine the mineralogical siting of manganese and 
chromium in a primitive chondrite, important for interpret- 
ing the Mn 9 - Cr 53 radiometric ages of chondrites that have 
been used to understand early solar-system chronology. They 
have also used the microprobe to study the minerals that form 
inclusions and line cavities in the iron meteorite Gibeon, as 
one of a series of studies of unusual meteoritic mineral assem- 
blages. They concluded from the mineralogy that the meteorite 
formed in a body that experienced early igneous differentia- 



65 



tion, followed by break-up and reassembly in orbit while its 
metallic core material was still partially molten. 

During the past year. Division members moved closer to an 
understanding of the evolutionary and dynamical processes — 
often occurring in the distant past — that carved the asteroid 
belt from a field of small uniformly distributed bodies into 
their present spatial distribution. They found that effects oc- 
curring naturally as a result of a diminishing residual solar 
nebula, coupled with small concomitant changes in planetary 
orbits, can produce the present distribution shown by some 
13,000 minor planets to a remarkable degree. Some of the 
properties that seem to be accounted for are (a) the gaps at 
various mean motion resonances, (b) the high average values 
of the asteroidal eccentricities and inclinations, and (c) the 
scarcity of bodies with semimajor axes greater than 3.4 AU. 

In collaboration with others in the Solar and Stellar 
Division, scientists in the Planetary Sciences Division have 
studied members of rhe solar system at extremes of 
heliocentric distance. Images of no fewer than 26 new comets 
have been analyzed by using data from rhe Solar Heliosphenc 
Observatory (SOHO); the likelihood that all but rwo are 
members of rhe Kreutz group of related objects confirms the 
extreme prevalence of that system of objects that pass within 
less than two radii of the Sun's center. 

Observations with the FLWO 1.2-m reflector of several new- 
candidate members of the Kuiper Belt will make that tele- 
scope the third most prolific in the world with regard to the 
number of different such objects observed. This follow-up is 
essential lest preconceived, and possibly erroneous, ideas on 
rhe Kuiper Belt's makeup — principally as a "main belt" of ob- 
jects in near-circular, low-inclination orbits with mean distan- 
ces in the range 42—46 AU and a set of objects in somewhat more 
eccentric and inclined orbits in 2:3 resonance with Neprune — 
prevail. 

Radio and Geoastronomy 

The Radio and Geoastronomy Division carries out a variety of 
research projects, primarily involving use of radio techniques. 
Part of this research involves astrochemistry, specifically carbon 
chain and ring molecules, which are important constituents of 
the interstellar medium. They include the largest known 
interstellar molecules and have been suggested as carriers of 
the diffuse interstellar bands, a long-standing unsolved prob- 
lem in astrophysics. Development of a Fourier transform 
microwave spectrometer of unprecedented sensitivity has led 
in the last year to the unambiguous detection and identifica- 
tion of 21 previously undetected carbon-bearing molecules, 
including C,H, C„H, HC„N, and HC.jN. HC,;N has a 
molecular weight of 171 amu, more than twice that of glycine, 
the simplest amino acid. Several of these new molecules have 
since been found in circumstellar envelopes and molecular 
cloud cores. 

The long-standing problem of the registration of radio and 
infrared images of the Galactic Center region was solved by 
finding emission in the radio (SiO masers) and infrared (red 



giant stars) from the same objects. The regisrration accuracy is 
30 mas, sufficient to rule out all currently detected infrared 
point sources from collocation with Sgr A*, and to place strin- 
gent upper limits on the 2.2 i flux density of Sgr A*. These 
results strongly constrain models of the emission from mas- 
sive black holes and in some cases require a significant reduc- 
tion in the model mass accretion rate. 

Until now, very few candidate protostars have shown kine- 
matic evidence of star-forming inward motions, based on the 
blueshift of their spectral-line profiles. This long -sought 
evidence of gravitational infall is considered much more con- 
clusive than the redness of the continuum spectrum, used to 
identify candidates. The most extensive survey to date of can- 
didate protostars was carried out recently in three molecular 
lines capable of showing blue-shifted "infall asymmetry." 
Some 47 far-infrared and submillimeter sources within 400 pc 
were observed, revealing 15 sources that pass strict criteria for 
spectroscopic evidence of infall. The incidence of infall asym- 
metry in this survey increases dramatically with the redness of 
the continuum spectrum: The reddest "Class o" sources show 
a much higher incidence of infall asymmetry than do the less 
red "Class I" sources. 

Solar and Stellar Physics 

The Solar and Stellar Physics Division uses mostly optical and 
infrared techniques to study properties of the Sun and stars. 
For the past few years, scientists in this Division have been 
developing an Advanced Fiber Optic Echelle (AFOE) 
spectrograph and applying it to extrasolar planet research and 
asrroseismology. (The High Altitude Observatory is also a 
major collaborator.) Currently the AFOE is installed at the 
1.5-m telescope at FLWO and is capable of measuring the 
radial velociry of Sun-like stars with a short-term precision of 
about I m/s (for asrroseismology) and long-rerm accuracy (for 
exoplanet research) of about 8 m/s. SAO scientists recently 
discovered a Jupirer-mass planet in a near-circular orbit about 
the G2 V star n CrB, with a period of about 40 days and semi- 
major axis of about 0.23 AU. This discovery is important be- 
cause it helps fill the gap between solar-system-like giant 
planets and very close "hot Jupiters" like 51 Peg. Its circular 
orbir suggests that the planet was formed in a dissipative 
proroplanetary disk like the solar-system planets, and pre- 
sumably within the ice condensation zone beyond a few 
astronomical units. If so, how it came to be located at 0.23 
AU is a mystery. The AFOE team is continuing to monitor 
about 100 Sun-like stars, and expects to find several additional 
extrasolar planets in the next year or so. 

The recently discovered Kuiper Belt object 1996 TL66 
provides strong evidence that the Kuiper Belt consists of two 
dynamical components: objects in nearly circular orbits (the 
"Classical" Kuiper Belt) and objects in large, highly eccentric 
orbits (the "Scattered" Kuiper Belt). Thus far, known objects 
in the classical Kuiper Belt have orbits restricted to inside 
— 50 AU, including objects like Pluto that are in mean mo- 
tion resonances with Neptune. In contrast, as inferred from 



66 



1996 TL66, che scattered Kuiper Belt can extend at least as far 
as — 150 AU. From discovery statistics, CfA scientists and col- 
leagues elsewhere infer that the scattered Kuiper Belt consists 
of —10,000 objects like TL66, with a total estimated mass of 
— 0.5 Ms. Although this mass estimate is uncertain by a fac- 
tor of several, there is no doubt that the solar system is substan- 
tially populated to the 200 AU range. The origin of the scattered 
Kuiper Belt is as yet uncertain, but a plausible hypothesis is 
that it consists of Uranus-Neptune region planetesimals scat- 
tered outward by planetary embryos, perhaps as part of the 
process that formed the Oort Cloud. It may then be possible, 
for the first time, to use direct observations to constrain the 
mass of the outer solar nebula and the mass of the Oort 
Cloud. By analogy with our solar system, dust disks around 
other stars might be generated by unseen Kuiper Belt objects. 

The Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) on 
board the Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) measured 
particle velocity distributions in the inner solar corona along 
lines of sight in polar coronal holes that correspond to unex- 
pectedly high kinetic temperatures. The observed properties 
can be understood only in terms of a physical process that 
hears and/or accelerates heavier ions more than lighter ones 
and preferendally in directions perpendicular ro the magnetic 
field. Outflow speeds of coronal material were found ro reach 
values of about 200 km/s at 2 solar radii from Sun center. 
Although the velocity distributions in equatorial streamers 
are not so broad as those found in coronal holes, their means 
are much higher than expected and they also display anisotro- 
pics, albeit at greater heights. It appears that the ion-cyclotron 
process may also be important in those structures. Compari- 
sons of coordinated UVCS spectroscopy with white-light 
imagery and radio scintillation measurements show that the 
slow-speed solar wind flows from the tips of streamers, while 
the fast solar wind appears to fill the rest of the extended 
corona. An abundance depletion of heavy ions relative to 
photospheric values in streamers is consistent with depletions 
observed in the slow-speed wind. In addition, UVCS measure- 
ments of line intensities and profiles in coronal mass ejections 
are providing important diagnostics for detailed study of the 
physical and dynamical parameters of the ejected plasma. 

Theoretical Astrophysics 

The Theoretical Astrophysics Division engages in a broad 
range of research covering most topics of interest in astro- 
physics. One piece of work that caused much excitement was 
the development of a new method to analyze type la super- 
nova light curves that gives more accurate relative distances 
to galaxies than was previously possible. The estimate ob- 
tained for the Hubble Constant is 63 ± 6 km/s/Mpc. The 
precise Hubble diagrams provided by this method have also 
been used to constrain the motion of the local group and, 
wich sufficient future observations, promise to provide a meas- 
urement of the cosmic deceleration parameter. 

Theoretical studies of accretion disks show that, for suffi- 
ciently low accretion rates, inward advection can become 



more imporrant than radiation as the energy transport 
mechanism, leading to what is called an advection-dominated 
flow. For an accretion disk around a black hole, this process 
may allow the energy generated in the flow to be swallowed 
by the hole before it can radiate away. Advection-dominated 
flows have been used to provide a natural explanation for the 
otherwise puzzling low X-ray luminosities from disks around 
some black hole candidates, for example, during the low 
states in X-ray transient sources. 



Conservation Analytical Laboratory 



Lambertus van Zelst, Director 

The Conservation Analytical Laboratory (CAL) is the 
Smithsonian's specialized facility dedicated to research and 
training in the area of conservation, analysis, and technical 
study of museum collection and related materials. Conserva- 
tion and preservation research seeks to increase our under- 
standing of the mechanisms that affect the preservation of 
materials in museum collections, in order to formulate im- 
proved exhibit, storage, and other use conditions, as well as to 
develop, test, and improve treatment technology. In collections- 
based research, objects from museum collections and related 
materials are studied to increase their contextual information 
value and address questions in archaeology, art history, etc. 
Several of these research programs are conducted in collabora- 
tion with other institutions, notably the National Institute 
for Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg and the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington, where CAL staff can 
have access to special equipment not available within the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Chemical characterization of archeological materials and 
the raw materials from which they were made serves to iden- 
tify objects with the source from which the raw material was 
procured. Thus, one may draw conclusions regarding trade 
and exchange patterns and political and economical relation- 
ships. For trace element characterization of ceramics, CAL 
researchers applied neutron activation analysis at a special 
facility maintained and operated in collaboration with NIST, 
in studies involving archaeological ceramics from various 
Maya and Southwest sites. International recognition of CAL's 
expertise in this field is reflected in its role in a new coordin- 
ated research program, sponsored by the International Atomic 
Energy Agency (IAEA), on Applications of Neutron Activa- 
tion Analysis in Latin American Archaeological Research. Seven 
research teams from six Latin American countries partici- 
pate in this three-year program, with CAL providing 
coordination in research design, analytical protocols, and 
standardization. Other CAL researchers used lead isotope 
analysis to characterize the metal ore sources for traditional 
Nigerian bronzes. In studies of historic and prehistoric tech- 



6- 



nologies, researchers focused on the technology of Far Eastern 
ceramic glazes. 

In the biogeochemistry program, CAL researchers study ar- 
chaeological and paleological organic materials to extract and 
identify biomolecular information, including markers for 
dietary habits, disease patterns, and genetic relationships. 
Work continued on a number of projects, including the study 
of preservation of biomolecular information in archaeological 
and paleological skeletal material. 

In the research on preservation of natural history 
specimens, work centered around specimens stored in liquid 
preservatives. The influence of formalin fixing on the recovery 
of DNA from such museum specimens is now better under- 
stood, and protocols for such specimens, especially successful 
for those that have been preserved using alcohol only, have 
been developed. Several museum collections preserved using 
different protocols have been sampled for a statistical evalua- 
tion of recovery potentials. Meanwhile a new project was started 
in which the preservation of light-element isotopic information, 
essential in such studies as ecological stressed systems, in her- 
barium specimens is evaluated. 

CAL's education programs address the needs a wide variety 
of constituencies, ranging from professional training for con- 
servators and other museum professionals to outreach and in- 
formation programs for high school and college students and 
the general public. The Furniture Conservation Training Pro- 
gram (FCTP) continued the training of the class of 2000. 
However, programmatic evaluation has led to a decision to 
reformat the program after the graduation of the present class, 
to address the needs of a wider audience. In the archaeological 
conservation training program, two conservators, recently 
graduated from one of the graduate school training programs, 
completed one-year fellowships during which they received 
practical training and field experience at two different 
archaeological sites in the Near East and Central America, 
as well as laboratory experience at CAL. RELACT, the 
training program for managers of paper-based archival 
research collections, organized several workshops/seminars 
for a large audience of Smithsonian staff and coordinated 
demonstration projects within various Institutional 
research collections. 

"The Preservation of Imageries; Hispanic American 
Religious Images on Wood" was a workshop organized by 
CAL that attracted a large and wide-ranging audience, in- 
cluding curators, conservators, collectors, and artists. The 
enormous success of this workshop, which addressed specific 
preservation needs connected with a continuing cultural tradi- 
tion of Hispanic Americans, led to plans for follow-up events 
outside Washington, including the Southwest and Puerto 
Rico. 

In the collaborative program with the Suitland High 
School, a local magnet school for the arts, CAL staff continued 
to develop and test materials for eventual inclusion in a high 
school curriculum for an interdisciplinary arts and science 
course (Science Teaching Art Teaching Science). 



In the technical information program, CAL continued to 
provide technical advice and expertise on preservation-related 
subjects in answer to questions received from museum profes- 
sionals as well as the general public. An important 
mechanism for educating the general public in preservation is- 
sues is provided with the "Guidelines" that, intended for dis- 
tribution to a wide audience, provide background information 
and tips on the care and maintenance of a variety of collec- 
tibles. In this respect, CAL's regularly updated Internet web 
page also continues to serve an essential role. 



Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 



Ira Rubinoff. Director 

During FY 97, the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 
(STRI) based in the Republic of Panama, continued its efforts 
to increase our understanding of tropical nature and peoples 
and to communicate this knowledge internationally. To carry 
out its mission, STRI operates tropical forest and marine field 
stations, well-equipped labotatories, a research vessel, and a 
major tropical sciences library. These facilities support the 
work of 35 staff scientists and hundreds of visiting researchers 
and students that in FY 97 came from around the world. 
STRI also reached out to various audiences this year through 
its educational and public programs. 

STRI's new Center for Tropical Paleoecology and Archaeology 
(CTPA) was officially dedicated on January 30 by Panamanian 
Minister of Foreign Relations Ricardo Arias and SI Provost 
Dennis O'Connor. A renovated 1919 building that originally 
housed all of STRI, this facility brought together researchers 
studying tropical environments and climate, as early as 20 
million years ago, and including the advent of human coloni- 
zation of the New World tropics. At this event, Provost 
O'Connor presented STRI senior scientist Jeremy B.C. 
Jackson, CTPA director, with the Secretary's Exceptional 
Service Gold Medal for his scientific accomplishments at the 
Smithsonian. 

During the month of January, STRI hosted rwo courses at 
its Gamboa Education Facility. Thirty students from Prince- 
ton University participated in a tropical ecology three -week 
course that included lectures and field trips led by members 
of the STRI staff. Thirty participants from Panama and other 
countries in Central America took part in a course that 
focused on environmental monitoring techniques and was con- 
ducted as part of Si's Man and the Biosphere Program. The 
course was sponsored by STRI's Office of External Affairs in 
collaboration with Panama's Natural Resources Institute and 
the Fundacion NATURA. 

Specialists gathered at STRI's Earl S. Tupper Research and 
Conference Center for various scientific conferences on topics 
related to the Institute's areas of expertise. From March 10 



68 



through 13 the United National Programme for the Environ- 
ment and STRI cohosted a conference on canopy research. The 
meeting brought together researchers from the seven canopy 
research projects worldwide who formed a network for com- 
parisons among sites. From March 16 through 22, specialists 
attended the Meeting of the 8th International Council of 
Zooarchaeology held at STRI. 

Thanks to a donation from the government of Denmark, 
STRI installed a second crane in very wet forest on the Carib- 
bean side of the Panamanian isthmus. The crane was visited 
by Panamanian president Ernesto Perez Balladares and mem- 
bers of his cabinet on May 9 as part of a seminar on environ- 
mental issues for decision-makers organized by CEASPA and 
funded by the Agency for International Development. 

As part of the International Year of the Reef, the STRI 
bilingual exhibition "Our Reefs: Caribbean Connections" 
began its travels in February, opening for three months at the 
Miami International Airport, supported by Dade County, 
later travelling to Washington, D.C., where it was on display 
at the headquarters of the InterAmerican Bank and at Union 
Station, thanks to the Henry Foundation. With support for 
the Corporacion Panameha de Aviacion (COPA), the exhibi- 
tion started its Caribbean tour in July, opening at the San 
Pedro Sula Airport in Honduras, hosted by the Honduran 
Coral Reef Fund. 

The original laboratory building on STRI's Barro Colorado 
Island biological reserve was renovated as a visitor center with 
support from the Fundacion NATURA, the Robert E. Silber- 
glied Memorial Fund, and the Eugene Eisenmann Fund. The 
center was dedicated to the memory of the late Martin H. 
Moynihan, STRI's first director. A new permanent exhibition, 
"The Forest Speaks," opened in June 1997 at the visitor center 
and features the island's history and current research. 

Another of STRI's outreach efforts, its Marine Exhibition 
Center, a partnership with the Fundacion Smithsonian de 
Panama, received more than 60,000 visitors this fiscal year. 
From March through September 1997, the Center, located at 
very close proximity to STRI's Naos Marine Laboratories, 
featured the temporary bilingual exhibit: "Harnessing 
the Forces of Nature," developed by rhe Panama Canal 
Commission. 

The exhibit: "Insects: Friends and Foes" was on display at 
the Earl S. Tupper Exhibit Hall and was visited by hundreds 
of schoolchildren. The exhibit highlights Panama's insect 
biodiversity and included some live specimens of cave roaches. 

STRI created what can be described as a stationary exhibit 
using the latest in Internet technology. STRI's World Wide 
Web site is STRI's way of taking advantage of the Internet to 
communicate what it has to offer to anywhere in the world. 

A major accomplishment this year was the signing of an 
agreement on June 20, 1997, by Panamanian Foreign 
Relation's Minister Ricardo Alberto Arias and STRI director 
Ira Rubinoff that ensures that STRI operations will continue 
beyond the termination of the Panama Canal Treaty on 
December 31, 1999. 



STRI was visited this year by U.S. White House Fellows, 
several Panamanian legislative committees, members of the 
U.S. Congress, Alan Alda and Mariel Hemingway, who 
hosted documentaries about STRI, and Latin American writer 
Mario Vargas Llosa, among many others. 



Smithsonian Environmental 
Research Center 



Ross B. Simons, Acting Director 

1997 was a year of transition for the Smithsonian Environmental 
Research Center (SERC), with longtime Director David Correll 
returning to his research and the appointment of Ross Simons 
as Acting Director. Dr. Correll's tenure as Director witnessed 
an impressive period of growth in both research and education 
SERC, which was capped by the opening of the new Philip D. 
Reed Education Center. SERC, during the period of Dr. Correll's 
leadership, expanded its research focus from the linked eco- 
systems of the Rhode River watershed to become an inter- 
national facility for studying landscape processes throughout 
the world. 

The entire SERC staff participated in a series of reviews late 
in the year to set the course for SERC's progress in research 
and education over the next decade. A team of outside 
reviewers, led by Dr. Paul Risser, President of Oregon State 
University, reaffirmed SERC's international leadership as a 
center devoted to the increase of knowledge of the biological 
and physical processes that sustain life on Earth. The staff 
played important leadership positions in a host of ecological 
research areas, and certain staff were recognized for their work 
by appointment to prestigious positions. For example, 
Dr. Dennis Whigham has been appointed a Bullard Fellow 
at Harvard University and a Professor of Landscape Ecology 
at Utrecht University in The Netherlands. Research produc- 
tivity remained high, and SERC's work was increasingly 
linked to societal issues ranging from global climate to in- 
vasive species research. Educational efforts were expanded 
with the opening of the Reed Center, and greater constitu- 
encies in the Baltimore-Washington megalopolis were served. 
External grant and contract activities, a mainstay of SERC's 
program, continued at an all-time high, reflecting the con- 
fidence of peer reviewers in the high quality of SERC re- 
search. These funds are being increasingly supplemented by 
support from rhe private philanthropic sector. Management 
also was aided by a series of studies from the firm of KPMG 
Peat Marwick, which assured the continued financial security 
of SERC. SERC's new external Advisory Board met several 
times during the year and provided positive and steady 
guidance as SERC moves toward the new millennium. 
Notable accomplishments of 1997, described below, reflect 
SERC's emphasis on studying the large-scale environmental 



00 



impacts of human activities and the changing face of 
landscapes. 

Recent depletion of stratospheric ozone has increased the 
penetration of ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation to the Earth's 
surface. Measuring the intensity and ecological effects of UV 
radiation is the focus of SERC's photobiology laboratory, 
directed by Dr. Patrick Neale. Working in the Rhode River 
and in Antarctica (where the world's largest increases in UV 
were found), SERC made a number of new discoveries this 
year. Year-round studies at the Rhode River were the first to 
measure the seasonal variation of UV sensitivity in marine 
phytoplankton. Related research showed that species of 
planktonic dinoflagellates produce UV-absorbing compounds 
that protect their photosynthetic systems from UV damage 
and that UV inhibition of photosynthesis is continuously com- 
pensated by repair processes. Studies in Antarctica revealed 
that UV has greater effects on enzymes of carbon assimilation 
than on photosynthetic photochemistry for McMurdo Sound 
diatoms. Observations from the Weddell-Scotia Sea (An- 
tarctica) showed that UV sensitivity is correlated with 
hydrographic characteristics (deeper mixed diatoms are more 
sensitive to UV). Models of the effects of ozone depletion on 
the productivity of Weddell-Scotia Sea under varying mixing 
conditions showed that the greatest loss of productivity (on an 
areal basis) is when there is a moderate amount of mixing 
(mixing depth is comparable to light penetration depth). 
During 1997 SERC also initiated the first study of UV effects 
on photosynthesis in Arctic kelp species. SERC continued to 
advance the development of instruments to monitor changes 
in UV radiation throughout the world. SERC completed con- 
struction of II 18-channel (SR-18) UV-B spectroradiometers 
and, jointly with the National Institute of Standards and 
Testing, set up a three-site UV-monitoring network to sup- 
port studies of solar UV degradation of materials. SERC also 
measured UV spectral transmission in Chesapeake Bay and 
Indian River Lagoon, Florida. 

Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are expected to 
cause unprecedented changes in climate and ecosystems 
around the world. A SERC study directed by Dr. Bert Drake 
established a site at the Kennedy Space Center for the study of 
the effects of elevated CO : on a scrub-oak ecosystem. Sixteen 
large open-top chambers enclose sections of forest allowing 
experimental enrichment of CO : concentrations. Preliminary 
results indicate that elevated CCK increases photosynthesis, 
root and shoot growth, and soil water content. In addition, 
vegetation grown under elevated CO : is less nutritious for 
herbivorous insects. SERC has also obtained continued fund- 
ing to determine the fate of carbon accumulating in a salt 
marsh as a result of long-term experimental exposure to 
elevated CO*. 

Nonindigenous species are invading the world's coastal 
waters at accelerating rates due to transport of marine or- 
ganisms in ballast water of cargo ships. Such invasions may 
have devastating ecological consequences. SERC's Invasions 
Biology Program, headed by Drs. Gregory Ruiz and Anson 



"Tuck" Hines, is comparing the patterns and impacts of 
species introductions in coastal ecosystems in the Chesapeake 
Bay, Florida, central California, and Alaska. SERC samples 
marine organisms in the ballast water of ships arriving to the 
Chesapeake Bay and Prince William Sound (Alaska) and 
studies patterns of species invasions in both sites. In addition, 
SERC has implemented a national program with the U.S. 
Coast Guard that will survey every vessel arriving to each U.S. 
port from a foreign port to determine the amount of ballast 
water they deliver and whether they have undergone oceanic 
exchange to reduce the density of alien coastal organisms. 
This will continue for two to five years and will provide a 
direct measure of ballast water supply and changes over time 
to every pore system in the country — upon this background, 
SERC plans to test for changes in the rates of invasion at mul- 
tiple sites. Another collaborative project measures the effects 
of the recent European green crab invasion on native biota in 
Australia. This will be compared directly to similar ongoing 
SERC studies of invasions by this crab in California and 
Massachusetts. 

Mainly through agriculture, humans have drastically in- 
creased the availability of the plant nutrients nitrogen and 
phosphorus. This has led to increased discharge of nutrients 
into coastal waters causing excessive growth of phytoplankton 
with deleterious effects on coastal ecosystems. In the 
Chesapeake Bay, excessive phytoplankton production con- 
tributed to the death of submersed aquatic vegetation and the 
depletion of dissolved oxygen. In addition, recent outbreaks of 
toxic plankton such as Pftesreria in Chesapeake Bay may have 
been fostered by elevated nutrient levels. SERC scientists 
Drs. Thomas Jordan, Donald Weller, and David Correll are 
investigating the factors that control discharge of nutrients 
from watersheds in different physiographic provinces through- 
out the Chesapeake Bay drainage basin. Nitrogen discharge 
increases with the proportion of cropland in the watershed. 
However, the study also revealed the importance of the charac- 
teristics of water flow from the watershed. Watersheds with 
steady flowing streams, indicating a dominance of 
groundwater flow, tend to release more nitrate and less or- 
ganic nitrogen and organic carbon than do watersheds where 
stream flow is more uneven. This finding provides a basis for 
predicting the nutrient releases by watersheds and suggests 
the importance of soil permeability. Nutrient releases may be 
intercepted by riparian (streamside) forests or wetlands. 
Another study by Jordan, Weller, and Correll is investigating 
whether uptake of nitrogen in riparian forests is due to the ac- 
tion of soil bacteria that convert nitrogen to gaseous forms 
that are released to the atmosphere. Yet another study by 
Drs. Dennis Whigham and Thomas Jordan measures uptake 
of nitrogen and phosphorus by restored wetlands that capture 
runoff from crop fields. These studies are very relevant to land 
use planning aimed at reducing nutrient pollution. 

SERC's home research site on the Rhode River is being 
used as a model system for investigating the responses of 
phytoplankton to nutrient releases from the watershed. 



7° 



Analysis of a 9-yeax record on the magnitude and riming of 
phytoplankton spring blooms in the Rhode River, Maryland, 
a subestuary of the Chesapeake Bay, showed a wide range of 
variability. In some years there were blooms of exceptional 
magnitude, and in other years the bloom did not occur at all. 
SERC microbial ecologisr Dr. Charles Gallegos developed a 
mathematical model taht gave a good representation of 
average conditions and that was able to reproduce the wide 
range of bloom magnitudes actually observed. Application of 
the model showed that blooms could be prevented either by 
low rates of phosphorus release from sediments in the Rhode 
River or by low inputs of nitrogen from the Susquehanna 
River, the main source of fresh water ro the upper Chesapeake 
Bay. Future research will attempt to discover factors that 
cause the interannual variability in phosphorus release rares 
from local sediments. 

Large-scale changes of land use by humans have had enor- 
mous impacts on wildlife habitats around the world. SERC 
ecologist Dr. James Lynch recently initiated a study of the 
effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbance (livestock 
grazing and browsing) on birds at the Mpala Research Centre 
in Kenya. Lynch was also appointed Smithsonian's representa- 
tive on the Research Advisory Board for Mpala, which is run 
by an international consortium with Smithsonian leadership. 

The need to understand ecological processes at large spatial 
scales has stimulated a quest for new methods of observation. 
SERC s forest canopy laboratory, directed by Dr. Geoffrey 
"Jess" Parker, tested a National Aeronautics and Space Ad- 
ministration instrument that probes the internal structure of 
canopies with laser beams. The aircraft-borne instrument, 
known as SLICER (Scanning Lidar Imager of Canopies by 
Echo Recovery) scanned four different types of forests near 
SERC. Parker compared the airborne observations with simul- 
taneous ground-based observations. Beyond testing the instru- 
ment, an additional study showed that information gathered 
by SLICER on internal canopy structure, which is invisible to 
other remote sensing devices, can be used to infer productive 
capacity, complexity, and developmental stage of forests. Fur- 
ther work by Parker in old-growth forests of the Pacific 
Northwest, demonstrated that SLICER also gives information 
about the pattern of light absorption in the canopy. Following 
on this success, other versions of the instrument have been 
developed, have flown on the space shuttle, and are being 
readied for a satellite mission. 

The education program at SERC entered a new era of 
public service with the opening of the Philip D. Reed Educa- 
tion Center. Although the official dedication of the Reed Cen- 
ter did not take place until October 1997, school groups from 
Washington, D.C., Maryland, and Virginia began arriving in 
April to participate in a variety of outdoor education programs. 
Using fish nets, water sampling equipment, crab traps, 
canoes, and boats, students and teachers explore the Rhode 
River estuary as a representative ecosystem for the greater 
Chesapeake Bay. Nature trails, including the Java History 
Trail, explain about land use and the environmental history of 



the property spanning 1,500 years. The Reed Center contains 
a large multipurpose classroom, teacher resource library, 
exhibit hall, and office. Approximately 10,000 students, 
teachers, and professionals will visit SERC in the following 
year and participate in ecology education. 

During the summer of 1997, SERC Education Staff have 
offered a number of teacher workshops including a two-day - 
intensive hands-on experience for deaf teachers from Gallaudet 
University. This was the fourth year for Gallaudet s Summer 
Institute in Biology in which SERC played a major role in 
developing and leading aquatic and terrestrial programs. 

Cooperative teacher and student programs are continuing 
to be organized with the Living Classrooms Foundation, MD 
Dept. of Natural Resources, Chesapeake Bay Foundation, Dis- 
covery Creek Children's Museum of Washington, as well as 
the National Museum of American History, National Portrait 
Gallery, National Zoo, and National Museum of Natural 
History. 

An innovative traveling exhibition that illustrates the ecology 
of the blue crab was produced with the help of volunteers, 
teachers, interns, and students. "A Gripping Tale of the Blue 
Crab" travels to Washington, D.C.-area schools that helps 
teachers show interactions and life cycles of blue crabs found 
in the Chesapeake Bay. The exhibit also explains current re- 
search conducted in the "CrabLab" at SERC. A teacher's 
manual and instruction materials accompany the exhibit, 
which remains at a school for one month. 



Center for Museum Studies 



Rex M. Ellis, Director 

The Center for Museum Studies (CMS) is an outreach office of 
the Smithsonian that helps museums fulfill their public- 
service mission. Each year the center offers the museum 
community a series of workshops and seminars, fellowships, 
internships, and museology advice and information services. 
The center's programming places special emphasis on the 
needs of small, emerging, rural, and culturally/ethnically 
specific museums. This emphasis continues the center's long- 
standing tradition of fostering cultural diversity within the 
museum profession. Programmatic initiatives, such as the 
Awards for Museum Leadership seminar, the American Indian 
Museum Studies program, and the Latino Graduate Training 
Seminar, contribute to this effort. CMS also continues to serve 
as the Institution's Intern Services office, providing registra- 
tion and orientation to approximately 700 interns each year 
and acting as their advocate for professional development and 
enhancement while in the Smithsonian community. 

Two new programs were begun during 1997, and sig- 
nificant planning efforts went toward a third major initiative 
that is to commence early in fiscal year 1998. The center also 



71 



srarted a new publication during the year and republished a 
book with the American Association of Museums. 

The center's American Indian Museum Studies Program, 
managed by Karen Coody Cooper, created the Museum 
Development Award Program in 1997 and selected the 
People's Center of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai 
Tribes in Pablo, Montana, as its first recipient. The yearlong 
program provided consultations, expert assistance, informa- 
tion, and staff training and development to the museum's staff 
to address self-identified problem areas. 

The Rockefeller Foundation awarded two grants to CMS to 
implement a three-year program, "Humanities Fellowships in 
Latino Cultural Research in a National Museum Context: - 
Issues of Representation and Interpretation." Magdalena Mien, 
Museum Programs Specialist at the center, will coordinate the 
program. During the first year of the program, 1998, one 
senior scholar, two junior scholars, and two short-term visitors 
will be in residence at the National Museum of American Art. 

During the year CMS agreed to partner with Montgomery 
Community College in the development of the Montgomery 
College Humanities Institute. Montgomery College sought 
the support of a National Endowment for the Humanities 
Challenge Grant to create this institute. (Funding came 
through in early FY 1998.) Incorporating faculty seminars and 
fellowships as well as internships for Montgomery College 
students, this partnership will facilitate access to staff, collec- 
tions, and other resources at the Smithsonian. The partnership 
also represents a ground-breaking commitment to working 
with the community college education sector. 

CMS and the American Association of Museums published 
the proceedings from the September 1996 symposium, 
"Museums for the New Millennium." During the year the 
center also began publication of "CMS Reports to the Smithson- 
ian," a semi-annual newsletter for Smithsonian staff. 

Major initiatives in 1997 for the ongoing services of CMS 
were electronic outreach, increased programming for the 
Latino community, and intern services. 

Under the coordination of the center's Communication 
Manager, Bruce Craig, CMS expanded its electronic outreach 
services, putting the complete text of Internship Opportunities at 
the Smithsonian Institution online, making applications to center 
programming available on the World Wide Web, and contin- 
uing to host a popular interactive museum careers resource 
area on America Online. The center also continued to enhance 
the website for the virtual symposium, "Museums for the 
New Millennium." During the year Nancy Fuller, Research 
Manager at the center, began planning the first "virtual" 
workshop, based on the World Wide Web. 

The center's services to Latino communities, under the co- 
ordination of Magdalena Mieri, continued this year with the 
annual seminar, "Interpreting Latino Cultures: Research and 
Museums," cosponsored with the Inter-University Program 
for Latino Research. Fifteen Latina/Latino Ph.D. candidates 
participated in the two week program, held June 16 through 
27. Highlights of this year's seminar were discussions on is- 



sues of Latino identity and representation and current issues 
in Latino art. Following the seminar, three participants were 
selected to participate in the Graduate Student Fellowships in 
Latino Studies. 

The Museum Intern Partnership Program, under the co- 
ordination of Elena Mayberry, Intern Services Coordinator, 
promotes professional growth and development of students 
from culturally diverse backgrounds, assists smaller museums 
around the country, and strengthens Smithsonian staff con- 
tacts throughout the museum community. Pennsylvania State 
University joined the program this year with a partnership 
between that university's Matson Museum of Anthropology 
and the National Museum of Natural History, Department of 
Anthropology — Arctic Studies Center. Jane LeGros, a junior 
at Penn State, interned with this project. The Vincent Wilkin- 
son endowment provides support fot African American stu- 
dents in the Museum Intern Partnership Program. This year 
two Vincent Wilkinson intern partnerships took place. The 
first partnership was between the National Museum of 
American History's Program in African American Culture 
and the Great Plains Black Museum in Omaha, NE; Maureen 
Kelly, a student at Creighton University interned with this 
partnership. The second partnership was between the Nation- 
al Museum of African Art and Spelman College Museum of 
Fine Art in Atlanta, GA; Melinda Lewis, a junior at Spelman, 
interned with this project. 

Intern Services sponsored the 17th annual Museum Careers 
Seminar during July. The program provided an overview of 
the museum field, roundtable discussions with various profes- 
sionals, workshops on resume writing and tips on applying for 
federal jobs. Intern Services also coordinated the Smithson- 
ian's annual Intern Ice Cream Social, held this year on June 
26. Ben and Jerry's contributed 15 gallons of ice cream, top- 
pings, and manpower for the event. 

The American Indian Museum Studies program sponsored 
three museum practice workshops this year: "Managing a 
Small Museum," hosted by the San Carlos Apache Cultural 
Center in Peridot, AZ; "Archival Research Methods," cospon- 
sored by the National Museum of the American Indian and 
held in Washington, D.C.; and "Basic Collections Care," 
hosted by the Mille Lac Indian Museum in Onamia, MN. The 
program also developed Tribal Museum Directory with listings 
of more than 200 tribally controlled museums in the United 
States. 

Bettie Lee, Curriculum Coordinator for the center assumed 
responsibility for the center's workshop series and coordinated 
"Introduction to the Management of Museum Collections," 
held September 15 through 19. Seventeen museum staffers 
from around the country and South Africa attended the pro- 
gram, which featured classroom instruction and behind-the- 
scenes tours of several Smithsonian facilities. 

The Awards for Museum Leadership seminar, held this year 
on March 17 through 21, offered participants from museums 
around the country a variety of management and professional 
development tools to promote increased cultural diversity in 



72- 



the leadership of museums. Magdalena Mieri coordinated the 
program. Highlights of this year's program were sessions on 
diversity in the workforce, leadership skills, and developing 
partnerships and collaborations. 

The Fellowships in Museum Practice program, managed by 
Nancy Fuller, awarded fellowships this year to museum re- 
searchers from Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Re- 
search topics included repatriation, indigenous museology, 
human resource issues, and public programming. 

The center broadened its international programming in 
1937 with workshops and consultations in Argentina, South 
Africa, and Zimbabwe. Rex Ellis, Director of the center, 
traveled ro South Africa with other Smithsonian staff to give 
presentations at the South African Museums Association 
(SAMA) annual meeting and to consult with the South African 
government's Department of Arts, Culture, Science, and Tech- 
nology on its initiative to begin a National Heritage Training 
Institute. The visit also created a reciprocal learning oppor- 
tunity for South African museum personnel. In June, Deirdre 
Prins, an educator at Robben Island, visited the center to re- 
search educarion outreach programs at the Smithsonian. 

The "Training Course on Preventive Conservation and Ex- 
hibition Design" was a collaborative effort between the center 
and two institutions based in Argentina: the Fundacion An- 
torchas and the University of Buenos Aires. Hosted this year 
by the university's Museo Etnografico "Juan B. Ambrosetti," 
this professional development training project, coordinated by 
Magdalena Mieri, is designed to ensure that the cultural 
patrimony of South American museums will not disappear as 
a resulr of neglect or lack of resources. The course is also in- 
tended to build bridges of collaboration among institutions 
and museum professionals in South America. Smithsonian 
staff and Argentinean museum personnel serve as faculty. 

Nancy Fuller developed and led museum practice workshops 
for museums in Zimbabwe, as pan of the Si's 150th Birthday — 
International Speakers Tour. Topics included collections manage- 
ment, community relations, and museum management. 

Rex Ellis and Nancy Fuller also attended ceremonies and 
programming in Paris commemorating the 50th anniversary of 
the International Council of Museums. At the beginning of the 
fiscal year, Nancy Fuller and Bruce Craig attended the annual 
meeting of ICOM's International Committee on the Training of 
Personnel, held in Lubbock, TX; at the end of the fiscal year, 
Fuller actended the next annual ICTOP meeting, held in Berlin. 



Office of Exhibits Central 



Michael Headley, Director 

The Office of Exhibits Central (OEC) is one of the Smith- 
sonian Institution's largest and most comprehensive exhibit 
producers, experienced in permanent installations, as well as 



traveling and temporary exhibitions. In 1997 OEC accepted 
more than 100 projects, large and small, for nearly every 
museum, office, and research program in the Institution. 

OEC services include consultation, design, editing, gtaphic 
production, matting and framing, exhibit fabrication, model- 
making, gallery lighting, exhibit installation, and artifact 
handling, bracketing, and packing. OEC's staff of more than 
40 are also involved in training, conservation assistance, and 
prototype testing. The staffs creativity and client-service 
orientation have earned OEC a reputation for exhibits that 
meet the highest standards of educational effectiveness and 
accessibility. 

Responding to an Institutional emphasis on creative 
partnerships, OEC has begun offering clients more diverse 
services that make use of its staff's unique talents. The office's 
services and activities in 1997 fell into the following 
categories. 

Consultation 

OEC staff participated more extensively than evet in the earliest 
phases of exhibit development, reviewing proposals and help- 
ing shape broad outlines and design parameters for planned 
exhibitions. This has yielded three distinct advantages: 
1) OEC's experience in designing and producing exhibits 
along with its ability to envision the physical realization of 
ideas allow it to alert clients to necessary redirections and 
potential pitfalls. Time and again this has headed off costly 
mistakes. 2) Having an advance package or plan often enables 
clients to more clearly and tangibly demonstrate the merits of 
a particular exhibition to potential partners, donors, and 
partners. 3) In light of the hundreds of requests OEC receives 
each year, having the option of offering consultation services 
permits OEC to provide cost-saving services to SI exhibitors 
even when the office is unable to take on additional design or 
production. 

Examples of this aspect of OEC's services include concep- 
tual development toward the development of an exhibition 
about the Burgess Shale in collaboration with the Smith- 
sonian Traveling Exhibition Service (SITES) and National 
Museum of Natural History (NMNH) paleobiology curator 
Doug Erwin. Working with SITES and the Smithsonian 
Tropical Research Institute (STRI), OEC reconceptualized 
STRI's Coral Reefs exhibition and prepared a drawings pack- 
age for use in fundraising for the new exhibition. OEC recon- 
figured Smithson's Gift in the SI Building for permanent 
presentation after the 150th anniversary year. OEC provided 
extensive consultation to the Office of Horticulture on its Or- 
chids of the World exhibition, which opens in the Ripley Center 
in January 1988. OEC also provided design consultation on 
the SI Mace. 

Design, Editing, and Graphics 

As experts in traveling exhibits, OEC's diverse staff of ex- 
hibits specialists are sensitive to the need for making exhibits 



73 



attractive and "user friendly" to different audiences and differ- 
ent exhibitors. Staff collaborate with curators and other project 
team members to ensure that text, design, objects, and graphics 
work together to create a cohesive, informative presentation. 

SITES continues to be OEC's major client. OEC designed, 
edited, and produced numerous SITES exhibitions, including 
The Flag in American Indian Art. We Shall Overcome: Photographs 
from America's Civil Rights Era. The Art of Jack Delano, and 
Women and Flight. (OEC staff responsible for The Art of Jack 
Delano, an exhibition about documentary photographer Jack 
Delano's portraits of the life and people of Puerto Rico, 
traveled to Old San Juan to consult with Banco Popular, the 
exhibition's sponsor and first venue. Women and Flight required 
close collaboration with the National Air and Space Museum, 
which was the exhibition's first venue.) 

OEC developed new uses for the small-exhibition format 
(which it designed in 1995 in collaboration with SITES and 
the State Humanities Council). One example is the Barn 
Again! exhibition in collaboration with SITES. The four 
copies OEC prepared of Barn Again! are giving underserved 
communities affordable access to an exhibition about barn- 
building in the United States. Another example, a collabora- 
tive effort with SITES and the NMNH, is Vanishing 
Amphibians, which offers a general scientific overview of the 
world's frog population as well as an appeal for conservation. 
OEC has begun consulting with STRI about developing a 
Spanish traveling version of the exhibition. Other exhibits OEC 
has considered for adaptation to the small-exhibition format are 
the SITES exhibitions The Jazz Age m Fans. 1914— 1940 and Mar- 
oon Cultures (to be adapted from a Folklife Festival presentation). 

OEC's collaboration with NMAH continued with develop- 
ment, design, and editing services for Between a Rock and a 
Hard Place: A History of American Sweatshops. 1820— Present, one 
of an ongoing program of NMAH exhibitions on the history 
of work. Drawing on its extensive experience with traveling 
exhibitions, OEC also advised NMAH staff on the traveling 
aspects of the show, which represents NMAH's first traveling 
exhibition under its own auspices. 

OEC continued to provide exhibition support to the Smith- 
sonian International Gallery (IG). For American Voices: Latino 
Photographers in the United States. OEC worked with an outside 
registrar and outside designers, oversaw design and fabrication 
contracts, edited and produced graphic panels, and installed the 
exhibition. Other IG projects that required OEC development 
and production were Strong Hearts and The Jewels ofLalique, 

OEC worked with a relatively new client — the Center for 
African American History and Culture (CAAHC) — on a number 
of exhibition projects in its Arts and Industries Building exhibit 
space. These included Life on the Road: The Photographs of Milt Hin- 
ton, Caribbean Visions, and The Jazz Age in Pans, 1914—1940. 

OEC continued to provide a full range of exhibition services — 
from conceptual development to design, production, and 
installation — for SI Libraries' Dibner Library exhibition gal- 
lery. For Audubon and the Smithsonian, the OEC design/editing 
team worked closely with NMAH curator Helena Wright and 



the SI Libraries to establish a focus and framework for this 
multilayered exhibition. The exhibition garnered positive 
media coverage, including a full-page review with color 
photograph in Time magazine. 

OEC developed, designed, and prepared promotional 
signage for the Visitor Information and Associates' Reception 
Center (VIARC) desk in the SI Building. It also redesigned 
the VIARC main desk in the SI Building to accommodate 
visitors in wheelchairs. 

Modelmaking 

The opening of the Janet Annenberg Hooker Hall of Geology, 
Gems, and Minerals at NMNH capped a two-and-a-half-year 
OEC modelmaking effort. Major modelmaking components 
of the renovated space include three full-size dioramas of 
mines in Arizona, Missouri, and Virginia; a Coyote Creek 
Fault trench peel and model; a model of a pyroplastic flow 
from Crater Lake; a recreation of a San Diego tourmaline pocket; 
and an eight-foot-diameter model of the Moon. OEC's work 
was based on extensive on-site research, photographs, 
sketches, and ongoing experimentation with modelmaking 
materials and techniques. OEC also worked with the Special 
Exhibits office at NMNH and curatorial staff to design the 
Feather Focus case for the NMNH lobby. 

OEC managers met with representatives of the U.S. Holo- 
caust Memorial Museum to discuss the prospect of providing 
modelmaking and graphic production services. OEC agreed to 
create reproductions of an armband and a desk calendar, both 
belonging to the police in the Jewish ghetto of Kovno, 
Lithuania, and which will appear in an upcoming exhibition. 

Fabrication 

OEC oversaw the installation of American Voices: Latino Photog- 
raphers in the United States and Strong Hearts (IG); Women and 
Flight (NASM); Audubon and the Smithsonian (Dibner Library, 
NMAH); Life on the Road: The Photographs of Milt Hinton. 
Caribbean Visions: Contemporary Painting and Sculpture, and The 
Jazz Age in Paris, 1914-1940 (all at the Arts and Industries 
Building); and Yup'ik Masks (George Gustav Heye Center of 
the National Museum of the American Indian in New York 
City; OEC also built large exhibit cases for this exhibition). 

Exchange/Outreach/Training Programs 

Staff trained various museum personnel throughout the In- 
stitution in methods of designing and producing high- 
quality, low -cost, accessible exhibits. Among continuing work 
was training staff from the MOVE department at NMNH in 
objects processing, handling, and shipping as well as design 
and fabrication of crates to assist in their move to the SI 
Museum Support Center in Suitland, Md. 

As part of its program of educational outreach, OEC con- 
tinued to train volunteers and interns from all over the 
United States and abroad. Two retired government employees 
working as VIARC volunteers helped OEC develop a formula 



74 



for recouping accounting stock charges; OEC expects to 
recover approximately $20,000 annually from this new 
system. Working with Vera Hyatt, Program Director for 
African/Caribbean Programs of the Office of International 
Relations, OEC continued to engage in exchange with the 
Cape Coast Castle Museum project in Cape Coast, Ghana. 
OEC staff traveled to Ghana to share expertise in exhibit 
production techniques, and Cape Coast staff interns spent 
several months at OEC garnering experience in exhibit design 
and production. OEC worked with Jon Weinberg from the 
South African National Gallery in Cape Town, South Africa, 
as part of the office's mandate of outreach in ttaining in 
exhibit processes and techniques. The arrangement was 
intended to lay the groundwork for a future Folklife Festival 
program as well as for the development of a national support 
organization akin to OEC/SITES that would service South 
Africa's national museum network. 

Through the offices of Miguel Bretos, Counselor to the 
Secrerary/Communiry Affairs and Special Projects, and Olivia 
Cadaval of the Center for Folklife Program and Cultural Studies, 
OEC advised the Washington, D.C., Latino American Youth 
Center on design and development of an exhibition gallery and 
inaugural exhibition. This was part of an ongoing partnership 
with the Center; an earlier program featured OEC assisting 
teen mothers to produce an exhibition about themselves. 

Staff continued to be active participants in museum-related 
professional organizations and activities. Senior exhibits editor 
Diana Cohen Altman served on the "Models of Collaboration" 
panel that was part of the Institution's "Dialogue II: What About 
Diffusion?" confetence in March. She also served as chair for a ses- 
sion at the 1997 American Association of Museums' annual meet- 
ing in Atlanta. Moderated by Marc Pachter, Counselor to the 
Secretary for Electronic Communications and Special Projects, 
the session was entitled "Making It Real Compared to What: 
Physical Exhibits and On-Line Exhibits." 



with students and scholars at universities, museums, and 
other research institutions around the world. The office 
manages centralized fellowships and internships and admin- 
isters all stipend appointments, which are a vital element of 
the Smithsonian's educational tole. In addition, competitive 
grant programs providing scholarly support for Smithsonian 
professional staff are also admimscered by this office. 

Each year, more than 800 students and scholars from 
universities, museums, and research organizations from the 
United States and abroad come to the Smithsonian to use its 
collections and facilities. These awards included stipends for 
visiting scholars and students, internships and short-term 
travel grants. Seventy seven awards were made through the 
Smithsonian Institution Fellowship Program. 

Participants ranged from distinguished scholars and scien- 
tists to graduate and undetgraduate students. Postdoctoral fel- 
low Stephen Insley, for example, came from the University of 
California, Davis, to study competition, cooperation, and the 
evolution of complex communication in northern fur seals at 
the National Zoological Park. In the Smithsonian Museum 
Shops, graduate student Cesar Bocachica from the University 
of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, analyzed current marketing 
programs during his James E. Webb Internship. Molly Senior, 
an undergraduate intern from Bemidji State University, Min- 
nesota, helped develop a book of photographs and poetry at 
the National Museum of the American Indian under the 
Native American Program. 



National Science Resources Center 



Douglas Lapp, Executive Director 



Miscellaneous Services 

Throughout the year, numerous Institution bureaus benefited 
from OEC's flexibility and ability to provide quick turn- 
around on various projects. These assignments were as diverse 
as poster matting and framing for the Office of the Secretary 
to design and production of fund-raising plaques for the 
Smithsonian Early Enrichment Center to writing, designing, 
and producing materials for the 1998 Unsung Heroes Awards 
for the Smithsonian Community Committee. 



Office of Fellowships and Grants 

Roberta W. Rubinoff, Director 

The Office of Fellowships and Grants supports and enhances 
research at the Institution, throughout the nation, and over- 
seas by the facilitating Smithsonian's scholarly interactions 



The NSRC, opetated jointly by the Smithsonian Institution 
and the National Academy of Sciences, collects and dissemi- 
nates information about science teaching resources, develops 
innovative science curriculum materials, and sponsors activities 
to help teachers and school district administrators develop and 
sustain effective hands-on science programs. The NSRC 
advocates an inquiry-centered, hands-on approach to science 
education. In inquiry-centered science, students learn to ask 
questions, gather information, develop theories, plan and 
carry out investigations, and communicate their ideas. Scien- 
tists and engineers from academia and the business com- 
munity, as well as educatots, play a strong role in the 
development and implementation of NSRC programs. 

Knowledgeable, committed leaders are needed to improve 
the quality of science education in our nation's school dis- 
tricts. In response to this need, the NSRC hosted two K-8 
Science Education Leadership Institutes in June and July 
1997. At these leadership institutes, teams of teachers, school 
administrators, and scientists worked with nationally recog- 
nized experts to develop plans for implementing an mquiry- 



75 



centered science curriculum in their communities. The 1997 
leadership institutes brought together 29 teams from school 
systems in 15 states, Puerto Rico, and Sweden. The U.S. teams 
represented 46 school districts that serve more than 800,000 
K-8 students. Since 1989, 240 teams representing school dis- 
tricts with more than 6 million K-8 schoolchildren have par- 
ticipated in the leadership institutes. 

Science for All Children: A Guide to Improving Elementary 
Science Education in Your School District was published in Jan- 
uary' 1997. This book describes strategies for implementing an 
inquiry-based science education program at the elementary 
school level. It presents the five elements of the NSRC model 
for systemic science education reform and profiles eight school 
districts that have created successful elementary science 
programs. The NSRC has received a grant from the Bayer 
Foundation to produce a videotape to accompany this book. 

In 1997 the NSRC received a one-year planning grant from 
the National Science Foundation to develop a strategy for 
reforming K-8 science education through regional partner- 
ships. The strategic plan developed by the NSRC will involve 
numerous public and private institutions working in partner- 
ship to reform science education in 300 school districts across 
the nation. 

The NSRC also initiated the Science and Technology Con- 
cepts for Middle Schools (STC/MS) project, a science curriculum 
for students in grades 7 and 8. This project has received major 
funding support from the National Science Foundation. Build- 
ing on the success of the NSRC's Science and Technology for 
Children (STC) program for grades 1 through 6, the STC/MS 
program will develop eight instructional modules addressing 
topics in the life, earth, and physical sciences and technology. 

During 1997 three sets of STC Discovery Deck science ac- 
tivity cards — Electric Circuits. Microworlds. and Floating and 
Sinking — were completed. These materials are being 
developed to accompany the 12 Science and Technology for 
Children units for grades 4 through 6. Each deck is designed 
to reinforce the key science concepts in a unit and relate them 
to children's lives. The cards also stimulate reading, writing, 
and independent study. 

The NSRC completed the research and evaluation of cur- 
riculum materials for inclusion in Resources for Teaching Middle 
School Science, a companion volume to Resources for Teaching 
Elementary School Science, which was published in 1996. The 
new guide, scheduled to be published in early 1998, will pro- 
vide educators with a wealth of information and expert 
guidance for selecting resources to teach middle school science. 

In March NSRC Executive Director Douglas Lapp and 
NSRC Deputy Director Sally Goetz Shuler participated in a 
conference in Queretaro, Mexico, on elementary school science 
education. The conference was attended by Mexican govern- 
ment officials, university scientists, and teachers. Dr. Lapp 
and Ms. Shuler shared the NSRC's vision for science education 
reform and presented workshops demonstrating inquiry- 
centered science teaching. The NSRC has also received fund- 
ing support from the Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation to 



work in partnership with the Puerto Rico Public Schools and 
the University of Puerto Rico to assist with the reform of local 
K-6 science education. 

In late April NSRC Dr. Douglas Lapp and Ms. Shuler 
visited Sweden at the invitation of the Royal Swedish 
Academy of Sciences and the Royal Swedish Academy of 
Engineering Sciences. In the city of Linkoping, Dr. Lapp and 
Ms. Shuler met with 65 university scientists, school admin- 
istrators, and teachers who are participating in a project to 
adapt and translate the NSRC's Science and Technology for 
Children elementary science units for use in Swedish schools. 
Dr. Lapp and Ms. Shuler also made presentations at a sym- 
posium at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences that was 
attended by members of both royal academies, as well as by 
corporate and government leaders. 

The NSRC, in partnership with the White House Office of 
Science and Technology Policy and the National Science Foun- 
dation, sponsored receptions for the Presidential Awards for 
Excellence in Mathematics and Science Teaching. These awards 
are given annually to exemplary elementary and secondary 
math and science teachers from across the nation. 



Office of Smithsonian Institution Archives 



Edie Hedlin, Director 

The Office of Smithsonian Institution Archives (OSIA) 
focused on outreach during 1997, both in terms of holdings 
and audience. At the same time the Office achieved signifi- 
cant goals in traditional areas of archival and historical 
activity, and in oversight of the National Collections. 

Of particular importance was the establishment of a con- 
tract with National Underground Storage (NUS) for the crea- 
tion of a purpose-built facility to hold records from a variety 
of archives and special collections programs. OSIA took the 
lead in defining requirements for the facility, working with 
the Institution's contract management staff in negotiating an 
agreement and developing procedures for the preparation and 
transfer of records from multiple locations and programs. By 
the end of Fiscal Year 1997, eight repositories sought inclusion 
in OSIAs contract with NUS. Through this cooperative ap- 
proach, the National Anthropological Archives, Air and Space 
Archives, NMAH Archives Center, Archives of American Art, 
Folklife Archives, Hirshhorn Library, and Freer-Sackler 
Archives joined OSIA in acquiring enough quality space to 
accommodate overflow while at the same time keeping costs 
lower than any archives, acting independently, could have 
achieved. 

Beyond the archival community, OSIA also engaged in a 
number of outreach efforts associated with the 200th anniver- 
sary of the birth of Joseph Henry, the first Secretary. Indeed, 
the Joseph Henry Papers Project staff devoted a portion of 



76 



even' month to this activity. Highlights include a series of 
articles in the Torch, lectures on aspects of Henry's life, and 
assistance to Union College (New York) in an exhibition high- 
lighting the Henry bicentennial. Additionally, Henry Papers 
Project staff used the bicentennial year to raise awareness 
among funding agencies of the contributions of Joseph Henry 
to the development of American science and the creation of a 
national cultural institution. 

Developing and expanding websites was perhaps the most 
significant outreach activity in 1997. OSIA's Institutional 
History Division greatly expanded its web presence, placing 
online the web version of another 1996 exhibition, "Expedi- 
tions: 150 Years of Smithsonian Science in Latin America," as 
well as increasing the amount of available information relat- 
ing to the history of the Institution. In addition, the Archives 
Division of OSIA developed and launched a home page, thereby 
providing access to general information about the Archives, as 
well as the finding aids to a number of collections. Finally, 
the National Collections Program and the Joseph Henry 
Papers staff began work on their home pages with a Fiscal 
Year 1998 target for completion. 

The Electronic Records Program was created within OSIA 
in FY 1997 to provide guidance to offices within the Smith- 
sonian Institution on the proper management of electronic 
records, including electronic mail. The program will develop 
procedures for appraising, accessioning, and preserving those 
electronic records no longer required by creating offices and 
accepted for transfer by OSIA. The program achieved a major 
accomplishment during the year with the issuance of Smith- 
sonian Announcement 97—10. Entitled "E-mail and Record 
Keeping," the announcement suggests methods for retaining 
E-mail and identifies who is responsible for ensuring the 
proper management of these records. 

The ongoing work of OSIA continued apace with these 
new efforts. This fiscal year saw the Smithsonian Institution 
Archives and Institutional History Divisions participate in a 
six-month extensive analysis of archival operations, functions, 
information and access tools, and services. The review was 
directed by archivist Scott Schwartz of the Archives Center at 
NMAH. The final report, Integrating Automation Technology: A 
Functional Analysis and Needs Assessment for the Office of Smith- 
sonian Institution Archives, will be used to guide OSIA in iden- 
tifying and meeting its future automation needs. 

The Smithsonian Institution Archives (SIA) undertook a 
major project to review and refine its records appraisal 
criteria. When completed, the draft appraisal report will be 
the basis for evaluating records and determining the relative 
priority for accessioning new collections of institutional 
records, personal papers, and records of non-Smithsonian en- 
tities. Preservation planning was also a major focus during the 
year, and the development of increased staff awareness of 
preservation problems. The discovery of mold in collections 
housed at both the Arts and Industries Building and the Ful- 
lerton annex resulted in a special project to contain the 
damage and remove the mold. Accessibility of archives collec- 



tion information moved forward with the conversion of the 
1996 Guide to the Smithsonian Archives to an electronic format 
and the transfer of this information to SIRIS, the Smithson- 
ian's online public catalog. Despite the many new initiatives 
undertaken, core archival activities continued. SIA serviced a 
total of 2,682 reference queries during the year, a ten percent 
increase over the previous year. In addition, SIA added to its 
holdings in excess of 658 cubic feet of records, personal papers, 
and records of non-Smithsonian entities, even though lack of 
storage space dictated that the Division halt the transfer of 
any additional records for the period March to September. 

The Institutional History Division (IHD) maintained an 
active schedule of papers, workshops, and presentations, 
including participation in conferences at Westminster Uni- 
versity and the Natural History Museum in London. The 
Division also began work on a new Si/Latin America database 
and undertook research on Smithsonian budget history at the 
request of the Secretary. The Joseph Henry Papers Project 
staff submitted to press for publication volume 8 oiThe Papers 
of Joseph Henry. 

Finally, the National Collections Program (NCP) prepared 
and issued the annual Collections Statistics, deaccession report, 
and financial disclosure information. In addition, the staff 
began the complex process of revising Smithsonian Directive 
600, Collections Management Policy. Involving virtually all 
components of the collections management community and 
all museums, this process resulted in a degree of interaction 
between NCP staff and all collecting units of the Institution. 



Smithsonian Institution Libraries 



Nancy E. Gwinn, Director 

In July Dr. Nancy E. Gwinn began serving as Director of the 
Smithsonian Institution Libraries, a 17-branch system with 
more than 1.2 million volumes and facilities in Washington, 
New York, and the Republic of Panama. She had served as 
Assistant Director, Collections Management for the Libraries 
since 1984. 

The Smithsonian Institution Libraries raised private funds 
this year for its Natural History Rare Book Library, now 
under construction. Mrs. Jefferson Patterson contributed 
funds to underwrite for three years the position of Curator of 
Rare Books for the library, and Leslie Overstreet was named to 
the position in August. A $100,000 endowment for the preser- 
vation of the Libraries' collection of rare materials in the field 
of natural history was established with funds committed by 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph F. Cullman 3rd. The new library, being 
built in the East Court of the National Museum of Natural 
History, will house some 10,000 books and other library 
materials in a secure room and stack area with appropriate en- 
vironmental controls. The Libraries is funding the installation 



— 



of compact: shelving and an independent heating, ventilating, 
and ait conditioning system to protect the many irreplaceable 
items that will be housed in the new facility. 

Mr. and Mrs. David Dibner of The Dibner Fund were in- 
ducted into the Smithsonian's Benefactor's Circle. The Dibner 
Fund has provided annual support for both the SIL/Dibner 
Library Resident Scholar Program and a Dibner Library Lec- 
ture since 1992. The Jaques Admiralty Law Firm of Detroit 
became a Smithsonian Corporate Member; SIL is the first 
Smithsonian unit to bring in a corporate member The S. Dillon 
Ripley Library Endowment Patron Program brought in 
$18,380 to add to the fund established in 1993. 

In April the Libraries purchased the Charlotte and Lloyd 
Wineland collection of Native American and western explor- 
ation litetature with 48 titles (88 volumes) of rare books of 
singular importance to the study of the American West and 
Indians of North America, which complements the Libraries' 
strong Native American collection. In the collection is the 
first edition of Prince Maximilian's beautifully illustrated 
Reise in das Innere Nord- America in denjahren 1832 bis 1834 
(1839— 1841) including the rare map, a work fundamental to 
the study of early exploration in U.S. western territories. The 
purchase was made possible through the efforts of the Office 
of the Secretary, the Office of the Provost, the Libraries, and 
the National Museum of Natural History and its Anthropology 
Department. 

The Libraries focused on enhancing the quality of service to 
the research community of the Institution. A full-time 
Ubtarian was assigned to the branch libraries at the Anacostia 
Museum and the Environmental Research Center, and staffing 
was increased at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 
and the National Postal Museum branches. SIL introduced 
improvements in information access, including expanded 
services in indexing and abstracting, document delivery, and 
electronic journals throughout the 17-branch system. With 
funding from the Getty Trust, staff have created more than 
10,000 analytic index records on African art ptinted resources, 
which are available on che Libraries online catalog at 
(www.sitis.si.edu). Staff members are reviewing the collec- 
tions housed in the Libraries' Annex, a three-year project that 
will result in a completely accessible collection, available to 
the research community, both on site and online. The major 
area of increased access has been afforded the Libraries 
through its membership in the Chesapeake Infotmation 
and Research Library Alliance (CIRLA) of which SIL is a 
founding member. CIRLA implemented a reciprocal 
borrowing program which facilitates ditect borrowing for 
Smithsonian staff from the seven othet member libraries. 
This service will expedite research through prompt 
response to loan requests and reduce costs associated with 
interlibrary loan. Other members of the regional consor- 
tium are Georgetown University, Howard University, 
Johns Hopkins University, University of Delaware, Univer- 
sity of Maryland College Park, the National Agricultural 
Library, and the Library of Congress. 



Reference librarians in the 17 branch libraries answered 
52,938 reference questions this year, in addition to an average 
of 50 inquiries a month teceived at the Libraries' e-mail 
address. Questions come from various sources: Smithsonian 
research and program staff, scholars around the wotld, mem- 
bers of the public, and schoolchildren. Staff handled 32,534 
tequests fot interlibrary loan, serving Smithsonian staff and 
fellows as well as library users in public and private facilities, 
and in college, research, and corporate libraries around the 
country and the wotld. Each year, the Libraries disttibutes 
hundreds of copies of English-language translations of scien- 
tific works published through its Translation Publishing 
Program. One title, Wild Reindeer by E. E. Sytoechkovskii, 
was sent to more than 80 libtaries and to scientists in colleges 
and public libraries from Alaska to West Virginia. Catalog of 
Type Specimens of Recent Fishes in the National Museum of Natural 
History is one of the 1997 titles from the Smithsonian Contribu- 
tions scientific series that is distnbuted to 4,600 exchange 
partners, 1,818 of which are in the United States, through the 
Libraries' Gift and Exchange (G&E) Program. Recipients 
include universities, museums, libraries, and individual 
scholars, and the number of G&E partners in the United 
States has increased by more than 600 since 1995. 

The Libraries continues to participate actively in the 
Capitol Area Preservation Netwotk (CAPNet) which was or- 
ganized by the Libraries in 1994 to provide a forum for D.C.- 
area libraries and archives to share preservation information 
and to promote preservation education through local, affor- 
dable seminars. On June 10 a CAPNet-sponsored panel 
discussion addressed problems related to "Those Pesky 
Accompanying Materials," such as CD-ROMs and floppy 
discs that are changing the character of library collections, and 
shared practical suggestions fot storing these nontraditional 
library materials. Cataloging department staff began to partici- 
pate in the NACO (Name Authority Cooperative Program), 
an international proiect with 213 participating libraries that 
cteate original authority records for inclusion in the Name 
Authority File maintained by the Library of Congress. Sys- 
tems office staff oversaw the upgrade of SIRIS (Smithsonian 
Institution Research Information System) to a new circulation 
module fot all branch libraries. Staff began to define require- 
ments for a successor system to SIRIS. Much of the year was 
spent on improving the Libraries' technical infrastructure. 
With more than 100 users and 6 gigabytes of data, the SIL 
local area network (LAN) migrated to a high-end server that 
supports full data security. All SIL staff migrated to Gtoup- 
Wise E-mail, and the majority of workstations are now Win- 
dows-based machines offering users a graphical user interface 
for their information. 

SIL convened a Digital Library Committee to oversee all 
aspects of SIL digital products. The Libraries contributed 
more texts to its Digital Library, available to a worldwide 
audience at (http://www.sil.si.edu). On March 28 a digital edi- 
tion of the final List of Publications of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, Bulletin 200 (End of Series) (1971 print, 1997 digital 



78 



edition), selected for its usefulness to the world research com- 
munity, was published, and Recommended List of Books and 
Other Information Resources for Zoo and Aquarium Libraries (1994 
print, 1997 digital edition) was launched in July. Abundant 
reference resources are offered on the branch libraries' home 
pages, along with the online exhibition, Science and the Artist's 
Book, and current issues of Information, the illustrated Libraries' 
newsletter, on the website. The Preservation Services Depart- 
ment and Systems staff scanned three natural history rare 
books at very high resolution and produced a CD-ROM as a 
pilot for future digital products. Some of the digital initia- 
tives underway are a project on the trade literature in the 
Libraries' collections on 19th-century sewing machines, an 
English translation of The Residency of the Ternate in the Moluc- 
cas (1890 print, 1998 digital edition) by S. F. A DeClercq, and 
an online version of the Libraries' 150th -anniversary exhibi- 
tion, From Smithson to Smithsonian: The Birth of an Institution. 

The management services staff met challenges in major 
areas. New Institution-wide computer programs involved 
staff being trained and then developing expertise. Libraries' 
staff maintained financial tracking of personnel and procure- 
ment costs at an unprecedented level of accuracy and 
credibility. SIL's personnel turnover rate during the year hit an 
unprecedented 17%, leading to the hire in record time of 21 
new staff. Renovations commanded attention, and the 
Libraries planned space for the branch library at the National 
Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) Cultural Resources 
Center and the NMAI Mall museum. In the Natural History 
Building, plans progressed for the new Natural History Rare 
Book Library, and renovations began for both HVAC (heat- 
ing, ventilating, and air-conditioning) and SIL's Central Refer- 
ence and Loan Services, all connected with East Court 
construction. 

The Smithsonian Institution Libranes/Dibner Library Resi- 
dent Scholar Program welcomed three scholars this year who 
conducted research in aspects of the history of science. A 
Ph.D. student at Johns Hopkins University studied 16th-cen- 
tury German vernacular medical texts; a history professor 
from Western Washington University studied climate and 
culture in 19th-century America; and a lecturer at the 
American University in Paris worked on a study of Isaac Bar- 
row, 17th-century mathematician and Isaac Newton's mentor. 
Interns from Romania (sponsored by a Soros grant), from Ger- 
many, and from the University of Maryland, and a graduate of 
the University of Oklahoma received significant professional 
training at the Libraries this year. 

A Libraries' exhibition, Audubon and the Smithsonian, which 
opened in the SIL Exhibition Gallery in May, presented high- 
lights of the publishing history of John James Audubon's 
(1785-1851) seminal works, The Birds of America and Viviparous 
Quadrupeds of North America. The exhibition featured a variety of 
Audubon-related objects from various Smithsonian collections. 
The centerpiece, the National Audubon Society's double- 
elephant folio edition (27" X 40") of The Birds of America, was 
displayed with artworks, memorabilia, and specimens, a num- 



ber of which came to the Smithsonian as a direct consequence 
of Audubon's friendship with Spencer Baird, according to 
guest curator Helena Wright of the Museum of American 
History. 

For its public programs, the Libraries, a member of the 
Washington Collegium for the Humanities, cosponsored with 
the National Air and Space Museum a program for the WCH 
lecture series "Belonging and Acceptance in History, Culture, 
and Art." Presented to an audience of 260 people on March 5, 
"Star Wars: Belonging and Acceptance of the Hero" was 
delivered by Mary Henderson, curator of the National Air and 
Space Museum's exhibition, "Star Wars: The Magic of Myth," 
and examined themes of ancient mythology recreated by 
George Lucas in his film trilogy. "Hello, Lindy!" a free public 
concert of popular songs presented jointly by the Libraries 
and NASM was held on May 21 to celebrate the 70th anniver- 
sary of Charles Lindbergh's solo trans-Atlantic flight. Sung by 
the U.S. Navy Band Sea Chanters, the songs written in 
Lindbergh's honor in 1927 are from the Libtaties' Bella C. 
Landauer Collection of aeronautical sheet music. 



Smithsonian Institution Traveling 
Exhibition Service 



Anna R. Cohn, Director 

The Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 
(SITES) is the largest traveling exhibition service in the 
world. Its mission is to extend the Smithsonian collections, 
research, and exhibitions to "sites" across the nation and 
beyond. SITES organizes and circulates exhibitions of all 
shapes and sizes on the arts, sciences, and humanities. Since 
the first exhibition went on the toad in 1952, SITES has 
traveled thousands of exhibitions for the education and enjoy- 
ment of museum goers in every state and several foreign 
countries. 

To expand the Smithsonian's outreach, SITES has contin- 
ued to seek out alternative partners and spaces to create and 
host exhibitions. Throughout its tour, the exhibition "Vanishing 
Amphibians" traveled to science centers, conferences, and 
libraries in order to teach audiences that might not visit tradi- 
tional science or natural history museums. SITES also con- 
tinues to work the Ametican Library Association to create 
poster versions of exhibitions to hang in libraries across the 
country. 

SITES' Rural Initiative Program is designed to reach under- 
served communities in rural areas throughout the United States. 
In addition to providing these venues with exhibitions, SITES 
works with the Federation of State Humanities Councils to 
provide the venues with professional development programs 
and training, as well as assisting in the development of site- 
specific public programming. 



79 



SITES continues to work with America's Jazz Heritage ro cre- 
ate innovative exhibitions and programs to explore the historical 
and social impact of jazz music. Concerts and distance learning 
programs were organized for the Duke Ellington Centennial. 



Smithsonian Office of Education 



Ann Bay, Director 

The Smithsonian Website targeted its national audience of 
teachers and students through a new World Wide Web site 
called Smithsonian Education. Developed and produced by 
the Smithsonian Office of Education (SOE), Smithsonian 
Education presents lesson plans and activities based on the 
Institution's collections, exhibitions, and research. Key fea- 
tures of the area include its organization by curriculum area 
(arts, language arts, social studies, science); a guide to Smith- 
sonian educational products and services; and an educator's 
introduction to each Smithsonian museum. As it grows, the 
site will add thematic study collections of Smithsonian arti- 
facts and interpretive texts. 

The intellectual riches of the Institution support an inno- 
vative arts and humanities curriculum in the Smithsonian 
Museum Magnet Schools, operated by the District of Colum- 
bia Public Schools in partnership with the Smithsonian Office 
of Education. Through the magnet school program, students 
develop oral, written, scientific, visual, and technological 
skills as they observe, study, and discuss what they see and 
experience at the Smithsonian. SOE marshals the resources of 
the National Museum of American History, the National Postal 
Museum, the National Museum of American Art, and the 
Anacostia Museum to create a foundation for experiential 
learning at the Institution and inside the classroom. Initial 
evaluation of the program shows 95 percent regular atten- 
dance and dramatic declines in discipline problems. Faculty 
attribute this development to a positive change in students' 
attitudes toward school and the increase in parental involve- 
ment. The magnet schools are Robert Brent Elementary and 
Stuart Hobson Middle Schools, located on Capitol Hill. 

A major event on teachers' calendars, Teachers' Night at 
the Smithsonian, gives educators an overview of the exception- 
al teaching resources available at the Smithsonian and several 
other invited museums, historic sites, and cultural organiza- 
tions. Teachers' Night, held at the National Air and Space 
Museum and organized by the Smithsonian Office of Educa- 
tion, features displays by all forty participating organizations; 
workshops on how to teach with objects, collections, and 
exhibitions; hands-on demonstrations of materials and online 
services; thousands of copies of free materials for teachers to 
take back to their schools; and museum staff members on 
hand to answer questions and help plan field trips. Nearly 
three thousand educators attended Teachers' Night 1996. 



In collaboration with other SI units, the Smithsonian 
Office of Education presented several classes for area teachers 
that showed how to incorporate Latino perspectives and 
materials into the classroom. Participants explored universal 
themes of immigration and ptacticed methods of examining 
cultural identity using photography and primary sources such 
as letters and documents. The seminars, which were supported 
by funding from the Institution's Latino Pool, were the center- 
piece of SOE's Summer Seminars program, which offers con- 
tinuing education credits in Maryland, Virginia, and the 
District of Columbia. 

Public-Private Partnerships 

The National Faculty/Smithsonian Institution program (TNF- 
SI) unites teachers from around the nation with Smithsonian 
staff and university faculty to develop new teaching approaches 
and gain leadership skills. The TNF-SI aims to improve 
teachers' mastery of their subjects. The program also empha- 
sizes using material culture — objects, collections, and other 
museum resources — in teaching. TNF-SI is a joint initiative 
of the Smithsonian Office of Education and The National Facul- 
ty, an independent, nonprofit organization funded by contribu- 
tions from private corporations and foundations, federal and 
state agencies, local school systems, and individuals. 



Office of Sponsored Projects 

Ardelle G. Foss, Director 

The Office of Sponsored Projects served Smirhsoman re- 
searchers and scholars by supporting the work of approximate- 
ly 135 principal investigators who submitted 208 new 
proposals valued at $47-9 million and by negotiating and ac- 
cepting for the Institution 194 grant and contract awards 
valued at $17.5 million. 



Accessibility Program 

Janice Majewski, Smithsonian Accessibility Coordinator 

The Accessibility Program is a pan-Institutional resource for 
Smithsonian units to ensure that the Smithsonian's programs 
and facilities are accessible to people with disabilities. The 
Program collaborates with all Smithsonian organizations to 
improve access to existing resources, as well as to design each 
new program, exhibition, publication, media presentation, 
and building to be fully accessible to visitors and staff with 
disabilities. The Program's activities this year show the range 
of information and services it provides. 

At the request of the Provost, the Program convened an 
oversight council to develop recommendations of Institutional 



80 



accessibility priorities. The council considered information 
from the units' five-year plans on accessibility improvement 
(submitted to the Provost in September 1996, with annual 
reports thereafter to the Program) and the Program's extensive 
work with the Office of Physical Plant on facilities accessibility. 
A report on the council's recommendations was submitted to 
the Provost in July. 

The Program receives guidance from and disseminates in- 
formation to staff and the public through a joint advisory 
council. The advisor)' council is composed of members who 
are staff accessibility liaisons appointed by their unit and 
people with disabilities from the community that volunteer 
their time and expertise. A number of meetings were held 
with the joint advisory council during the year on topics in- 
cluding the formation of the oversight council, the progress 
in unit five-year Accessibility Plan submission, and the search 
for ways to integrate access into all facets of the Institution's 
operation. 

In conjunction with its policy and implementation 
guidelines writing responsibility, the Program conducted four 
seminars with Smithsonian staff and outside advisors with dis- 
abilities to create guidelines for accessible program and media 
design. Program staff then presented this and other accessibility 
information to Smithsonian and outside museum professional 
in numerous technical assistance training sessions. 

The Programs' exhibition guidelines — developed with 
Smithsonian exhibition departments — are the first of their kind 
in the United States. Following distribution to Smithsonian staff, 
without any advertisement, the Program received more than 200 
requests from around the world for copies of the Smithsonian 
Guidelines for Accessible Exhibition Design. 

A significant amount of Program time is spent on acces- 
sibility reviews of facilities and exhibition to ensure that all 
new construction is fully accessible to people with disabilities. 
A close working relationship has been fostered through these 
reviews with the Office of Physical Plants and museum exhibi- 
tion designers, thus increasing staff awareness of what acces- 
sible design entails and helping the Institution further its 
goals to become fully accessible to all visitors and staff. 

Support for Smithsonian units also included providing 
direct accessibility services for visitors (e.g., sign language inter- 
preters, Real-time captioning, and translating documents into 
braille.) This year the Program arranged nearly 500 hours of 
services for visitors attending Smithsonian Associates courses, 
FONZ lectures, and docent-led tours of the museums. 



Institutional Studies Office 

Zahava D. Doering, Director 

The Institutional Studies Office (ISO) is a pan-Institutional 
resource for the scientific study of the characteristics, atti- 
tudes, opinions and experiences of Smithsonian constituen- 
cies. The small staff includes professionals with expertise in 



sociology, demography, research methods, survey statistics, 
and a variety of quantitative and qualitative data analysis and 
evaluation techniques. 

Since its founding in 1987, ISO has conducted studies and 
applied research for Smithsonian administrators, curators and 
programmatic staff. Areas of investigation include audience 
and membership profiles, background studies and assessments 
of SI exhibitions and public programs, and ongoing analyses 
of employee composition. For each study, ISO is responsible 
for all aspects of study or survey design, implementation of 
data collection, analysis and report writing. Institutional 
clients are asked to assume the costs of data collection and 
data entry. In addition, the office provides some technical 
consultation to cultural organizations throughout the country 
and professional review of applied research conducted for 
them. The staff is also available, on a limited basis, to conduct 
seminars in various aspects of applied quantitative and qualita- 
tive research and program evaluation. 

The results of ISO studies are disseminated in several formats. 
The major vehicle is a Report series; analyses include techni- 
cal appendices which both document the work and can be 
used as methodological models. The Reports are distributed 
both within and outside of SI. Publications also include 
Research Notes. Research Notes have a more limited distri- 
bution, either because of the subject matter or because the 
results are not generalizable. Results are also presented at 
professional meetings or in journal publications. Finally, to 
ensure that clients have timely access to results while more 
formal documents are being prepared, memoranda are 
prepared for internal use. 

The Office's 1996—97 activities included: 

(1) Background studies, e.g., the Material Culture study — a 
background study designed to help in the preparation of a 
new on-line exhibition. Smithsonian visitors in the National 
Museum of American History were surveyed regarding their 
use of computers and the internet and their interests with 
respect to the subject of material culture. The results will 
inform a new, interactive Smithsonian web-site that is now 
under development. 

(2) Formative evaluation, e.g., audience research and com- 
ponent testing for the new African Voices exhibition in the 
National Museum of Natural History. ISO staff trained and 
assisted the exhibition planning team in informal assessment 
of visitor responses to themes, texts, images and design com- 
ponents proposed for the exhibition. 

(3) Assessments of major exhibitions and programs, includ- 
ing the following: (a) a new permanent exhibition, Think 
Tank at the National Zoo; (b) an exhibition scheduled for 
renovation, Information Age at the National Museum of 
American History; (c) a temporary exhibition, Visual Journal, 
at the Center for African American History and Culture; (d) a 
temporary exhibition, Richard Lindner: Paintings and Water- 
colors 1948-1977 at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Gar- 
den; (e) a loan exhibition, Amber at the National Museum of 
Natural History; and (f) Art Night on the Mall, a summer pro- 



gram of open evenings at five art museums, Freer Gallery of 
Art, Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, National Museum of African 
Art, International Gallery, and the Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden. 

The primary purpose of the Think Tank study was to under- 
stand the behavior and learning experiences of visitors. The In- 
formation Age study helped guide museum staff as they plan 
changes for the exhibition. The Visual Journal study assessed 
visitor responses to photographs. The Richard Lindner study 
determined the effect of exhibition texts on visitors, thus offer- 
ing curators insight into the usefulness of their interpretive ef- 
forts. The Amber study revealed the impact of exhibition fees 
and clarified the nature of special exhibition attendance. The 
Art Night study provided museum staff with profiles of visitors 
and their behavior at this special collaborative program. 

(4) Statistical information on Smithsonian constituencies 
for bureau and office development staffs and program person- 
nel, e.g., Visitors to the Smithsonian, a demographic profile of 
Smithsonian visitors on the Mall, based on four comprehen- 
sive studies conducted by ISO between 1994 and 1996; 

(5) Statistical analyses used by the Institution to meet its 
labor force reporting requirements to the Regents, the Con- 
gress and other federal agencies; 

(6) Presentation of research results at national conferences. 
This year three ISO staff members made presentations at the 
annual meeting of the American Association of Museums and 
four ISO staff presented papers at the annual meeting of the 
Visitor Studies Association; 

(7) Publication in peer-reviewed journals. This fiscal year 
two papers based on previous research by ISO were published 
in Curator, one on Space Age Barbie, a cemporary exhibition at 
the National Air and Space Museum, and one on Degenerate 
Art. a traveling exhibition that was presented at the Interna- 
tional Gallery and that was studied both in Washington and 
in Berlin. 



financial management improvements. Recognizing the impor- 
tance of financial planning for major Institutional projects, 
the Finance area began to work with the National Air and 
Space Museum to develop a formal financial plan for the 
Dulles Center project. In order to better share information, 
issues and plans relating to financial matters, a monthly meet- 
ing format was developed to include all Finance offices and 
other offices with finance related responsibilities namely the 
Office of Planning, Management and Budget and the Office 
of Sponsored Project. 

Several employee related initiatives received attention this 
year. First of all, a recognition award program with awards 
tied to the Finance vision and values was developed. The first 
award ceremony was well received by staff. In addition, an 
Individual Development Plan program was developed for 
implementation in fiscal year 1998. This program will allow 
staff and supervisors to plan for training opportunities to help 
meet core ]obs responsibilities as well as provide for career 
enhancement opportunities. 

As a result of a number of issues and questions raised about 
Institutional indirect cost and overhead systems, this office 
developed a briefing paper for senior management to improve 
overall understanding of the topic. In addition, an Institution- 
wide Indirect Cost was formed to develop a list of issues that 
needed to be addressed, prioritizing them and then analyzing 
the issues and recommending solutions. 

Some additional activities are: managed the contract with 
the external auditors; assured an effective annual audit that 
resulted in an unqualified opinion of the audited statements; 
prepared the Financial Report for Smithsonian Year ipp6; 
provided guidance to major Institutional projects, such as the 
Discovery Center, Dulles Center, and America's Smithsonian; 
and served on the National Postal Museum Coordinating 
Committee. 

More detailed information on the above items, as well as 
other financial initiatives and activities can be found under 
the entries for the Finance units listed above. 



Office of the Chief Financial Officer 



Rick Johnson, Chief Financial Officer 



Office of General Counsel 



The Office of the Chief Financial Officer was established by 
memo from the Under Secretary dated, July 17, 1996. The 
Chief Financial Officer continues to be responsible for the 
Finance area which consists of the Office of the Comptroller, 
the Office of Contracting and the Office of Treasurer. During 
the year the Office of Sponsored Projects was moved organiza- 
tionally to report to the Provost, certain Institution-wide 
financial activities of that office continue to be the respon- 
sibility of the Chief Financial Officer. 

During the year there was a strong emphasis on planning. 
Most important of the planning initiatives was the develop- 
ment of a 5-year Finance-wide Strategic plan focusing on 



John E. Huerta. General Counsel 

The Office of the General Counsel (OGC) protects the legal in- 
terests of the Smithsonian Institution. In carrying out that 
mission, the OGC provides legal advice and counsel to the 
Smithsonian Board of Regents, Secretary, Provost, Under 
Secretary, and other managers on the administration of the 
Institution; represents the Smithsonian in litigation and other 
adversarial proceedings to which the Institution is a party and 
before federal, state, and local government entities on admin- 
istrative matters; issues final determinations on administrative 
tort and personal property claims against the Smithsonian; 



82 



and generally monitors developments in the law for applica- 
tion to the Smithsonian programs. 



Office of Communications 



David J. Umansky 

The Office of Communications is responsible for the public 
face of the Institution. Its Office of Public Affairs (OPA) is 
dedicated to media relations, publications, and public relations. 
The Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center 
(VIARC) serves the 28 million people who visit the Smithsonian 
each year. 

Office of Public Affairs 

OPA served as the public relations team for the popular 150th 
anniversary traveling exhibition "America's Smithsonian." 
During this fiscal year, the exhibition visited St. Paul, Minn.; 
Houston, Texas', and Portland, Ore. For each city, a full adver- 
tising, marketing, and publicity campaign was designed and 
implemented. When the exhibition reached Birmingham, 
Ala., in April 1997, OPA handled the transition of the project 
to the contractor in charge of the exhibition. OPA's work on 
"America's Smithsonian" and other I50th-anmversary projects 
earned the Silver Anvil Award of Excellence from the Public 
Relations Society of America. 

OPA developed a local and national publicity campaign for 
the 1997 Festival of American Folklife, which featured par- 
ticipants from the Mississippi Delta. Media coverage included 
network and local morning shows, a number of articles in the 
Washington Post, and coverage in the New York Times. U.S.A. 
Today, the Baltimore Sun, Washingtonian and Southern Living. 

Among the many projects designed to reach Latinos in the 
metropolitan Washington, D.C., area and across the nation, 
OPA represented the Smithsonian at local and national 
Hispanic events such as the annual U.S. Hispanic Chamber 
of Commerce conference; began a partnership with the 
Bravo Group, a national Hispanic Marketing firm; and 
created target bilingual publicity campaigns for a number 
of exhibitions. 

OPA produced a new brochure this year, the fourth in its 
series of Resources brochures, called "Asian Pacific American 
Resources at the Smithsonian." The 32-page brochure, in- 
tended for teachers, students, researchers, and others, provides 
information on research resources, including collections, 
databases, publications, fellowships, internships, and much 
more. 

Four issues of the newsletter "Smithsonian Institution Re- 
search Reports" were issued to inform members of Congress, 
scholars, scientists, library-users, and approximately 75,000 
Contributing Members about the myriad research efforts 
around the Smithsonian. 



The employee newspaper, The Torch, kept staff and volun- 
teers informed about activities around the Institution. A 
special 20-page issue in January was a tribute to the many 
volunteers who serve the Smithsonian. The Blue Bulletin con- 
tinued to provide staff with administrative news items. 

OPA staff, in conjunction with Smithsonian Institution 
Press, prepared a special thematic annual report focusing on 
the 150th anniversary and all of its related activities and 
programs. For the first time, color illustrations were used 
throughout most of the report. 

Newspaper and radio advertisements wete developed for 
each city during the run of "America's Smithsonian" to bring 
visitors into the convention centers hosting the exhibition. 
Advertising in the Washington, D.C., area included the 
monthly Sampler ad in the Weekend section of the Washington 
Post and a number of annual advertising campaigns in both 
African American and Latino communities. Washington Post 
Weekend ads also helped launch che Institution's credit card 
with NOVUS Services, Inc. 



Visitor Information and Associates' 
Reception Center 



Mary Grace Potter. Director 

As a central support organization and the principal contact 
point for information about the Smithsonian, the Visitor 
Information and Associates' Reception Center (VIARC) 
continued to pursue its mission to broaden the public's 
knowledge, appreciation, and enjoyment of the Institution 
and to facilitate and promote participation in its programs 
and activities. 

Work was carried out through the Smithsonian Informa- 
tion Center; 18 museum information/member reception desks; 
response services for public and member mail, telephone, and 
electronic inquiries; outreach to the tourism industry; outdoor 
wayfinding stations; two large volunteer programs that 
provided primary support for the Institution's public informa- 
tion activities and for staff project assistance behind the 
scenes; and a docent program for the Castle. 

Operating from 9 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. daily, the Smithsonian 
Information Center attracted 1,812,172 visitors. Reception 
services were provided to 28,168 Associate members and their 
families; 3,950 memberships were sold representing a 41% 
increase over the previous year and some $129,102 in revenue. 
Docents led 324 tours of the Castle, which engaged 3,530 
public and Associate participants. 

Information desk services were provided daily in 13 
museums by a corps of more than 700 Volunteer Information 
Specialists. During the year 125 new volunteers were 
recruited, trained, and placed in desk assignments across the 
Institution; the InfoSpecial newsletter was produced and dis- 



83 



tributed quarterly; and 74 in-service enrichment opportunities 
were offered to volunteer participants as a means of increasing 
their knowledge and understanding of the Institution's work 
and collections. New cloth lanyards inscribed with the sun- 
burst, Smithsonian Institution, and the acronym VIARC were 
offered to all volunteers. 

Incoming public inquiry mail, including electronic inquiries, 
numbered 35,385. Capability to respond online facilitated answers 
to some 2,264 inquiries originating primarily from the WWW. 
Twenty-five new bibliographies, fact sheets, and leaflets were 
created and uploaded to the web on sublets from anthropology 
to zoology. Outgoing mail in response to both mail and phone 
inquiries numbered more than 78,505 pieces. The most popular 
leaflets and bibliographies were: "Tropical Rainforests," "The 
Book of Mormon," "Violins Bearing a Stradivanus Label," 
"Sources of Information on Mollusks," and "Careers in Biology, 
Conservation, and Oceanography." A survey of the origin of 
public inquiries revealed the top 5 domestic sources to be Califor- 
nia, New York, Florida, Pennsylvania, and Texas. Overseas in- 
quiries originated largely from Canada, the United Kingdom, 
Australia, and Germany. 

Public telephone inquiries answered by VIARC numbered 
more than 311,287. Factors influencing the volume of calls in- 
cluded America's Smithsonian, the Star Wars exhibition at the 
National Air and Space Museum, the Amber exhibition at the 
National Museum of Natural History, Black History Month 
activities, and activities for the presidential inauguration. 

The Behind-the-Scenes Volunteer Program recruited and 
placed 288 new volunteers to assist with staff projects; 415 
volunteers were registered and oriented for other staff. Total 
volunteers participating in behind-the-scenes projects during 
the year numbered 1,312. Translations completed by volunteer 
translators numbered 105 in 15 languages. 

Efforts to addtess the Institution's accessibility and cultural 
diversity goals were ongoing. Fifteen percent of new Volun- 
teer Information Specialists represented minority constituen- 
cies. Eighteen percent of new volunteers placed in projects 
behind the scenes were known to be minorities. Printed ac- 
tivity "Samplers" were produced for all Heritage Celebrations 
and 24-hour recorded information tapes were also provided. 
Telephone requests for Black History Month Calendars were 
the highest ever received (1,387). As updates were required, 
publications were revised to reflect adherence to accessibility 
guidelines. One section of the Smithsonian Information 
Center's main information desk was redesigned to accom- 
modate visitors and volunteers in wheelchairs, and primary 
publications were provided in alternative formats at all infor- 
mation desks for distribution to visitors. 

The Institution- wide volunteer survey conducted annually 
through VIARC counted a total of 7,743 volunteers who contrib- 
uted some 605,724 hours of service during FY 97. The January 
issue of The Torch featured volunteer participation in 150th- 
anniversary activities and continued to pay tribute to the con- 
tributions of volunteers across the Institution. Volunteers were 
also acknowledged throughout the year in many other ways. 



Appreciation events for participants in VIARC's two volun- 
teer programs included remarks by Secretary Heyman at the 
spring event for behind-the-scenes volunteers and remarks by 
Under Secretary Constance B. Newman at the Holiday recep- 
tion for Volunteer Information Specialists. 

Work with the tourism industry continued through partici- 
pation in major marketplace activities including the American 
Bus Association, National Tour Association, Travel Industry 
Association, and La Cumbre, the principal visit USA travel 
trade show for Latin American tour operators and travel 
agents. Liaison with local hospitality, convention, and visitors 
associations was ongoing, as was online promotion of the 
Smithsonian through TravelFile and NTA Online. To pro- 
mote the Smithsonian as a major destination for international 
travelers, VIARC assisted the Washington, DC, Convention 
and Visitors Association in arranging tours of the National 
Air and Space Museum for familiarization groups from Ger- 
many and Switzerland. A rack card promoting the National 
Postal Museum was distributed widely through local and 
national travel industry sources and group bookings for the 
Craft Show were made available to tour operators for the first 
time. 

Additional activities during Fiscal 1997 included distributing 
hundreds of thousands of Smithsonian Credit Card applications; 
compiling 35 binders on Inaugural activities for reference by 
phone and museum information desk volunteers; producing 
membership promotion banners for the Information Center, A 
Quick Guide for visitors interested only in museum highlights, 
and a leaflet on the History of the Castle. 

Automation advancements and enhancements were sig- 
nificant. New computers were configured and installed at 10 
museum information desks, and the NASM computer was 
finally connected to the Network. A "Smithsonian Informa- 
tion Center" site was made available on the SI Intranet and 
VIARC's Encyclopedia Smithsonian site on the Internet became 
the number two entry point for the Smithsonian Home Page, 
following the Home Page itself. 

Enhancements to VIARC's custom computer programs 
were numerous, including additional online source statistics 
for the Resmail and VIP programs, additions such as "quick 
keys" to the InfoTools program, and many other upgrades to 
software used by all VIARC units, which improved efficiency 
and productivity. 



Office of Contracting 



John W. Cobert, Director 

The Office of Contracting (formerly the Office of Contracting 
and Property Management) continued to provide central con- 
tracting, procurement, and advisory services for all Smithson- 
ian museums, research institutes, and offices. The office is 



84 



responsible directly, through its staff, and indirectly, through 
the issuance and oversight of delegations of contracting 
authority to various offices, for the negotiation, contract for- 
mation, and continuing contract administration involving the 
expenditure of most of the Smithsonian's appropriated Federal 
and Institutional trust funds. The Business Contracting Division 
manages and has oversight for contracting for income generating 
and special relationship business contacts. The Travel Services 
Division manages all of the Smithsonian's travel bookings and ar- 
rangements for worldwide activities. The Property and Inventory 
Management Branch has responsibility for the Institution's ac- 
countable property control system. 

During Fiscal Year 1997, the office provided regular and 
ongoing support to the Institution's numerous exhibits, projects, 
design and construction activities, and programs, and con- 
tinued carryover activities from 1996, negotiating contracts 
for the opening, operation, and closing of each convention 
center site for the "America's Smithsonian" exhibition. The - 
office negotiated an agreement with a partnership of two firms to 
take over the production management of the "America's 
Smithsonian" exhibition tour for part of 1997, with Office of 
Contracting providing contract administration and oversight 
after the management of the exhibition was turned over to the 
partnership. The office was also integral in negotiating for the 
lending of artifacts from the "America's Smithsonian" exhi- 
bition for a special exhibition in Scottsdale, AZ, and for a 
special arrangement to store the "America's Smithsonian" 
exhibition equipment and exhibits in Scottsdale during a 
dormant phase of the "America's Smithsonian" exhibition 
tour. 

The request for proposal and contractor selection process for 
food service concessions for all Smithsonian Washington-based 
museums and facilities consumed the entire calendar year. Two 
contractors were selected and contracts awarded in December 
after extensive rating and evaluation by the north-side and south- 
side evaluation committees. Transfer of function from the pre- 
vious contractors scheduled for early January, 1998. 

Several projects and contracts on behalf of the 
Smithsonian's Marine Station at Ft. Pierce, FL, for the 
assumption of occupancy of the former MacArthur Founda- 
tion property. Issues addressed included encroachment on 
the land by an adjoining landowner, movement by barge to 
the property of a donated house (including the process of 
severing the house from its former property, transfer to the 
Smithsonian property, and installation and renovation at 
the Smithsonian property), dock and access issues, and 
related land use issues. 

The Office of contracting awarded and is managing an 
ambitious training program for project and contract 
management. 



Office of Equal Employment and 
Minority Affairs 



Era L. Marshall 

Fiscal Year 1997 was a year of challenge and opportunity for 
OEEMA. Our successes indicate that we met the challenges 
and took advantage of the opportunities. 

OEEMA spearheaded an effort to teduce the number of 
formal EEO complaints by streamlining and improving the 
complaints process. We reassigned the precomplaint counsel- 
ing process to a special team consisting of an EEO manager 
and a mediation specialist. Results included responding to 
more than 1,000 contacts from managers and staff members 
through in-depth counseling and various consultative advice 
and assistance efforts. Seventeen new collateral-duty coun- 
selors were recruited and trained in EEO laws, practices, and 
mediation techniques. Our increased emphasis on intake coun- 
seling and the efforts of our internal EEO counselors resulted 
in the resolution of 56 complaints. This improvement affected 
a very conservative savings of well over a quarter of a million 
dollars (£252,000) in cost avoidance to the Smithsonian 
Institution. 

OEEMA's newest service, mediation, was promoted and 
encouraged at the Under Secretary's Operations Meetings, 
CASD, CIED, and COBD, at on-site meetings with unit 
directors, in Town Meetings for employees, and at Directors' 
Roundtables. Fourteen cases went to mediation; 12 were suc- 
cessfully resolved through this process. The Institution real- 
ized a savings of approximately $54,000 in cost avoidance. 

OEEMA chaired the SI Equal Oppottunity Advisory Coun- 
cil and convened meetings to promote EEO and diversity pan- 
institutionally. The Council seeks to promote harmony and to 
foster a work environment that recognizes and practices equal 
opportunity for all employees. The Council consists of repre- 
sentatives from the Council of Museum Directors (COMD), 
the Council of Administrative Directors (CASD), the Council 
of Information and Education Directors (CIED), and includes 
the Director of Human Resources, the Ombudsman, a repre- 
sentative from the Office of the General Counsel, and the 
Counselor to the Secretary for Community Affairs and Special 
Projects. In close collaboration with the Council, OEEMA 
developed and presented some highly visible and successful 
programs that strengthened diversity and inclusion at the 
Smithsonian: Town Meetings, Roundtables, EEO Training for 
Supervisors, and the Annual Secretary's Award for Excellence 
in Equal Opportunity. These are all initiatives recommended 
and supported by the Council. 

OEEMA orchestrated the third annual Secretary's Award 
Program for Excellence in Equal Opportunity in collaboration 
with the Secretary's Office and the SI Equal Opportunity Ad- 
visory Council. This key EEO awareness and appreciation ac- 
tivity has proven successful in gaining Institutional support 
for EEO initiatives. OEEMA created the concept and was the 



85 



first office to employ the full support and involvement of the 
Secretary, the Under Secretary, and the Provost. Several out- 
standing managers and employees were recognized for excep- 
tional contributions to the Smithsonian's Equal Opportunity 
goals and honored before their peers and hundreds of Smithson- 
ian employees. 

OEEMA serves as a principal participant in monthly meet- 
ings of the Employee Relations Working Group, which enter- 
tains the presence of the Deputy General Counsel, the 
Director of the Office of Human Resources, the Manager of 
Labor and Employee Relations, the Employee Assistance Pro- 
gram Manager, and the Ombudsman. This collaborative effort 
ensures that all players in the dispute resolution business are 
kept informed of every case involving a dispute with the 
Smithsonian's policies, practices, or procedures — whether in 
the informal/formal stages of the EEO complaint process, in 
OHR/LER, MSPB, or in the District courts. 

The OEEMA Director represented the Smithsonian's 
programs, policies, and practices in discussions and meetings 
of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the 
Interagency Council of EEO and Civil Rights Directors. We 
shared lessons learned as part of the national effort to improve 
the quality of EEO programming in the federal government. 

OEEMA's Director served as a principal member of the 
Smithsonian's Personnel System Reform Steering Committee 
and provided three additional OEEMA staff members who 
served on various subcommittees representing EEO goals and 
policies. 

OEEMA continues to serve as a member of the Office of 
Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) 
Directors Interagency Council. The Council serves as a forum 
to inform and alert federal SDBU directors of trends and 
developments in the small business political and economic 
arena. 

OEEMA coordinated with Si's Advocacy Network to help 
develop the following programs: Black History Month, Asian- 
Pacific Heritage Month, Native American Heritage Month, 
and Women's History Month. The various Advocacy Groups 
hosted these programs, and OEEMA assisted in theit presenta- 
tions to encourage diversity and inclusion at the Smithsonian. 

As part of our effort to foster a work environment free of in- 
timidation and discrimination, OEEMA drafted revised proce- 
dures and policy guidance for the prevention and elimination 
of sexual harassment (POSH). The office responded to 
numerous requests and provided POSH briefings to a large 
portion of the SI staff. This effort will continue into FY 98. 

OEEMA also presented awareness and training programs to 
the general staff. Speakers from the Federal Election Commis- 
sion included Patricia A. Brown, Director, EEO and Special 
Programs, and David S. Orr, Director, Personnel and Labor 
Relations, who presented a dynamic program on the theme of 
"Understanding EEO Discrimination: How You Can Make a 
Difference." In collaboration with the Equal Opportunity Ad- 
visory Council, OEEMA presented its second Equal Oppor- 
tunity Roundtable on November 13, 1996. James R. Perez, 



guest speaker from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, shared 
successful equal opportunities strategies employed by FBI 
managers and supervisors. 

OEEMA continues to find ways to improve services to our 
customers. Several staff changes improved the Precomplaint 
Counseling Program. The Special Emphasis Program was 
revised; the Mediation Program was enhanced; a fulltime in- 
house EEO investigator/manager was assigned, and EEO case 
analyses were improved. These changes netted phenomenal 
results: the performance of contract investigators improved, 
and the number of cases exceeding the 180-day investigative 
limit was reduced. The Smithsonian thereby realized a total 
cost savings of approximately $75,700. 

Managers sought and received assistance and advice in 
diversity planning and implementation. OEEMA developed 
guidance and provided assistance to all units with 25 
employees or more. Throughout the reporting year, OEEMA 
assisted units with recruitment, hiring, training, and develop- 
ment evaluation and disciplinary issues. Meetings were held 
with all unit Equal Opportunity Officers to help them 
achieve their EEO objectives. Training was also provided 
managers to increase their understanding of EEO laws and of 
the benefits of diversity. 

OEEMA's applicant flow data analysis and Applicant Flow 
Data Reports identify barriers to diversity in the Smithson- 
ian's employment practices. Complementing the diversity 
planning process, this process involves the monitoring of, and 
reporting on, successful Institutional recruitment efforts. 
OEEMA reviews all selection certificates, certifying them 
with signature and through appropriate comments to manage- 
ment officials. 

OEEMA's coordination initiatives with other offices in- 
cluded participation on a diversity panel for managers and 
employees. Collaborative teams consisting of OEEMA staff, 
OHR, and the Ombudsman held meetings with several 
managers to address current EEO issues and specific concerns. 
OEEMA's Director and staff also met with unit Directors 
from CERC, SI Retail, NZP, OPS, OPP, OFP, VIARC, 
NMAH, and SIL, among others. 

The need to provide reasonable accommodations has be- 
come a growing area of concern as the work force has changed 
to include more disabled and older workers. OEEMA has been 
instrumental in ensuring equal employment opportunity for 
disabled individuals. Seven employees received assistance in 
securing reasonable accommodations. To ensure that manage- 
ment and employees are aware of their rights and responsi- 
bilities, we published a Reasonable Accommodations 
brochure and distributed it to all employees. OEEMA 
developed and published the annual Affirmative Action Plan for 
Individuals with Disabilities. 

OEEMA provided additional publications to inform of 
diversity needs, efforts, and accomplishments. The annual 
Equal Opportunity Report to Congress provided a detailed 
workforce analysis and synopsis of Smithsonian museum ex- 
hibits and programs to the House and Senate Committees on 



86 



Appropriations, seccing forth in detail the Institution's com- 
mitment to celebrating our nation's diverse historical and cul- 
tural achievements. The annual Accomplishment Report for 
Diversity Anion Plans informed senior management of each 
unit's diversity initiatives. 

OEEMA published the third edition of its office news- 
letter, "Opportunities," during this period. This publicanon 
assists employees and managers to deal with and resolve 
human relations issues. The current issue features information 
on OEEMA personnel and services, the Workers' Compensation/ 
Americans with Disabilities Act, and the nature of sexual harass- 
ment in the workplace. The publication is distributed pan- 
Instirucionally and has consistently received positive reviews. 

OEEMA has established and maintains effective lines of 
communication with every major office in the Smithsonian In- 
stitution. Customer service is our goal, and it can be seen in 
every project we undertake. We believe that our success 
results from embracing a common vision around which we 
galvanize our total work efforts "to be valued as a highly effec- 
tive service organization that provides impartial, pro-active 
guidance and assistance to our customers." 



Office of Environmental Management 
and Safety 



F. William Billings ley. Director 

The Office of Environmental Management and Safety con- 
tinued to ensure a safe and healthful environment for all 
Smithsonian employees, volunteers, and the visiting public. 
The office provided consultation services, training, and tech- 
nical support in the areas of environmental management, fire 
protection, and occupational health and safety. The office also 
informed the Smithsonian of applicable fire, safety, and 
environmental management laws and conducted inspections 
of all Smithsonian facilities. FY 1997 marked the sixth annual 
Secretary's Safety Awards Ceremony. The Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory won the large facility award, and 
the National Postal Museum won the small facility awatd. 



Office of Facilities Services 

Richard H. Rice. Jr., Senior Facilities Services Officer 

The Office of Facilities Services, along with other organiza- 
tions in the Facilities Services Group, continued to focus on 
collaborative efforts to improve service to the Institution. 
Among these were several specific organizational develop- 
ment initiatives, focusing on internal relationships, com- 
munications and leadership. 



Office of Physical Plant 



Michael J. Sofield. Director 

The Office of Physical Plant exists to create, pteserve, restore, 
and protect a physical environment that enables the Smith- 
sonian and its Museums and Research Institutions to achieve 
their goals. Physical Plant has a staff of approximately 422 
employees. The Office strives to achieve the following goals: 
to be the leader in creating functional, pleasing, safe, and ac- 
cessible physical environments that are the benchmark of 
quality and innovation; to be tesponsible and proactive in 
meeting our customer's needs; to be a steward for the Institu- 
tion's resources, which are dedicated to achieving our mission. 

Horticulture Services Division landscaped and designed the 
planters surrounding the NASM Building. Completing the 
project in-house saved literally hundreds of thousands of dol- 
lars. The landscape designs and plans were completed by Paul 
Lindell and Karen Swanson. 

More than $65 million in Repair and Restoration funding 
was committed and forwarded for bidding and awarding (a 
record!) Of that total, $27 million was obligated into design 
and construction contracts. Physical Plant was responsible for 
the following projects: 

• Openings — Reed Education Building, SERC; Cooper- 
Hewitt, National Design Museum Miller/Fox Houses; 
Geology, Gems, and Minerals Hall, NMNH 

• Completions — Facade restoration, NASM; HVAC master 
plan, NMAH; Ft. Sherman forest canopy crane, STRI 

• Groundbreaking — Discovery Center, NMNH 



Office of Protection Services 

David F Morrell, Director 

Deriving its legal authority from Title 40, U.S. Code, Section 
193, the Office of Protection Services (OPS) has the following 
as its mission: protecting and securing the National Collec- 
tions and other properties entrusted to the Smithsonian 
Institution and ensuring the safety and security of staff and 
visitors, while permitting an appropriate level of public access 
to collections and properties. 

During this year OPS entered into a contract with Wacken- 
hut Services Incorporated to perform a task analysis for Museum 
Protection Officer (MPO) positions and security supervisor 
positions. The task analysis was completed in March 1997 and 
assisted OPS in determining training needs for the security 
staff. 

During this yeat OPS recruited and hired 69 MPOs; OPS 
directed Wackenhut to train all 69 MPOs. The two-week 



87 



training course focused on basic security operations within a 
museum setting. Wackenhut and OPS conducted 12 in-service 
MPO training classes this year. Wackenhut also assisted OPS 
in providing nine basic supervisory training courses for sergeants 
and lieutenants and two senior supervisory courses for all 
Security Managers. OPS initiated biannual weapons qualifi- 
cation and training for all security staff who are regularly 
required to carry a weapon. 

OPS selected Susan T. Tracey for the position of Associate 
Director of Administration on March 2, 1997. James Burford 
and Andrew Leben were appointed to the positions of Organi- 
zational Ombudsman in April 1997. 

OPS announced and filled two upward mobility positions 
within the Technical Security Division. OPS selected cwo 
employees for these positions who previously held positions as 
Museum Protection Officers. 

In an effort to upgrade and modernize security systems 
throughout the Smithsonian Institution, OPS signed a mem- 
orandum of understanding with the U.S. Army Engineering 
Support Center, Huntsville, Alabama, for assistance with 
design, procurement, installation, and replacement of the 
Smithsonian Institution Propriety Security System. 

OPS worked closely this year wirh the "America's Smithson- 
ian" staff to provide contract oversight for an on-site security 
firm in Houston, Texas; Portland, Oregon; Birmingham, 
Alabama; and San Jose, California. OPS staff also worked 
closely with officials in each city to ensure that high-value ar- 
tifacts were escorted to the exhibition sites without incident. 

The annual National Conference on Cultural Properry 
Protection, hosted by OPS and The North Carolina Museum 
of Art, was held from February 24 through 27 in Raleigh, 
North Carolina. The theme for the conference was "Security- 
Practices for Exhibition and Design in the 21st Century." Over 
150 people attended the conference from museums, libraries, 
and other cultural properry institutions. 



Smithsonian Magazine 



Ronald C. Walker, Publisher 
Don Moser, Editor 

Since its founding in 1970, Smithsonian magazine has extended 
the Institution's message, expanded its influence, and in- 
creased its public visibility throughout the United States and 
abroad. Considered one of the greatest success stories in 
magazine publishing history, Smithsonian is now the 23rd 
largest magazine in the country with a circulation of 2.1 mil- 
lion. It continues to generate revenue for the Institution. 

Editorial subjects extend beyond the scope of the 
Institution's museums. Leading authors contribute articles 
abouc the arts, history, the environment, conservation, and the 
sciences, always written with the layperson in mind. Monthly 



features include "Phenomena, Comment and Notes," a com- 
mentary on nature and the natural world; "Smithsonian 
Perspectives," a column by the Smithsonian Secretary; and 
reviews of recently released non-fiction books. Smithsonian 
Institution activities are covered in three regular departments: 
"Around the Mall and Beyond," "Smithsonian Highlights," 
and "The Object at Hand." 

During this year, Smithsonian magazine's redesign — the 
first in its 27 year history — made its debut in the July 1997 
issue. Designer Don Morris did not radically alter Bradbury 
Thompson's original layout, but the changes were significant. 
The logo was outlined and enlarged to run across the top of 
the page, the typeface was changed, and a flexible system of 
layouts now allows for different design treatments for dif- 
ferent types of stories. 

Smithsonian magazine won several awards this year. First 
was the 1997 National Magazine Award in the category of 
"Special Interests." The award was presented for a three-part 
series on invertebrates by Richard Conniff, which ran in the 
February, May and July 1996 issues. 

The National Magazine Awards program is sponsored by 
the American Society of Magazine Editors and administered 
by the Graduate School of Journalism of Columbia University. 
Established in 1966 to honor editorial excellence, the program 
this year drew 1,183 entries from 281 different magazines. 

Other awards included the following: 

• Community Action Network's loth Annual Media and 
Corporate Awards: Exceptional Merit award for "A Free- 
dom Summer Activist Becomes a Math Revolutionary" by 
Bruce Watson (February 1996), and Certificates of Merit for 
"Making up for Lost Time: The Rewards of Reading at 
Last" by Richard Wolkomir (August 1996); and "Ranchers 
for a 'Radical Center' to Protect Wide-open Spaces" by Jake 
Page (June 1997). 

• Acoustical Society of America's Science Writing Award in 
Acoustics for Journalists, awarded for "Decibel by Decibel, 
Reducing the Din to a Very Dull Roar" by Richard 
Wolkomir (February 1996). 

• Walter Sullivan Award for Excellence in Science Journalism 
from the American Geophysical Union, awarded for 
"Geologists Worry about Dangers of Living 'Under the 
Volcano'" by Jon Krakauer (July 1996). 

• Smithsonian magazine's website also won an award, the 1997 
Clarion Award for "Best World Wide Web Site — Non- 
profit." The Clarion awards are sponsored by the Associa- 
tion for Women in Communications. 



In partnership with the American Society of Travel Agents 
(ASTA), Smithsonian magazine awarded the seventh annual 
ASTAJSmithsonian Magazine Environmental Award to Maho 
Bay Camps, Inc. and SeaCanoe Thailand, Co. Ltd. The award 
recognizes outstanding achievements and contributions by in- 
dividuals, corporations, and countries toward furthering the 
goals of environmental conservation. 



The Smithsonian Associates 



Mara Mayor, Director 

The Smithsonian Associates (TSA) reached out in 1997 to 
Smithsonian members and the general public, offering a 
broad array of educational and cultural programs crafted to 
highlight and complement the work of the Institution. 

Resident Associate Program 

Some of the unique collaborations this year celebrated major 
sports figures and organizations. In cosponsorship with major 
league baseball, TSA's Resident Associate Program presented 
a course that celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of Jackie 
Robinson's breaking baseball's color barrier. The speakers 
included Shirley Povich, Washington Post sports editor who 
covered Robinson during his playing days; Joe Black, former 
Negro League player and Major League player for the Brook- 
lyn Dodgers, Cincinnati Reds, and Washington Senators; and 
John "Buck" O'Neil, Jr., Negro League player and manager 
from 1937 to 1955. 

As part of the ongoing focus on the role of sports in 
American life, TSA presented an unforgettable evening with 
boxing legend Muhammad Ali. And basketball pioneer Ar- 
nold "Red" Auerbach, Hall of Fame players Bill Russell and 
Billy Cunningham, and National Basketball Association 
(NBA) Commissioner David Stern joined TSA and the NBA 
to commemorate the fiftieth annivetsary of the Association. In 
an evening highlighting soccer, players from the DC United 
soccer team recounted their experiences on rhe field to adults 
and children from the Washington, D.C., area. The interviews 
were conducted in Spanish with English translation. 

This year TSA was privileged to award the James Smithson 
Bicentennial Medal to three remarkable individuals: jour- 
nalist and author Walter Cronkite, singer/songwriter Pete 
Seeger, and musician and mvencor Les Paul, who appeared in 
a program cosponsored with the Lemelson Center for the 
Study of Invention and Innovation. The Smithson Medal is 
awarded for individual excellence and achievement in the arts, 
sciences, and humanities. 

In keeping with its educational mission, TSA's "Campus on 
the Mall" offered a variety of programs in collaboration with 
organizations outside the Smithsonian. One of these was an ex- 
tremely popular Mini-Medical School course cosponsored by 
the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Featured speakers 
were Harold Varmus, NIH director and a 1989 Nobel Prize 
winner for his cancer research, and Francis Collins, director of 
the National Center for Human Genome Research. Another 
was a collaboration with the George C. Marshall Foundation 
in which Henry Kissinger and Valery Giscard d'Estaing spoke 
to an overflow audience on international relations. 

Seminars were also offered in concert with major exhibitions 
and collections here at the Smithsonian. A tour and weekend 
seminar featured the "Amber" exhibition at the National 



Museum of Natural History (NMNH). In conjunction with 
the "Think Tank" exhibit at the National Zoological Park, lec- 
tures and discussion sessions led by internationally renowned 
experts explored the primate mind. In collaboration with the 
Division of Information Technology and Society of the National 
Museum of American History (NMAH), "Global Connections 
in the 21st Century" brought together an unprecedented 
assembly of American and European pioneers and leaders in 
information technology, including Tim Berners-Lee, inventor 
of the World Wide Web. 

In children's programming, Discovery Theater produced 
King Prempeh. an original play based on the life of the remark- 
able 19th-century king of the Asante nation (now called 
Ghana). This production, a first-time collabotation between 
TSA and the National Museum of African Art, was made pos- 
sible by funding from the Smithsonian Education Outreach 
Fund. TSA's summer camps again proved popular, as more than 
600 area children enjoyed such programs as "Euclid in Wonder- 
land," "Smithsonian Safari," and "The Art of Juggling." 

In an outstanding world-class premiere, TSA presented 
award-winning actor/director Kenneth Branagh in his new 
film version of Hamlet, produced by Castle Rock Entertain- 
ment. Following the screening, Mr. Branagh was joined by 
Shakespeare Theatre artistic director Michael Kahn and Na- 
tional Public Radio's Susan Stamberg in a seminar that 
focused on the art of adapting literary classics to the screen. 

TSA's Resident Associate Program continued its "Radio 
Theatre— Live!" series with productions of D.L. Coburn's The 
Gin Game, directed by Arena Stage artistic director Douglas 
Wager, Shaw's The Devil's Disciple, directed by Michael Kahn, 
and John Guare's The House of Blue Leaves, directed by Howard 
Shalwitz of the Woolly Mammoth Theatre Company. The 
series, produced by the L.A. Theatre Works and presented by 
TSA in conjunction with the Voice of America (VOA), treats 
audiences to unique performances and a behind-the-scenes 
look at radio drama in production. These world-class produc- 
tions are recorded for subsequent broadcast on public radio 
throughout the United States and abroad on VOA. 

Composer, performer, teacher, and entertainer Peter Schick- 
ele came to the Smithsonian for four programs in a delightful 
series about music and musicians. Schickele, internationally 
"infamous" as the "perpetrator" of the music of P.D.Q. Bach, 
drew on his engaging wit and considerable knowledge to 
bring a fresh approach to the world of music from classical to 
country. TSA also presented its annual series of chamber 
concerts by the Emerson String Quartet, the 20th Century 
Consort, and the Smithsonian Chamber Music Society, whose 
performances continue to set standards for great musical 
performance. 

Other well-known artists presented by the Resident 
Associate Program included singer and author Patti LaBelle, 
playwright and screenwriter Neil Simon, and actors Eli Wal- 
lach and Anne Jackson. A special evening examining the 
genius of Jim Henson provided a behind-the-scenes look at 
the life and career of the creator of the Muppets®. 



89 



TSA's studio arcs courses are considered to be among the 
finest offered in the Washington area. Classes in painting, 
drawing, photography, and various handicrafts continued to 
educate and entertain students from beginners to the profi- 
cient. The numerous photography classes, in particular, 
proved especially popular, offering participants the oppor- 
tunity to enhance their artistry as well as to learn darkroom 
techniques. 

The Online Associate began monthly publication on the 
World Wide Web to complement the print version of the 
Resident Associate catalog, enabling Resident members and 
the general public to keep informed about TSA programs. 

Smithsonian Study Tours 

Acclaimed filmmaker Ken Burns, who in February lectured in 
Washington, D.C., and showed clips from his film Thomas 
Jefferson, also talked about his recent films when he joined par- 
ticipants in the Smithsonian Study Tour seminar at Colorado's 
annual Telluride Film Festival. It was one of the more than 
350 local, national, and international tours offered by TSA. 
Film expert Peter Brunette of George Mason University was 
study leader for this program. 

In April The Smithsonian Associates offered its first Oxford 
University/Smithsonian study voyage aboard the AITS Arcadia 
to the Greek Islands. Oxford tutors offered seven on-board 
seminars on topics including ancient philosophers, the Btonze 
Age Aegean, and che Ottoman Empire for the 149 Associates 
who traveled on this unique voyage. 

On "The Golden Spike: A Journey Through History" study- 
tour, eighty-three Associates traveling by vintage train visited 
Promontory Summit, Utah, where they participated in the 
reenactment of the driving of the golden spike that marked 
the completion of the Transcontinental Railway in 1869. William 
Withuhn, NMAH curator of transportation, served as study- 
leader on the tour. 

Local tours offered a wide and exciting variety of onsite 
learning experiences in the arts, sciences, and humanities. 
Lasting from a few hours to four days in length, local tours 
allow participants to join an acknowledged expert in a study 
of such subjects as art, architecture, drama, nature, geology, 
history, and ethnic cultures. Sites visited included little- 
known and well-known, popular attractions of the Mid-Atlantic 
region. Of particular note this year was the "Hoses, Hook, and 
Ladders: Washington's Historic Firehouses" tour on July 19. 
Historian and DC firefighter Richard Schaffer led participants 
to some twenty historic firehouses in greater Washington, 
D.C., including two 18th-century structures in Alexandria, 
Virginia. 

Masters Program in Decorative Arts 

The Masters Program in the History of 19th- and 20th-century 
American Decorative Arts, established in 1996, welcomed its 
second class. Students had not only the opportunity to explore 
the unparalleled collections and libraries of the Smithsonian 



Institution, but also the chance to visit and intern at such 
renowned institutions as the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 
the Art Institute of Chicago, and the Museum of Fine Arts, 
Boston. 

As the program grew the curriculum diversified, offering a 
variety of seminars like "Industrial Design and American 
Society, 1925— 1965" in addition to survey classes on silver, 
glass, texciles, and furniture. The program also graduated its 
first class, and these graduates found positions at such pres- 
tigious institutions as The White House, the Cranbrook Art 
Museum, and the Maryland Historical Society. 

National Outreach 

Smithsonian Institutes for "Professionals 

As part of an ongoing telationship with Indiana University, 
TSA presented a World Affairs Institute for forty participants 
who came from the state's business, political, and academic 
communities. Focusing on the challenges facing Europe in the 
21st century, the program included lectures by notable interna- 
tional experts from organizations including the Library of 
Congress, the Woodrow Wilson International Center for 
Scholars, Johns Hopkins University's Nitze School of Ad- 
vanced International Studies, and Columbia University, and 
events at the embassies of Germany, France, and Great Britain. 
TSA designed and hosted a behind-the-scenes look at foren- 
sic science with collections manager David Hunt of the physi- 
cal anthropology department of NMNH. The thirty-five 
teachers who participated came from around the country. All 
were participants in a program with Educational Field 
Studies, Inc., and served as a focus group to discuss plans for a 
new TSA program to introduce incoming student groups to 
the Smithsonian. 

Smithsonian Voices of Discovery 

TSA presented a Smithsonian Voices of Discovery lecrure 
series in the communities visited by the America's Smithsonian 
traveling exhibition. In each city — Sc. Paul/Minneapolis, 
Houston, Portland (OR), Birmingham (AL), and San Jose/ 
Oakland — free public programs expressing the diversity of 
Smithsonian tesearch and collections were presented in 
museums, libraries, business and civic organizations, senior 
centets, and schools and universities. In addition, a series was 
presented in San Antonio, where important connections have 
been made with the Latino community there. Fifty scholars 
traveled to these cities, conducting 382 presentations and 
reaching approxjmately 29,000 people. In addition, tens of 
thousands of people were able to participate via television and 
tadio broadcasts and online discussions. 

Voices from The Smithsonian Associates® 

The audiocassette series, Voices from The Smithsonian As- 
sociates®, expanded to seventeen programs selected from 
popular Resident Associate events, featuring such speakers as 



90 



Microsoft's Bill Gates, journalists David Brmkley and Walter 
Cronkite, historians Stephen Ambrose and James McPherson, 
and writers P.D. James and Pat Conroy. These programs were 
also offered on the newly expanded TSA website. 

Young Benefactors 

The Smithsonian Young Benefactors entered its eighth year 
this year, continuing its mission of raising unrestricted funds 
for the Smithsonian Institution and increasing awareness 
among young professionals of the goals and objectives of the 
Institution. Among activities this year were "Mingle Among 
the Moderns," a reception and tour of the National Museum 
of American Art's collection of 20th-century American paint- 
ing and sculpture, and the Eighth Annual Blast-Off Black- 
Tie Gala at the National Air and Space Museum, which raised 
more than $100,000. 



Affiliated Organizations 

The John F. Kennedy Center for rhe Performing Arts, the - 
National Gallery of Art, and the Woodrow Wilson International 
Center for Scholars were established by Congress within the 
Smithsonian Instirution under their own boards of trustees. The 
Institution provides administrative services on contract to Read- 
ing Is Fundamental, Inc., an independent organization. 



John R Kennedy Center for the 
Performing Arts 

James A. Johnson, Chairman 
Laurence J. Wilker, President 

In April 1996 the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing 
Arts marked its 25th anniversary as a presidential memorial 
and one of the world's most celebrated performing arts 
centers. The Kennedy Center presents the finest performances 
of music, theater, and dance from this nation and abroad; 
makes the performing arts available to the greatest possible 
audience through free and discounted performances, as well as 
other outreach programs; nurtures new works and supports ar- 
tists through its producing, commissioning, and training 
programs in a variety of disciplines; and serves the nation as a 
leader in arts education. The Kennedy Center's six theaters 
host performances that attract more than 2 million patrons an- 
nually; the annual telecast of the Kennedy Center Honors and 
other broadcasts reach millions more across the country; and 
the center reaches out to the nation with touring productions 
and performances. 



Kennedy Center Chairman James A. Johnson initiated a set 
of programs in February 1997 designed to make the center, 
and the performing arts in general, accessible to the broadest 
possible audience. These "Performing Arts for Everyone" in- 
itiatives include free performances every evening of the year 
on the new Millennium Stage and the construction of a new 
TICKETplace discount ticket booth, which opened to the 
public in June in Washington's Old Post Office Pavilion. 

The first season of the Kennedy Center African Odyssey, a 
multiyear celebration of the music, dance, and theater of Africa 
and the African Diaspora, featured theater from South Africa, 
music and dance from Cote d'lvoire, agriot storyteller from 
Gambia, and exhibitions of stone sculpture from Zimbabwe and 
textiles from throughout the African continent. Included were 
the world premieres of two Kennedy Center dance commissions 
and three ensembles making their American debuts. 

The Kennedy Center Concert Hall closed in January for 
extensive renovations, with the goal of making the theater a 
national model for public accommodation and accessibility 
for people with disabilities. The Concert Hall, which 
reopened just nine months later in October, was the first of 
the center's theaters to undergo these improvements. Other 
Kennedy Center theaters will follow in future years as part of 
an ambitious calendar of construcrion. 

With its home theater under construction, the National 
Symphony Orchestra (NSO) — in its first season under Music 
Director Leonard Slatkin — performed innovative programs in 
the center's other theaters. The NSO's fifth American Residency 
took orchestra members to Arizona for more than a week of 
performances, master classes, and educational activities in the 
spring. In the fall the NSO held its inaugural Beethoven Fes- 
tival, part of a revolution in programming that will surround 
rhe regular concert schedule with thematic festivals spaced 
throughout rhe year. During its firsr concert tour of Europe 
under Slatkin's direction, the orchestra was greeted with criti- 
cal and popular acclaim. 

The Kennedy Center coproduced the Broadway hit Titanic, 
which earned the 1997 Tony Award for Best Musical. Mean- 
while, the center's coproduction of The King and I. a 1996 Tony 
winner, made its Washington debut at the center in the spring 
before embarking on a nationwide tour. The center's "Imagina- 
tion Celebration" commissioned two new works during 1996 — 
97: an original play titled Children of the Sun from Pulitzer 
Prize— winner N. Scott Momaday and an adaptation of Judy 
Blume's popular children's book Tales of a Fourth Grade Noth- 
ing. Tales will tour to communities nationwide during the 
1997-1998 and 1998-1999 school years. 

In fall 1996 the Kennedy Center launched a national 
program to include the arts in the curricula of every school 
system across the United States. The "Creative Ticket for Stu- 
dent Success" campaign, spearheaded by the center's Alliance 
for Arts Education Network and its nationwide affiliates, 
united organizations and individuals in encouraging 
educators, parents, and elected officials to make the arts a 
regular part of the life of every American child. 



91 



National Gallery of Art 



Earl A. Powell III, Director 

The National Gallery of Art serves the United States in a na- 
tional role by preserving, collecting, exhibiting, and fostering 
the understanding of works of art at the highest possible 
museum and scholarly standards. 

The gallery's exhibition season began with "Olmec Art of 
Ancient Mexico," a panoramic overview of the achievements 
of Mexico's oldest civilization, which flourished from 1200 
B.C. to A.D. 300. Other exhibitions included a survey of the 
French master of light and shadow, Georges de la Tour (1593- 
1652); drawings by Michelangelo and other artists he influ- 
enced from the collection of Queen Elizabeth II; an extensive 
selection from the world's greatest collection of Chinese art in 
"Splendors of Imperial China: Treasures from the National 
Palace Museum"; rarely glimpsed narrative paintings and 
portraits in "The Victorians: British Painting in the Reign of 
Queen Victoria, 1837-1901"; early works of the fertile and 
precocious genius Pablo Picasso, from age II to his invention 
of cubism; and a groundbreaking exhibition of ancient 
Angkor and Cambodian sculpture from the museum of 
Phnom Penh, the national collection of Asiatic art in Paris, 
and other international museums. 

The Education Division developed materials for the gallery's 
World Wide Web site, created a hypercard component of the 
American art videodisc, and digitized works of art for the up- 
coming videodisc on European art. The division served an 
audience of 29.7 million through lectures, tours, symposia, 
academic programs, school tours and teacher training, and the 
loan of educational materials on art and culture. Working 
with the education staff, Maryland Public Television 
produced a one-hour interactive electronic field trip from the 
Picasso exhibition. The program was broadcast live on seven 
public television stations and seen by more than 40,000 stu- 
dents in Maryland and the District of Columbia. 

Purchases for the gallery's collections are made possible by 
funds donated by private citizens. Among the paintings ac- 
quired this year were an early Winslow Homer depiction of a 
quiet moment during the Civil War, Home, Sweet Home; 
The Miraculous Draft of Fishes by the 16th-century Venetian 
artist Jacopo Bassano; a large work by French cubist Francis 
Picabia, The Procession, Seville; a late-i8th-cencury water- 
color landscape by German artist Johann Georg von Dillis; 
and the unworn and unreworked copperplate for Rembrandt's 
etching Abraham Entertaining the Angels. 

Gifts to the collection included a gouache by Picasso of The 
Death of Harlequin, with an oil sketch on the reverse, from 
Paul Mellon; 40 works by Alexander Calder from Klaus Perls, 
the artist's dealer in the United States; a painting by the 16th- 
century Italian artist Cariani and an oil sketch by Rubens, 
both bequeathed by Lore Heinemann; 18 sheets (some double- 
sided) of drawings by Winslow Homer from the Civil War- 



given by Dr. Edmund Zalinski II, a descendant of the Civil 
War major who received them from the artist; a 1929 
photograph, Shadows of the Eiffel Tower, by the Hungarian 
photographer Andre Kertesz from the Andre and Elizabeth 
Kertesz Foundation; and five photographs by the innovative 
photographer Harold Edgerton from the Harold and Esther 
Edgerton Family Foundation. A gift of more than 230 contem- 
porary prints was received from Crown Point Press, one of the 
leading print publishing workshops in the United States, and 
its founder Kathan Brown. 

The newly restored plaster memorial to Colonel Robert 
Gould Shaw and the Massachusetts 54th Regiment by Augus- 
tus Saint-Gaudens was unveiled in a new installation in the 
West Building. The 18-foot-wide sculpture is on long-term 
loan from the Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site in Cornish, 
New Hampshire. The bronze cast of the memorial stands on 
Boston Common and is considered one of this country's 
greatest sculptural monuments. 



Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. 



Lynda Johnson Robb, Chairman 
William E. Trueheart, President and CEO 

Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. (RIF) is the largest children's 
literacy organization in the United States. Since it was 
founded by the late Margaret McNamara in 1966, RIF has 
served millions of America's young people with more than 174 
million books. 

RIF addresses one of the most serious problems facing the 
nation today — the fact that alarming numbers of children are 
growing up without learning to read. RIF gives local citizens 
a chance to do something about this problem by drawing on 
two American traditions — community self-help and volun- 
teerism. In 1997 the volunteer services of some 219,000 local 
citizens enabled RIF to serve more than 3.7 million children 
at 17,055 sites in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and 
the U.S. offshore territories of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, 
and Guam. 

RIF reaches young people in all kinds of settings — schools, 
libraries, day-care centers, Head Start and Even Start 
programs, migrant worker camps, housing developments, 
libraries, Boys and Girls Clubs, schools for children with dis- 
abilities, juvenile detention centers, and hospitals and clinics. 
RIF is also a source of books and reading activities for 
youngsters from dozens of Native American Tribes, including 
Native Alaskan young people and Pacific Island children in 
Guam and Hawaii. 

In 1997 the American Institute of Philanthropy once again 
gave RIF an A+ rating and ranked it as one of the nation's top 
10 charities. And for the second year, Parenting magazine cited 



92 



RIF as one of the "10 charities chat make a difference in the 
lives of children and families." 

Highlights of the Year 

In 1997 Dr. William E. Trueheart was named RIF president 
by the RIF Board of Directors after the retirement of Ruth 
Graves. A former president of Bryant College in Rhode Is- 
land, Dr. Trueheart has held numerous positions in higher 
education, including Assistant Dean and Director of the 
Master of Public Administration Program at Harvard's John 
F. Kennedy School of Government. 

In April First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton invited 
children to celebrate "Reading Is Fun Week" in the East 
Room of the White House. The program included a National 
Awards ceremony honoring the winners of the RIF National 
Poster Contest and the National Reading Celebration, two 
reading incentive programs underwritten by the Metropolitan 
Life Foundation. 

After the ceremony, the children were treated to appearan- 
ces by Miss America Tara Holland; actor Larry Sellars, who 
talked about the art of Native American storytelling; Indiana 
Pacers' guard Reggie Miller, who recited a poem about 
baseball; and award-winning author-illustrator Tomie de 
Paola, who demonstrated how he illustrates children's books. 
Special guests at the RIF Week celebration included U.S. 
Secretary of Education Richard W. Riley and two members of 
Congress, Representatives William Goodling of Pennsylvania 
and Tom Sawyer of Ohio. 

In response to the Presidents' Summit for America's Fu- 
ture, Reading Is Fundamental pledged to serve an additional 
1.5 million children by the end of the year 2000. RIF Chair- 
man Lynda Robb, who served as cochairman of the Presidents' 
Summit, was named cochairman of the successor organization, 
"America's Promise: The Alliance for Youth." 

As 1997 drew to a close, RIF was well on its way to becom- 
ing an international program. For the second year, Great 
Britain's National Literacy Trust sponsored "RIF, United 
Kingdom" to promote children's literacy in the British Isles. 
Meanwhile Fundacion Leer, a nonprofit group in Buenos 
Aires, is bringing "Leer es Fundamentals — Reading Is Fun- 
damental" to the children of Argentina. Both organizations 
have signed license agreements with RIF and are motivating 
children to read through book events and special activities. 

In November Visa U.S-A. and RIF launched "Read Me a 
Story," a major national campaign to raise awareness of the impor- 
tance of reading aloud to children and to raise Si million for RIF. 

Actor Danny Glover, the "Read Me a Story" spokesman, 
kicked off a 15,000-mile cross-country bus tour, in which a 
cast of 10 favorite storybook characters stopped off in 61 cities 
and 33 states to read aloud to children at schools, hospitals, 
and shopping malls. Along the way, 41 mayors and governors 
declared "Read Me a Story" Day in their cities and states. The 
story bus tour ended in San Francisco on December 23, with 
Glover leading the largest read-aloud event ever during 
halftime at a San Francisco 49ers— Detroit Lions game. 



"Read Me a Story" was also a triumph for RIF volunteers, 
who had been challenged to set a world record by reading a 
million stories to children during the months of November 
and December. When the final count was tallied, RIF volun- 
teers had far exceeded the goal of one million stories by offer- 
ing 1.5 million children the chance to listen to nearly four 
million stories. 

In 1997 the National Basketball Association joined RIF in 
recognizing March as NBA Reading Month. At a RIF project 
in West Harlem, NBA Commissioner David Stern and Hall 
of Famer Bob Lanier joined RIF staff in kicking off the month 
with a "Reading Time Out" for third graders. This was followed 
by other "Reading Time Out" events across the country, in 
which NBA team players and mascots read some of their 
favorite stories aloud to RIF children. 

In Southern California the Los Angeles Lakers and South- 
west Airlines sponsored a "Shaq Read 34 Challenge," which 
had more than 5,000 children pledging to read 34 books 
apiece during the month (Shaquille O'Neal's jersey number is 
34). Those who met the challenge were honored by Shaquille 
during a halftime ceremony at a Lakers game. 

In the meantime NBA-produced public service an- 
nouncements for RIF continued to reach millions of viewers 
throughout the year. Each PSA features an NBA superscar ur- 
ging kids to read. 

The Miss America Organization and RIF joined forces to 
hold nationwide "Literacy Town Hall" meetings in which 
Miss America titleholders in each state moderated open dis- 
cussions with RIF third graders on what reading means to 
them. The meetings showed what motivates third graders to 
read and whether they had ready access to books. The third 
graders also put together some practical advice for President 
Clinton on what he could do to help build a nation of readers. 
For example, a third grader in Alamo, Tex. called on the presi- 
dent to "continue to support the RIF program. What will 
help me read more," she said, "is to get more books." 

Over the last 31 years, RIF has given hundreds of thousands 
of Native American children the chance to choose and keep 
cheir own books. The children come from dozens of Tribes, in- 
cluding those of the Apache, Arapahoe, Blackfeet, Cherokee, 
Chippewa, Choctaw, Hopi, Navajo, Oneida, Sioux, and Yaqui. 
RIF draws on the interests of the children by holding book 
events with Native American chemes and by featuring titles 
with which the children can identify. 

Another asset is RIF's special gift for working with parents. 
A volunteer in New Mexico tells us chat mothers and fathers 
are raising money for RIF books by selling candy, pickles, and 
popcorn after school. Many of these parents cannot read. Yet 
they have found a way to help their children become readers. 

To serve more Native American children, RIF has formed 
partnerships with the private sector. Fourteen years ago, the 
New York Life Foundation joined RIF in launching a wide- 
ranging program that is now serving 20,449 Native American 
children in 14 states. RIF has also formed a partnership with 
the Cerimon Fund, which supports RIF programs for more 



93 



than 8,000 Native American children at 55 sices west of che 
Mississippi River. 

RIF's RUNNING START® program was launched in 1989 
by the Chrysler Corporation Fund. The program is known for 
its ability to enlist both parents and the community in help- 
ing each first grader meet the RUNNING START challenge 
of reading 21 books over an eight-to-ten-week period. 

Today, 80,000 first graders in 42 states are participating in 
RUNNING START Last year, the John D. and Catherine T. 
MacArthur Foundation funded RUNNING START for 4,700 
first graders in 34 Title I schools in Florida. In New England 
the Reader's Digest Foundation has underwritten a RUN- 
NING START program for first graders in Connecticut's Fair- 
field County and in the Hudson Valley of New York State. In 
Texas the Mobil Foundation and the Shell Oil Foundation are 
supporting RUNNING START programs in Dallas, Hous- 
ton, and Midland. And in the Midwest SC Johnson Wax, Inc., 
has expanded its RUNNING START program to every first 
grader in the School District of Racine, Wisconsin. 

In a homeless shelter, where the average age is just nine 
years old, a child doesn't have much incentive to become a 
reader. That is why RIF created Project Open Book®, which 
gets books into the hands of children in crisis and gives them 
a quiet reading corner where they can read and listen to 
stoties. 

Last year a grant from the Meadows Foundation of Dallas 
enabled RIF to establish new Open Book reading corners in 
predominantly rural areas of Texas. This program is serving 
more than 9,000 children (preschool through high school) 
and their families at 45 shelters and other crisis facilities. 
Volunteers hold story hours, conduct mentoring programs, 
and plan drama and art activities chat stimulate an interest in 
books. 

Open Book also reaches young people across the country at 
detention facilities, after-school programs, Nacive American 
reservacions, public health clinics, welfare offices, and others 
settings for families in transition. 

Illustrators of children's books conducted RIF Art Studio 
workshops for children in five cities — Chicago, Tampa, Fla., 
Atlanta, Ga., Pawtucket, R.I., and New York. Funded by the 
Metropolitan Life Foundation, the RIF Art Scudio incroduced 
RIF youngsters to the illustrations in children's books and 
then invited chem to explore cheir own creativity. Each work- 
shop began with a presencacion by a well-known children's 
book illustrator and ended in hands-on activities in which the 
children created cheir own artwork. The activities were super- 
vised by RIF staff and MetLife employees. Each child rook 
home a kit of art supplies and a new book selected from an art- 
themed collection of titles. 

Older and younger children are having fun while improv- 
ing their reading skills as part of Books on the Menu sm , a food- 
rhemed activity program created by RIF and funded by 
Transmedia Network, Inc. Lasc year, Books on che Menu was 
launched in Souch Florida and che Washingcon mecropolican 
area. Under the program, incermediace scudencs crain to be- 



come "bookmates" and reading mentors to first graders and 
kindergarten children. Each week the bookmates meet for a 
read together. The younger children acquire an older friend 
and broaden their book experiences. The older children gain 
self esteem by serving as role models. All bookmates have 
more opportunities to read and discover new books. 



Woodrow Wilson International 
Center for Scholars 

Charles Blitzer. Director 

The Woodrow Wilson Center was established as the official 
living memorial to the nation's 28th president and as a place 
of free intellectual inquiry reflecting the full range of 
Woodrow Wilson's ideals and concerns. The center's congres- 
sional mandate is to strengthen the links between the worlds 
of ideas and of public affairs. Through an annual fellowship 
competition, outstanding scholars from around the world are 
invited to the center for extended periods of research and writ- 
ing. In addition, the center sponsots public meetings, 
generates publications, and produces broadcast programs that 
make individual scholarship accessible to policy makers and a 
broad public. 

In a ceremony on November 1, the center signed a lease for 
its new home in the Ronald Reagan Building. As the center's 
founding legislation intended, scholars and staff will be 
housed in a distinctive structure on Pennsylvania Avenue in 
Washington, D.C. The move is scheduled to occur in the sum- 
mer of 1998. 

Joseph Flom, chairman of che cencer's board of trustees, and 
his wife Claire announced in November their intention to 
make a $1 million challenge granc co che cencer for funds co 
finish che incerior of che new building. The granc required che 
cencer co raise an addicional $2 million by July 31. Approxi- 
macely $750,000 was raised from individual donors, while che 
remaining $1.25 million was secured from a benefir dinner 
held in New York City. 

On June 10 more than 500 guests gathered in New York 
City to honor Joseph Flom and John B. McCoy of Bank One 
for cheir concributions to the world of learning. Federal 
Reserve Board Chairman Alan Greenspan delivered the 
keynote speech. The event represented the largest fund-raising 
effort in the history of the center. 

Charles Blitzer, the center's director since 1988, informed 
the board of trustees of his intention to retire from that posi- 
tion on July 24, 1997. Flom said that Blitzer "will leave be- 
hind a body of accomplishment that speaks eloquently of his 
stewardship, most notable among these the growing ranks of 
the distinguished alumni of the center, who constitute one of 
our best and brightest hopes for the next century, and a fitting 
home for the Woodrow Wilson Center on Pennsylvania 



94 



Avenue, appropriate to its charrer as the official memorial to a Because the center's scholars provide unique perspectives on 

great president." critical issues, they are frequent participants in national 

Edward Tenner, a 1995-1996 Woodrow Wilson Center Fel- dialogues with political leaders and opinion makers, 
low, visiting scholar in Princeton University's Department of In January former Secretary of State Warren Christopher 

Geosciences, and author oiTech Speak and Why Things Bite participated in a roundtable discussion of environmental 

Back, testified before the House Committee on Rules, Sub- diplomacy at the center. The meeting brought together 

committee on Rules and Organization, to discuss the effects of public- and private-sector experts to consider how the environ- 

technological innovation on the political legislative processes. ment relates to U.S. foreign policy and security objectives. 



95 



Members of the Smithsonian 
Councils, Boards, and 
Commissions, 
September 30, 1997 



Smithsonian Institution 
Board of Regents 



The Honorable William H. Rehnquist, 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of 
the United States, Chancellor, ex officio 

The Honorable Albert Gore, Jr., Vice 
President of the United States, ex officio 

Members of the Senate 

The Honorable Thad Cochran, Senator 

from Mississippi 
The Honorable Bill Frist, Senator from 

Tennessee 
The Honorable Daniel P. Moynihan, 

Senator from New York 

Members of the House of 
Representatives 

The Honorable Sam Johnson, 

Representative from Texas 
The Honorable Bob Livingston, 

Representative from Louisiana 
The Honorable Esceban Edward Torres, 

Representative from California 

Citizen Members 

The Honorable Howard H. Baker, Jr., 
Citizen of the District of Columbia 



The Honorable Barber B. Conable, Jr., 

Citizen of New York 
Ms. Anne d'Harnoncourt, Citizen of 

Pennsylvania 
Mr. Louis V. Gerstner, Jr., Citizen of 

Connecticut 
Dr. Hanna Holborn Gray, Citizen of 

Illinois 
Dr. Manuel L. Ibanez, Citizen of Texas 
Dr. Homer A. Neal, Citizen of Michigan 
Mr. Frank A. Shrontz, Citizen of 

Washington 
Mr. Wesley S. Williams, Jr., Citizen of 

the District of Columbia 



Senior Officers 



I. Michael Heyman, Secretary 
Constance Berry Newman, Under 

Secretary 
J. Dennis OGonnor, Provost 
M. John Berry, Director of Government 

Relations 
Thomas D. Blair, Inspector General 
Miguel A. Bretos, Counselor for 

Communiry Affairs 
Robert V. Hanle, Executive Director for 

Development 
James M. Hobbins, Executive Assistant 

to the Secretary 
John E. Huerta, General Counsel 



Thomas E. Lovejoy, Counselor for 

Biodiversity and Environmental 

Affairs 
Marc J. Pachter, Counselor for 

Electronic Communications and 

Special Projects 
David J. Umansky, Director of 

Communications 
L. Carole Wharton, Director of the 

Office of Planning, Management, 

and Budget 



Anacostia Museum Board 



Mrs. Helen Allen 
Mr. Stanley Anderson 
Mr. Glover Bullock 
Ms. Irene Carter 
Ms. Dianne Dale 
Mrs. Marie Dale 
Mrs. Iris Harris 
Mrs. Concha Johnson 
Mrs. Theresa Jones, Chairperson 
Mrs. Delia Lowery, Recording Secretary 
Mr. David Lyons 

Dr. Caryl Marsh, Vice Chairperson 
Mrs. Cynthia Clark Matthews 
Mrs. Alenitha J. Quails, Corresponding 
Secretary 



Archives of American Art 
Board of Trustees 

Mrs. Otto L. Spaeth, Chairman Emeritus 

Mrs. Keith S. Wellin, Chairman 

Mr. Frank Martucci, President 

Mrs. Arthur A. Feder, Vice President 

Mrs. Joseph G Fogg, Vice President 

Mr. Hugh Halff, Jr., Vice President 

Mrs. Richard Roob, Vice President 

Mrs. Dana M. Raymond, Secretary 

Mr. John R. Robinson, Treasurer 

Mrs. Jack S. Blanton 

Dr. Charles Blitzer 

Ms. Lori Blount Cucchiaro 

Mr. Gerald E. Buck 

Mr. Willard G. Clark 

Mrs. Francis de Marneffe 

Mr. and Mrs. Donald J. Douglass 



96 



Ms. Barbara G. Fleischman 

Ms. Elizabeth Marsteller Gordon 

Mr. Raymond J. Horowitz 

Mrs. Bruce Karatz 

Mrs. Dwight M. Kendall 

Mr. Werner H. Kramarsky 

Mr. Richard A. Manoogian 

Mrs. John Murchison 

Mrs. Meyer P. Potamkin 

Mr. Jock Reynolds 

Mrs. Stephen Rubin 

Mrs. Christopher Stack 

Mr. A. Alfred Taubman 

Lady Judith O. Thomson 

Trustee Council 

The Honorable Max N. Berry 

Mr. Eli Broad 

Mr. Gilbert S. Edelson 

Mrs. Daniel Fraad 

Mr. John K. Howat 

Dr. Helen I. Jessup 

Mr. Alan D. Levy 

Mrs. Abbott K. Schlain 

Mr. Alan E. Schwartz 



Mrs. Nancy A. Marks 
Mr. Kenneth B. Miller 
Mrs. Enid W. Morse 
Mr. William P. Rayner 
Mr. Harry G. Robinson, III 
Mr. Arthur Ross 
Mr. Richard M. Smith 
Prof. Sue Jane Smock 
Mr. Edward A. Weinstein 

Honorary Members 

Mrs. Joan K. Davidson 
Mr. Harmon H. Goldstone 

Ex Officio Members 

Mr. I. Michael Heyman 
Mr. J. Dennis O'Connor 



Council of Administrative 
and Service Directors 



Ms. Aileen F. Wakefield 
Mr. James H. Wallace, Jr. 
Dr. L. Carole Wharton 



Council of Bureau 
Directors 



Dr. Milo Cleveland Beach 

Dr. Elizabeth Broun 

Dr. Spencer R. Crew 

Mr. James T. Demetrion 

Vice Admiral Donald D. Engen 

Dr. Alan Fern 

Mrs. Patricia L. Fiske 

Mr. Robert Fri 

Mr. Steven Newsome 

Ms. Dianne H. Pilgrim 

Dr. Michael H. Robinson 

Dr. Ira Rubmoff 

Dr. Irwin I. Shapiro 

Dr. Richard J. Wattenmaker 

Mr. W.Richard West, Jr. 



Honorary Trustees 

Dr. Irving F. Burron 
Mr. Richard J. Schwartz 

Ex Officio Members 

Mr. I. Michael Heyman 
Mr. J. Dennis O'Connor 
Mr. William C. Agee 



Cooper-Hewitt National 
Design Museum Board of 
Trustees 



Mrs. Kathleen Allaire 
Mr. Jorge L. Batista 
Ms. Agnes Cowles Bourne 
Mr. Donald Bruckmann 
Mrs. Joanne Foscer 
Mr. George J. Gillespie, III 
Mr. Harvey M. Krueger 
Ms. Elaine La Roche 
Mrs. Barbara Levin 



Mrs. Lon H. Aceto 

Mr. Sudeep Anand 

Ms. Francine C. Berkowitz 

Mr. F. William Billingsley 

Mr. Joseph Carper 

Ms. Mary Leslie Casson 

Mr. John Cobert 

Mrs. Laudine L. Creighton 

Mr. Lee Denny 

Ms. Ardelle G. Foss 

Mr. Mike Headley 

Dr. Edie Hedlin 

Mrs. Chandra P. Heilman 

Mr. John E. Huerta 

Mr. Rick R. Johnson 

Ms. Nikki Krakora 

Ms. Era Marshall 

Ms. Anna B. Martin 

Mrs. Marie A. Mattson 

Mr. Patrick Miller 

Mr. David F. Morrell 

Mr. Richard H. Rice 

Dr. Michael H. Robinson 

Dr. Ira Rubinoff 

Ms. Cora Shores 

Dr. Barbara J. Smith 

Mr. Michael Sofield 

Mrs. Mary Augusta Thomas 



Council of Information 
and Education Directors 



Ms. Ann P. Bay 

Ms. Nancy J. Bechtol 

Ms. Francine C. Berkowitz 

Mr. Joseph Carper 

Ms. Anna R. Cohn 

Dr. Zahava D. Doering 

Dr. Rex M. Ellis 

Mr. Daniel H. Goodwin 

Ms. Anne R. Gossett 

Dr. Nancy E. Gwinn 

Mr. Mike Headley 

Dr. Ethel Hedlin 

Mt. Paul B. Johnson 

Dr. Richard Kurin 

Dr. Douglas M. Lapp 

Ms. Janice Majewski 

Dr. Mara Mayor 

Ms. Mary Grace Potter 

Mr. David J. Umansky 

Dr. Lambertus Van Zelst 

Mr. Ronald Walker 

Mr. James H. Wallace, Jr. 



S>7 



Folklife Advisory 
Council 



Dr. Roger Abrahams 

Dr. Jacinro Arias 

Dr. Jane Beck 

Dr. Pat Jasper 

Dr. Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett 

Dr. Bermce Johnson Reagon 

Dr. John Roberts 

Dr. Carol Robertson 

Dr. Gilbert Sprauve 

Dr. John Kuo Wei Tchen 

Dr. Ricardo Trimillos 

Dr. Carlos Velez-Ibanez 



Folkways Advisory 
Board 



Mr. Michael Asch 
Mr. Don DeVito 
Ms. Ellajenkms 
Mr. Jon Kertzer 
Mr. John Nixdorf 



Freer Gallery of Art 
Visiting Committee 

Mr. Willard G. Clark, Chair 

Mrs. Jackson Burke 

Mr. Roger E. Covey 

Mr. Richard M. Danziger 

Dr. Robert S. Feinberg 

Mrs. Katharine M. Graham 

Mrs. Richard Helms 

Sir Joseph E. Hotung 

Mrs. Gilbert H. Kinney 

Mr. Rogerio S. Lam 

Mr. and Mrs. Christopher Luce 

Mrs. Elizabeth Moynihan 

Prof. Martin Powers 

Gursharan Sidhu 

Miss Shelby White 



Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden Board of 
Trustees 



Mr. Robert T. Buck, Jr. 

Mr. Jerome L. Greene 

Mr. Robert B. Lehrman 

Mr. Sydney L. Lewis 

Mrs. Camille Oliver-Hoffmann 

Ms. Ponchitta Pierce 

Prof. Robert Rosenblum 

Mr. Jerry I. Speyer 

Ex Officio Members 

Mr. I. Michael Heyman 

The Honorable William H. Rehnquist 



John F. Kennedy Center for 
the Performing Arts Board 
of Trustees 

Honorary Chairs 

Mrs. Hillary Rodham Clinton 
Mrs. George H. W. Bush 
Mrs. Ronald Reagan 
Mrs. Jimmy Carter 
Mrs. Gerald R. Ford 
Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson 

Officers 

Mr. James A. Johnson, Chairman 
Mr. Kenneth M. Duberstein, Vice 

Chairman 
Ms. Alma Johnson Powell, Vice 

Chairman 
Mr. Lawrence J. Wilker, President 
The Honorable Jean Kennedy Smith, 

Secretary 
Ms. Charlotte A. Woolard, Assistant 

Secretary 
Mr. Paul G. Stern, Treasurer 
Mr. Henry M. Strong, Assistant 

Treasurer 
Mr. William Becker, General Counsel 



Members Appointed by the President 
of the United States 

Mrs. Anita Arnold 

Mr. Robert B. Barnett 

The Honorable Stuart A. Bernstein 

Mrs. Anitamane Cafritz 

Mr. Ronald I. Dozoretz 

Mrs. Phyllis C. Draper 

Mr. Kenneth M. Duberstein 

Mrs. Marjorie M. Fisher 

Mr. Craig L. Fuller 

Mrs. Mary Galvin 

Mr. Lionel Hampton 

Ms. Phyllis Middleton Jackson 

Mr. James A. Johnson 

Ms. Ann Jordan 

Mr. Donald M. Koll 

The Honorable James A. McClure 

Mr. Cappy R. McGarr 

The Honorable William F. McSweeny, Jr. 

Mr. Frank H. Pearl 

Mr. Ronald O. Perelman 

Ms. Alma Johnson Powell 

Mrs. Casey Ribicoff 

Mr. Miles L. Rubin 

Ms. Joy A. Silverman 

The Honorable Jean Kennedy Smith 

Mr. Joshua I. Smith 

Mr. Jay Stein 

Mr. Jerry Weintraub 

Mr. Thomas E. Wheeler 

Mr. James D. Wolfensohn 

Members Ex Officio Designated by 
Act of Congress 

The Honorable Donna E. Shalala, 

Secretary of Health and Human Services 
The Honorable Richard W. Riley, 

Secretary of Education 
The Honorable Joseph D. Duffey, 

Director, U.S. Information Agency 
Senator Edward M. Kennedy 
Senator Max Baucus 
Senator John H. Chafee 
Senator Trent Lott 
Senator Ted Stevens 
Rep. Joseph M. McDade 
Rep. Sidney R. Yates 
Rep. Bud Shuster 
Rep. James L. Oberstar 
Rep. Newt Gingrich 
Mr. Marion Barry, Mayor, District of 

Columbia 



98 



Mr. I. Michael Heyman, Secretary, 

Smithsonian Institution 
Dr. James H. Billington, Librarian of 

Congress 
Mr. J. Career Brown, Chairman of the 

Commission of Fine Arts 
Mr. Robert Stanton, Director, National 

Park Service 

Founding Chairman 
Mr. Roger L. Stevens 

Chairman Emeritus 
Mr. James D. Wolfensohn 

Hoyiorary Trustees 

Mr. Philip F. Anschutz 

Mr. James H. Evans 

Mrs. Alma Gildenhorn 

The Honorable Melvin R. Laird 

Mrs. J. Willard Marriott 

The Honorable Leonard L. 

Silverstein 
Mr. Dennis C. Stanfill 
Mr. Lew R. Wasserman 



National Air and Space 
Museum Advisory Board 

Mr. Thomas L. Blair 

General John R. E>ailey 

Lieutenant General Terrence Dake 

The Honorable Jane Garvey 

Vice Admiral Richard D. Herr 

Mr. I. Michael Heyman 

Mr. Thomas W. Hoog 

The Honorable Sam Johnson 

Major General La Porte 

Rear Admiral Dennis V. McGinn 

Dr. Y.C.L. Susan Wu 



National Gallery of Art 
Board of Trustees 

Mr. Robert F. Erburu 

Mr. Julian Ganz, Jr. 

Mr. Alexander M. Laughlin 



Mrs. Louise W. Mellon 
Mr. Robert H. Smith 

Ex Officio 

The Honorable William H. Rehnquist, 

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of 

the United States 
The Honorable Madeleine K. Albright, 

Secretary of State 
Mr. I. Michael Heyman, Secretary of 

the Smithsonian Institution 
The Honorable Robert E. Rubin, 

Secretary of the Treasury 



National Museum of 
African Art Commission 

Prof. David C. Driskell 

Mr. John A. Friede 

Mr. Joseph M. Goldenberg 

Dr. Joseph E. Harris 

Mrs. Frances Humphrey Howard 

Mr. Elliot Lawrence 

Mr. Brian S. Leyden 

Mr. Robin B. Martin 

Mr. Robert H. Nooter 

Mrs. Frieda Rosenthal 

Prof. Robert Farris Thompson 

The Honorable Walter E. Washington 

Ex Officio Member 
Mr. I. Michael Heyman 



National Museum of 
American Art Commission 



Mr. Ronald D. Abramson 
Mr. Norman Bernstein 
Mr. Frederick Brown 
Mr. Edwin I. Colodny 
Mrs. Ann Cousins 
Mr. Barney A. Ebsworth 
Mrs. Daniel Fraad 
Mrs. Patricia Frost 
Mr. Ken Hakuta 
Mr. Hugh Halff, Jr. 



Mr. Raymond J. Horowitz 
Mrs. Linda Lichtenberg Kaplan 
Mr. Melvin Lenkin 
Mr. Peter H. Lunder 
Mr. Jesus Morales 
Dr. Paul D. Parkman 
Mr. Gerald L. Pearson 
Mrs. Morris Pynoos 
Mrs. Francoise Rambach 
Mr. Frank K. Ribelin 
Mr. Richard J. Schwartz 
Mr. Samuel A. Yanes 

Emeritus Members 

Mr. Walker Hancock 
Mr. R. Crosby Kemper, Jr. 
Mrs. Nan Tucker McEvoy 
Mr. David S. Purvis 
Mr. Charles Sawyer 



National Museum of the 
American Indian Board of 
Trustees 



Mr. Manley Alan Begay, Jr. 

Mr. James A. Block 

Mr. Ellsworth Brown 

Mr. George L. Cornell 

Mr Billy L. Cypress 

Mr Vine Deloria, Jr. 

Dr. Catherine S. Fowler 

Mr Doug George-Kanentiio 

Mr. Dwight Gourneau 

Mr. George Gund, III 

Mr. I. Michael Heyman 

Mr. Peter J. Johnson 

Mrs. Loretta Kaufman 

Mr. Albert Kookesh 

Ms. Henrietta Mann 

Ms. Linda Manzanilla 

Mr. Gerald R. McMaster 

Ms. Joann Sebastian Morris 

Mr. Jorge A. Flores Ochoa 

Mr. J. Dennis O'Connor 

Ms. Nancy Clark Reynolds 

Ms. Luci Tapahanso 

Mr. Bernard Julian Whitebear 

Ms. Phyllis Young 

Ms. Ofelia Zepeda 



99 



National Museum of 
American History Board 



Dr. Ivan Selin, Chair 

Ms. Marilyn Bergman 

Dr. Alison R. Bernstein 

Mr. Peter Claussen 

Mr. Lester Colbert, Jr. 

Mrs. Dollie A. Cole 

The Honorable Barber B. Conable, Jr. 

Mr. George M. Ferris, Jr. 

Mr. George C. Freeman, Jr. 

Prof. Neil Harris 

Dr. William Haseltine 

Mr. Robert F. Hemphill, Jr. 

Ms. Irene Y. Hirano 

Thomas W. Langfitt, M.D. 

Mr. Elihu Rose 

Seymour I. Schwartz, M.D. 

Marvin D. Williams, Mr 



National Museum of 
Natural History Board 

Dr. Isabella CM. Cunningham 

Dr. David Dilcher 

Dr. Thomas Eisner 

Dr. William B. Ellis 

Mr. Robert Fri 

Mr. Edward O. Gaylord 

Mr. Arthur Gray, Jr. 

Mr. John S. Hendricks 

Mr. David M. Hicks 

Dr. Stanley O. Ikenberry 

Mrs. Jean Lane 

Mr. Robert H. Malott 

The Honorable James A. McClure 

Mr. Jeffery W. Meyer 

Dr. Nancy R. Morin 

Dr. Colin Patterson 

Mr. James R. Patton, Jr. 

Dr. David R. Pilbeam 

Ms. Desiree G. Rogers 

Mr. Alan G. Spoon 

Mr. Marshall C. Turner, Jr. 

Mr. Milton H. Ward 

Mr. Howard H. Williams, III 

Emeritus 

Mr. S. Dillon Ripley, II 



Ex Officio Members 

Mr. I. Michael Heyman 
Mr. J. Dennis O'Connor 



National Portrait Gallery 
Commission 



The Honorable Anthony C. Beilenson 

Prof. Stephen Jay Gould 

Ms. Julie Harris 

Prof. David Levering Lewis 

Prof. R.W.B. Lewis 

Ms. Bette Bao Lord 

The Honorable Robert B. Morgan 

Prof. Barbara Novak 

Ex Officio Members 

Mr. I. Michael Heyman, Secretary, 

Smithsonian Institution 
Dr. Earl A. Powell III, Director, 

National Gallery of Art 
The Honorable William H. Rehnquist, 

Chief Justice, U.S. Supreme Court 



National Postal Museum 
Advisory Commission 



Mr. Cary H. Baer 

The Honorable Winton M. Blount 

Mrs. Lovida Coleman 

Ms. Amina Dickerson 

Ms. Meredith Fischer 

Mr. Azeezaly Jaffer 

The Honorable John M. McHugh 

Mr. Arthur H. Morowitz 

Mr. Tim E. Needham 

Mr. John J. O'Connor, III 

Mr. James E. Pehta 

Ms. Elizabeth C. Pope 

Mr. Douglas A. Riggs 

Mrs. Jeanette Cantrell Rudy 

Mr. Edwin M. Schmidc 

The Honorable Robert Setrakian 

The Honorable Ted Stevens 



National Postal Museum 
Coordinating Committee 



The Honorable Susan E. Alvarado 

Mr. Richard H. Arvonio 

Ms. Ardelle Foss 

Mr. Rick R. Johnson 

Dr. J. Dennis O'Connor 

The Honorable Marvin T Runyon 



National Postal Museum 
Director's Circle 



The Honorable Paul Carlin, Chairman 

Mr. Maynard H. Benjamin 

Mrs. Joan Berkley 

Mr. Thomas J. Berry 

Mr. Kieran A. Carracher 

Mr. Victor Forman 

Mr. James Forsythe 

Mr. Coleman Williams Hoyt 

Mr. Floyd Ivey 

Ms. F. Suzanne Jenniches 

Ms. Julia Brier Marr 

Mr. Joe Monastro 

Mr. John Murchake 

Mr. John O'Dell 

Mr. James E. Pehta 

Mr. Chris Rebello 

Mr. Ernesto J. Rojas 

Mr. Andrew Rouse 

Mr. Francis Ruggiero 

Mr. Thomas Stoneback 

Mr. John Zanchi 



National Science Resources 
Center Advisory Board 

Dr. Joseph A. Miller, Jr., Chair 

Ms. Ann P. Bay 

Ms. DeAnna Banks Beane 

Dr. Fred P. Corson 

Dr. Goery Delacoce 

Ms. Jo Ann DeMaria 

Dr. Peter Dow 

Dr. Hubert M. Dyasi 

Dr. Bernard S. Finn 



IOO 



Dr. Robert M. Ficch 
Dr. Jerry P. Gollub 
Dr. Ana M. Guzman 
Dr. Anders Hedberg 
Dr. Richard Hinman 
Dr. David Jenkins 
Ms. Mildred E. Jones. 
Dr. John W. Layman 
Dr. Leon M. Lederman 
Ms. Sarah A. Lindsey 
Dr. Lynn Margulis 
Dr. Ted Maxwell 
Dr. Mara Mayor 
Dr. John A. Moore 
Dr. Carlo Parravano 
Dr. Robert W. Ridky 
Ms. Rurh O. Selig 
Dr. Maxine F. Singer 
Mr. Robert D. Sullivan 
Dr. Gerald F. Wheeler 
Dr. Richard L. White 
Dr. Paul H. Williams 
Ms. Karen L. Worth 



National Zoological Park 
Advisory Board 



Mr. Peter C. Andrews 

Mr. Robert A. Bartlett, Jr. 

Mr. William H. Berman 

Dr. David Challinor 

The Honorable Jeannine Smith Clark 

Mr. George A. Didden, III 

Mrs. Elizabeth B. Frazier 

Ms. Caroline D. Gabel 

Mrs. Laura Howell 

Mrs. Clinton W. Kelly, III 

Dr. William Ramsay 

Mr. Jeffrey R. Short, Jr. 

Mrs. Judith Stockdale 

Mr. Henry M. Strong 

Mrs. Beatrix von Hoffmann 

Mr. Wesley S. Williams, Jr. 



Hvnvrary Members 

Mrs. Joan Donner 
Mrs. Ruth S. Holmberg 
Mrs. Adrienne Mars 



Reading Is Fundamental, 
Inc., Board of Directors 



Ms. Alexandra Armstrong 

Ms. Letitia Baldridge 

Ms. Loretta Barrett 

Mrs. Susan Bayh 

Mr. Leo Beebe 

Mrs. Laura Bush 

Mr. Robert W. Coy, Jr. 

Mr. James C. Curvey 

Mr. Basel Dalloul 

Ms. Patricia Diaz Dennis, Esq. 

Mr. Lloyd Derrickson, Esq. 

Mr. Robert S. Diamond 

Mr. Samuel B. Ethridge 

Ms. Annette M. Felanzi Dwyer 

Mr. Lon Greenberg 

Mr. Lawrence A. Hough 

Ms. Pamela Koprowski 

Ms. Natalie Lang 

Mrs. Kathryn W. Lumley 

Dr. Floretta McKenzie 

Ms. Nell Minow 

Mr. Richard J. Pinola 

Ms. Betty Prashker 

Mr. Bruce A. Quinnell 

Mrs. Lois D. Rice 

Mrs. Anne Richardson 

Mrs. Lynda Johnson Robb 

Mrs. Jean Head Sisco 

Ms. Cam Starrett 

Mr. David J. Stern 

Mr. Arthur White 



Smithsonian National 
Board 



Mrs. Jean Mahoney, Chair 
Mr. Clive Runnells, Vice Chair 

Current Members 

Sir Valentine Abdy 

The Honorable Max N. Berry 

Mrs. Laura Lee Blanton 

Mrs. John M. Bradley 

Mr. Stephen F. Brauer 

The Honorable Henry E. Catto 

Mr. Peter R. Coneway 



Mr. Thomas Edward Congdon 

Ms. Allison Scacey Cowles 

Mr. Frank A. Daniels, Jr. 

Baron Eric de Rothschild 

Mr. Archie W. Dunham 

Mrs. Patricia Frost 

Ms. Nely Galan 

Mr. Bert A. Getz 

Mr. Paul Hertelendy 

Mrs. Ruth S. Holmberg 

Mr. S. Roger Horchow 

Mr. Robert L. James 

Mrs. Donald W Jeffries 

Mrs. James W. Kinnear 

Mrs. Marie L. Knowles 

The Honorable Marc E. Leland 

Mr. Donald G. Lubin 

Mrs. Elizabeth S. MacMillan 

Ms. Holly Madigan 

Mr. Frank N. Magid 

Mrs. John F Mars 

Mr. Michael Peter McBride 

Mrs. Nan Tucker McEvoy 

Mr. Kenneth B. Miller 

The Honorable Norman Y Mineta 

Mr. Thomas D. Mullins 

Mr. Rupert Murdoch 

Mrs. Lucio A. Noto 

Mrs. Vivian W. Piasecki 

Mr. Heinz C. Prechter 

Mrs. Charles H. Price, II 

Mr. A.R. Tony Sanchez 

Mr. David M. Silfen 

The Honorable Alan K. Simpson 

Ms. Kathy Daubert Smith 

Mr. Kenneth L. Smith 

Mr. Kelso F. Sutton 

Mr. Jeffrey N. Watanabe 

Mr. Frank A. Weil 

Mrs. Nancy Brown Wellin 

Mr. Anthony Welters 

Mr. Daniel W. Yohannes 



Arthur M. Sackler 
Gallery Visiting Committee 



Mrs. John B. Bunker, Chair 

Mr. George J. Fan 

Mrs. Hart Fessenden 

Dr. Kurt A. Gitter 

Dr. Florence Cawthorne Ladd 

Ms. Marie Lam 



IOI 



Mrs. James R. Lilley 
Mrs. Jill Hornor Ma 
Dr. Kenneth X. Robbins 
Mrs. Arthur M. Sackler 
Mr. Sichan Siv 
Mr. Michael R. Sonnenreich 
Mr. Aboulala Soudavar 
Mr. Robert Chios Tane 



Smithsonian Institution 
Archives and Special 
Collections Council 



Mrs. Rachel M. Allen 
Mr. Alan L. Bain 
Mr. James B. Byers 
Mr. Timothy Carr 
Ms. Cecilia H. Chin 
Ms. Maygene Daniels 
Dr. John A. Fleckner 
Ms. Christraud Geary 
Ms. Marilyn Graskowiak 
Dr. Nancy E. Gwinn 
Mr. Robert S. Harding 
Dr. Edie Hedlin 
Ms. Colleen A. Hennessey 
Dr. Pamela M. Henson 
Mr. John Homiak 
Ms. Janet Kennelly 
Mr. Paul Kimberly 
Ms. Gail Lowe 
Ms. Lillian Miller 
Ms. Lauranne C. Nash 
Ms. Tammy Peters 
Mr. C. Jeffrey Place 
Dr. Marc Rothenberg 
Dr. Barbara J. Smith 
Dr. Thomas F. Soapes 
Ms. Joan R. Stahl 
Mr. Paul H. Theerman 
Mr. William G. Tompkins 
Ms. Linda A. Thrift 
Mr. James H. Wallace, Jr. 
Mrs. Beverly Westermeyer 
Ms. Kathleen Williams 
Mr. Paul Wood 
Mr. Mark A. Wright 
Dr. Judith K. Zilczer 



Smithsonian Institution 
Council 

Dr. Arjun Appadurai 
Dr. Joyce O. Appleby 
Dr. Mary Frances Berry- 
Mr. Luis R. Cancel 
Dr. George R. Carruthets 
Dr. Linda S. Cordell 
Dr. Ruth Schwartz Cowan 
Prof. Freeman J. Dyson 
Mr. David R. Gergen 
Dr. Arturo Gomez-Pompa 
Dr. Daniel H. Janzen 
Dr. Michael Kammen 
Prof. J. Jorge Klor de Alva 
Dr. Shirley M. McBay 
Ms. Cheryl McClenney-Brooker 
Dr. Gordon H. Orians 
Mr. Richard J. Powell 
Dr. Lauren B. Resnick 
Ms. Beryl B. Simpson 
Dr.JohnKuoWeiTchen 
Dr. Susan Mullin Vogel 
Dr. Frederic Wakeman 
Dr. John Walsh 
Dr. Katharine J. Watson 
Dr. Tomas Ybarra-Frausto 



Smithsonian Institution 
Libraries Users Advisory 
Committee 

Ms. Melanie Bond 

Mr. Paul E. Ceruzzi 

Ms. Ana Maria Ford 

Ms. Patricia Gossel 

Ms. Elaine L. Johnston 

Dr. Thomas E. Lowderbaugh 

Dr. Nancy L. Matthews 

Dr. Sorena S. Sorensen 

Mr. Melvm J. Wachowiak, Jr. 



Smithsonian Washington 
Council 

Mr. R. Robert Linowes, Chairman 
Mr. Oliver T. Carr 



Mr. Donald Edward Graham 

Mr. Elliott S. Hall 

Mr. J. Roderick Heller, III 

Mr. Mario M. Morino 

Mrs. Irene Pollin 

Mr. John R. Risher, Jr. 

Mrs. Vicki Sant 



Woodrow Wilson 
International Center for 
Scholars Board of Trustees 



The Honorable James A. Baker, III 

Dr. James H. Billington 

Joseph A. Cari, Jr., Esq. 

The Honorable Warren M. Christopher 

The Honorable Joseph D. Duffey 

Mr. Joseph H. Flom, Esq. 

Dr. Sheldon Hackney 

Ms. Jean L. Hennessey 

Mr. I. Michael Heyman 

Dr. Gertrude Himmelfarb 

Dr. Carol Iannone 

Mr. Eli S.Jacobs 

Mr. Paul Hae Park 

Dr. Trudy H. Peterson 

The Honorable Richard W. Riley 

The Honorable S. Dillon Ripley, II 

The Honorable Donna E. Shalala 



Smithsonian Women's 
Committee 



Mrs. Donald W Jeffries, Chairman 
Mrs. James M. Beggs, Vice Chairman 
Mrs. J. Edward Day, Co-Secretary 
Mrs. Margaret Camp, Co-Secretary 
Ms. Cissel Gott Collins, Treasurer 
Ms. Allison Butler Herrick, Assistant 

Treasurer 
Mrs. Charles E. Allen 
Mrs. Martin Atlas 
Mrs. Marilyn Barrett 
Mrs. Christine Blazina 
Mrs. Annelise Brand 
Mrs. Margaret Bush 
Mrs. Doniphan Carter 
Mrs. Frank B. Clay 



102 



Mrs. Richard Cobb 

Mrs. Margaret Collins 

Mrs. Willis D. Crittenberger, Jr. 

Mrs. Allen R. Cross, Jr. 

Mrs. Frirz Daguillard 

Mrs. Helen Davison 

Mrs. John Franklin 

Mrs. Harriet Sweeney Fraunfelter 

Mrs. Jill Fri 

Mrs. Mary Goldberg 

Mrs. William F. Gorog 

Mrs. Gloria Shaw Hamilton 

Mrs. Karl G. Harr, Jr. 

Mrs. Henry L. Heymann 

Mrs. Stanford R. Hicks 

Mrs. John Hunnicutt 

Mrs. Walter Innis 

Mrs. Ronald Ivey 

Mrs. Joanne Johnson 

Mrs. Betty Kadick 

Mrs. Pamela Kloman 

Mrs. Carol Kuehl 

Ms. Patricia Larkin 

Mrs. Bruce K. MacLaury 

Mrs. William S. Mailliard 

Mrs. Alexander M. Maish 

Mrs. Arthur K. Mason 

Mrs. Joan Lambert McPhee 

Mrs. Ruth Metcalf 

Mrs. J. Suzanne Moore 

Mrs. Horace White Peters 

Mrs. Charles L. Poor 

Mrs. C. Michael Price 

Mrs. Thomas Malcolm Price 

Ms. Judy Lynn Prince 

Mrs. William C. Rountree 

Mrs. Arden Ruttenberg 

Mrs. John A. Sargent 



Mrs. Alice Sessions 
Mrs. Joy Vige 
Mrs. Charles Swan Weber 
Mrs. John R. Webster 
Mrs. Philip C. White 



Smithsonian Internship 
Council 



Ms. Pablita T. Abeyta 
Mts. Lori H. Aceto 
Ms. Frederica Adelman 
Ms. Victotia Avera 
Mr. Daryl Ayers 
Ms. Andrea Bagdy 
Ms. Myra Y. Banks 
Ms. Lisa Bennett 
Ms. Ann M. Bissell 
Ms. Teresia Bush 
Ms. Susan Mond Carpenter 
Ms. Faya Causey- 
Ms. Pedra Chaffers 
Ms. Anita Chapa 
Ms. Montrose R. Cones 
Ms. Deirdre Cross 
Ms. Georgma de Alba 
Dr. Zahava D. Doering 
Ms. Kimberly L. Dow 
Ms. Mary W Dyer 
Ms. Betty Epps 
Ms. Paula Fletemeyer 
Ms. Ann R. Garvey 
Mr. Robert L. Hall 
Ms. Joanie Heavey 
Mrs. Judith H. Houston 



Ms. Pamela Elizabeth Hudson 

Ms. Jean Kalata 

Mr. Peter Kibbee 

Mr. Bruce R. Kirby 

Ms. Elizabeth Kirwin 

Mrs. Sharon F. Leathery 

Ms. Nancy Lewis 

Ms. Sherri Manning 

Ms. Cathy Maree 

Ms. Elena Mayberry 

Ms. Lisa Mazzola 

Mr. John Minnick 

Ms. Dana Moreland 

Mr. Bruce Morrison 

Mrs. Sandra Narva 

Ms. Lauranne C. Nash 

Ms. Rachel Orgeron 

Ms. Karen Otiji 

Ms. Arlene Reiniger 

Dr. Marc Rothenberg 

Ms. Alyce Sadongei 

Ms. Mary Sangrey 

Mrs. Magdalene C. Schremp 

Ms. Heidi L.R. Schwartz 

Ms. Susan Secakuku 

Ms. Karen B. Smith 

Mr. Tim Smith 

Ms. Beth W. Tidwell 

Mr. William G. Tompkins 

Ms. Esther Washington 

Mrs. Susan R. Watson 

Ms. Sabina Wiedenhoeft 

Mr. Donald C. Williams 

Mr. Michael Wilpers 

Ms. Frances Yeh 

Mr. Howard Youth 

Ms. Elizabeth K. Ziebarth 



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I04 



Anacostial Center for African American 
History and Culture 



Academic, Research 
Training, and Internship 
Appointments and 
Research Associates in 
Fiscal Year 1997 



The first section lists recipients of fellowships and 
other appointments awarded to scholars and advanced 
students under the auspices of the Office of Fellowships 
and Gtants. Students and museum professionals who 
held museum internships or participated in special 
projects administered by the Center for Museum 
Services are listed in the second section. The thitd 
section contains a listing of Smithsonian Research 
Associates. 



Academic and Research 
Training Appointments 

The Smithsonian offers, through the Office of Fellow- 
ships and Grants, research and study appointments to 
visiting scientists, scholars, and students. The appoin- 
tees are provided access to the Institution's facilities, 
staff specialties, and reference resources. The persons — 
listed by unit or office — in this Appendix began their 
residencies between October I, 1996, and September 30, 
1997, and have been in residence for three months or 
longer. Predoctoral and Postdoctoral Fellows, Visiting 
Scientists or Scholars, and other awardees and par- 
ticipants in special programs are so listed. Listed for 
each Fellow or Visitor is the institution where each 
received or expects to receive a degree, or the home 
university or institution; a brief description of the 
project undertaken at the Smithsonian; the Smithsonian 
advisor; and dates of residency. 



Melissa Rachleff, Visiting Scholar, New York, New York. "A 
Critical Survey of the African American Press 182.7- 
Presenc," with Deborah Willis from October 1, 1996 to 
March 31, 1997. 



Center for Folklife Programs and 
Cultural Studies 



Maria-Jose Moreno, Postdoctoral Fellowship, Columbia 
University. "The Historical and Future Development of 
Hispanic Museums: A Sociological Approach," with 
Olivia Cadaval and Marvette Perez from April 1, 1997 to 
March 31, 1998. 



Conservation Analytical Laboratory 



Catherine Magee, Visiting Scientist, Reno, Nevada. "Analysis 
of Structure 16 Tomb at Copan, Honduras," with Donald 
Williams from November I, 1996 to October 31, 1997. 

Susan Peschken, Visiting Scholar, Queen's University, 
Canada. "Analysis, Treatmenc, and Research of the 
Desalination of Ceramics or Other Archaeological 
Materials," with Donald Williams from October I, 1996 
to September 30, 1997. 

Sarah Stauderman, Postgraduate Fellow, Princeton University. 
"Postgraduare Fellowship in Archives Preservation," with 
Donald Williams from September I, 1997 to August 31, 
1998. 

C. Mei-An Tsu, Visiting Scholar, Mountain Lakes, New Jer- 
sey. "The Desalination of Harrapan Terracotta Bangles," 
with Donald Williams from October I, 1996 ro September 
30, 1997- 



Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum 



Paul Makovsky, Peter Krueger-Christie's Fellow, Universiry of 
Toronto. "Theories of Visual Design: The Life and Work of 
Ladislav Sutnar," with Stephen Van Dyk from July 1, 1997 
to June 30, 1998. 



IO> 



Freer Gallery of Art/ Arthur M. Sackler 
Gallery 



Annapurna Garimella, Predoctotal Fellowship, Columbia 
University. "Sakhi: Friendship and Narrative Agency in 
Rajput Painted Manuscripts," with Vidya Dehejia and Milo 
Beach from March I, 1997 to May 31, 1998. 

Valerie Gouet, Kress Fellow, Ecole Nationale du Patnmoine, 
IFROA, Pans. "Treatment, Manipulation, and Conserva- 
tion of East Asian Paintings," with Akihiro Kato from 
April I, 1997 to March 31, 1998. 

Andrew K.Y. Leung, Predoctoral Fellowship, University of 
Pennsylvania. "Central-Pillar Cave Architecture in China 
and Central Asia," with Thomas Lawton from September 
15, 1997 to March 14, 1998. 

Jennifer G. Purtle, Predoctoral Fellowship, Yale University. 
"Placing Their Mark: An Art-Historical Geography of Min 
[Fujian] Painters of the Ming Dynasty (1368— 1644)," with 
Joseph Chang and Jan Stuart from September I, 1997 to 
August 31, 1998. 

Cindy Connelly Ryan, Forbes Fellow, Institute of Fine Arts. 
"Binding Media in Central Asian Manuscript Paintings," 
with Christopher Maines and John Winter from October I, 
1996 to October 31, 1997. 

Michelle Taube, Forbes Fellow, State University of New York, 
Stony Brook. "Creation of a Database of the Metallographic 
Samples of Asian Bronzes at the Freer Gallery," wich W. 
Thomas Chase from September 15, 1997 to September 14, 
1998. 

Woodman Taylor, Postdoctoral Fellowship, University of 
Chicago. "Constructing Encounters with Krishna: The 
Poetics and Liturgical Uses of Hindu Pichvai Paintings," 
with Milo Beach and Vidya Dehejia from March I, 1997 to 
August 31, 1997. 



National Air and Space Museum 



Erik K. Conway, Guggenheim Fellow, University of Min- 
nesota. "Blind Landings: Government, Industry, Labor and 
the Construction of a Large Technical System, 1918— 1950," 
with Paul Ceruzzi and Michael Neufeld from August I, 
1997 to July 31, 1998. 

Anthony Charles Cook, Earth and Planetary Sciences Fellow, 
DLR Berlin-Adlershof. "A Study of the Topography of Mer- 
cury Using Digital Stereo Analysis," with Thomas Waiters 
from August 15, 1997 to August 14, 1998. 

Dik A. Daso, Verville Fellow, University of South Carolina. 
"A Biography of General Henry Harley 'Hap' Arnold," 
with Michael Neufeld and Donald Lopez from August 15, 
1997 to August 14, 1998. 



Tilak Hewagama, Visiting Scientist, University of Maryland, 
College Park. "Direct Obervations of the Global Stratos- 
pheric Wind Fields of Jupiter and Titan," with Jeffrey 
Goldstein from September I, 1997 to April 30, 1998. 

Scott C. Mest, Graduate Fellowship, University of Pittsburgh. 
"Geologic Studies of Outflow Channels and Valley Net- 
works in the Martian Southern Highlands," wich James 
Zimbelman and Robert Ctaddock from June 2, 1997 to 
August 8, 1997. 

Gerald E. Miller, Visiting Scholar, Retired U.S. Navy Officer. 
"Naval Aviation and Nukes: Naval Aviation's Struggle to 
Attain a Realistic Nuclear Weapons Delivery Capability," 
with Thomas Crouch and Donald Engen from October I, 

1996 to September 30, 1997. 

Williamson Murray, Charles A. Lindbergh Chair in Aerospace 
History, Marine Corps University. "Revolutions in Military 
Affairs; History of World War I," with Thomas Crouch 
from August I, 1997 to July 31, 1998. 

John S. Olszowka, Predoctotal Fellowship, Binghamton 
University. "From Shop Floor to Flight: Work and Or- 
ganized Labor in the Aircraft Industry, 1914-1950," with 
Dominick Pisano and Michael Neufeld from September 1, 

1997 to November 30, 1997. 

Shobita Satyapal, Garber Fellowship, University of Rochester. 
"Probing the Obscured Nuclei of Starburst and Seyfert 
Galaxies: The Genesis, Nature, and Evolution of their 
Nuclear Activity," with Matthew Greenhouse from 
October 15, 1996 to October 14, 1997. 



National Museum of African Art 



Boureima Tiekorom Diamitani, Predoctoral Fellowship, 
University of Iowa. "Identity, Power Association, and Art 
Among the Tagwa-Senufo of Burkina," with Philip Raven- 
hill from September I, 1997 to August 31, 1998. 

Wendy A. Grossman, Graduate Fellowship, The University of 
Maryland. "Modernist Primitivism in Photography: Man 
Ray Beyond 'Noire et Blanche'," with Christraud Geary 
and Merry Foresta from June 23, 1997 to August 29, 1997. 



National Museum of American Art 



Johanna Winship Buffalo, James Renwick Fellowship, 
Cazenovia College. "Ceramic Plates, Their Makers and In- 
fluences," with Jeremy Adamson from January 1, 1997 to 
June 30, 1997. 

Jane A. Dini, Predoctoral Fellowship, University of Califor- 
nia, Santa Cruz. "Public Bodies: Form and Identity in the 



106 



Work of John Singer Sargent," with Richard Murray from 
September 1, 1997 to August 31, 1998. 

Randall Ray Griffey, Roby Fellow, University of Kansas. 
"Marsden Hartley's Late Paintings: American Masculinity 
and National Identity in the 1930s," with Elizabeth Broun 
and Virginia Mecklenburg from August 15, 1997 to May 31, 
1998. 

Adam Jay Lerner, Predoctoral Fellowship, The Johns Hopkins 
University. "Contextualizing Mount Rushmore: The Moral 
and Political Role of Monumental Art in the Progressive 
Era," with George Gurney from September 1, 1997 to 
February 28, 1998. 

Laura Malosetti Costa, Visiting Scholar, University of Buenos 
Aires, Argentina. "The Role of Frontier Myths in the Con- 
struction of National Iconic Repertoires in Argentina and 
the United States XIX Century Art," with William Truett- 
ner from November 15, 1996 to March 15, 1997. 

Gay R. McDonald, Frost Fellow, University of Illinois at Ur- 
bana-Champaign. "The Museum of Modern Art in Europe: 
The Reconstruction of America's Cultural Identity," with 
Virginia Mecklenburg from September 15, 1997 to June 14, 
1998. 

Kevin Melchionne, James Renwick Fellow in American 
Crafts, Brooklyn, NY. "A Philosophical Approach to the 
Studio Crafts," with Jeremy Adamson from September I, 
1997 to August 31, 1998. 

Paul Sternberger, Predoctoral Fellowship, Columbia 
University. "Photography and Landscape in America, 
1880— 1900: Between Amateur and Aesthete," with 
William Truettner and Merry Foresta from March I, 
1997 to July 31, 1997. 



National Museum of American History 



Kevin C. Armitage, Graduate Fellowship, University of Kan- 
sas. "'What We Can't Afford to Let Alone': The Market 
Uses of Nature Imagery in Turn-of-the-Century America," 
with Charles McGovern and Fath Davis Ruffins from June 
2, 1997 to August 8, 1997. 

Douglas C. Baynton, Postdoctoral Fellowship, University of 
Iowa. "Disability: A Useful Category of Historical 
Analysis," with Barbara Clark Smith and Patricia Gossel 
from August 15, 1997 to August 14, 1998. 

Angela Blake, Predoctoral Fellowship, American University. 
"This Is New York! Iconographies and Itineraries of the 
City, 1890— 1940," with Charles McGovern from May I, 
1997 to October 31, 1997. 

Kevin Leonard Borg, Predoctoral Fellowship, University of 
Delaware. "Technology's Middle Ground: The Dissemina- 
tion of Technical Knowledge in the Automobile Main- 
tenance and Repair Industry," with Roger White and Pete 
Daniel from February 1, 1997 to May 31, 1997. 



Elspeth H. Brown, Predoctoral Fellowship, Yale University. 
"Taylorized Bodies: Work, Photography, and Consumer 
Culture in America, 1890— 1930," with Charles McGovern 
and Peter Liebhold from September I, 1997 to May 31, 1998. 

Richard Candee, Lemelson Center Senior Fellow, Boston 
University. "Invention and Mechanization in Nineteenth- 
Century American Knitting Industry," with Arthur Molel- 
la from January I, 1997 to April 30, 1997. 

Lorena Chambers, Predoctoral Fellowship, University of 
Michigan. "From Aztec Villages to Toltec Towns: Identity 
and Nationalism in Consumer Imagery of Mexicans, 1893— 
1931," with Fath Ruffins from April I, 1997 to September 
30, 1997. 

Ann Chirhart, Postdoctoral Fellowship, Emory University. 
"Torches of Light: African American and White Female 
Teachers in the Georgia Upcountry, 1910— 1955," with Pete 
Daniel and Spencer Crew from January 1, 1997 to April 30, 

1997- 

Catherine C. Cocks, Predoctoral Fellowship, University of 
California, Davis. "A City Excellent to Behold: Urban 
Tourism and the Commodification of Public Life, 1850— 
1915," with Charles McGovern from January 1, 1997 to June 
30, 1997. 

Roget A. Davidson, Jr., Predoctoral Fellowship, Howard 
University. "A Question of Loyalty: The Potomac Flotilla 
and Civil Insurrection in the Chesapeake Region," with 
James Horton from June I, 1997 to August 31, 1997. 

Gregory Dreicer, Visiting Scholar, Cornell University. "Net- 
works of Invention," with Arthur Molella from April I, 
1997 to August 31, 1997. 

David M.P. Freund, Predoctoral Fellowship, University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor. "Racial Imagery in Politics and 
Popular Culture, 1940— 1967," with Pete Daniel and Charles 
McGovern from September I, 1997 to February 28, 1998. 

Alicia M. Gamez, Predoctoral Fellowship, Stanford Univer- 
sity. "Seeing Race: Vision and the Formation of Nineteenth- 
Century American Racial Thought," with Marvette Perez 
and Fath Davis Ruffins from June 1, 1997 to November 30, 

1997- 

Timothy Gilfoyle, Senior Fellowship, Loyola University. "A 
Pickpocket's Tale: George Appo and the Utban Under- 
worlds of Late-I9th-Century America," with Lonnie Bunch 
and Fath Ruffins from May I, 1997 to May 31, 1997. 

Catherine Gudis, Predoctoral Fellowship, Yale University. "A 
Landscape of Signs: Outdoor Advertising in America, 1920— 
1990," with Charles McGovern and Fath Davis Ruffins 
from June I, 1997 to August 31, 1997. 

William P. Jones, Graduate Fellowship, University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill. "The Blues as Occupational 
Folklore: Barrelhouse Pianists and African American Lum- 
ber Workers in the South, 1929-1940," with Pete Daniel 
from June 2, 1997 to August 8, 1997. 

Anthony Kaye, Predoctoral Fellowship, Columbia University. 
"The Personality of Power: The Political Ideology of Slaves 
and Freedmen in the Natchez District and the Delta of Mis- 



107 



sissippi, 1830— 1875," with Pete Daniel and Charles 
McGovern from January 1, 1997 to June 30, 1997. 

B. Zorina Khan, Lemelson Center Senior Fellow, Bowdoin 
College. "The Progress of Useful Arts: Inventive Activity 
and the Patent System in the Early Republic," with Arthur 
Molella from June 1, 1997 to August 27, 1997. 

Angela Lakwete, Postdoctoral Fellowship, University of 
Delaware. "Cotton Ginning in America, 1780—1880," with 
Pete Daniel and Steven Lubar from June I, 1997 to May 31, 
1998. 

Stuart Leslie, Lemelson Center Senior Fellow, Johns Hopkins 
University. "The Promises and the Pitfalls of Using the 
Silicon Valley as a Model for Regional Economic Develop- 
ment," with Arthur Molella from January I, 1997 to June 
30, 1997. 

Brian O'Neil, Predoctoral Fellowship, University of Califor- 
nia, Los Angeles. "Reel to Real: The Relations Between 
Latin' Stars and Society, 1935-1960," with Marvette Perez 
and Charles McGovern from February 1, 1997 to June 30, 

1997- 

Richard C. Rath, Predoctoral Fellowship, Brandeis University. 
"Early American Soundways, 1600—1800," with Pete Daniel 
and Peter Seitel from September I, 1997 to December 31, 
1997- 

Barbara Savage, Postdoctoral Fellowship, Unversity of Penn- 
sylvania. "Broadcasting Freedom: Radio, War, and the 
Roots of Civil Rights Liberalism, 1938-1948," with Spencer 
Crew and Anthony Brown from October I, 1996 to June 30, 
1997- 

Hugh R. Slotten, Postdoctoral Fellowship, University of Wis- 
consin, Madison. "Broadcast Technologies and Public 
Policy: Government Regulations of Radio and Television in 
the United States, 1920-1960," with Bernard Finn and Ar- 
thur Molella from August 1, 1997 to July 31, 1998. 

Andrew B. Smith, Predoctoral Fellowship, University of 
California, Los Angeles. "Reels of Blood and Thunder: A 
Hiscory of the Nickelodeon Western," with Lonn Taylor 
and Charles McGovern from August 15, 1997 to June 30, 
1998. 

Marilyn A. Zoidis, Predoctoral Fellowship, Carnegie Mellon 
University. "Private and Public Places: Constructing a Mid- 
dle Class Way of Life in Pittsburgh, 1870-1930," with Char- 
les McGovern from August 15, 1997 to December 14, 1997. 



National Museum of Natural History 



John Alroy, Visiting Scientist, University of Chicago. "Body 
Mass in North American Cenozoic Mammals," with Scott 
Wing from September 1, 1997 to August 31, 1998. 

Jonathan W. Armbruster, Postdoctoral Fellowship, University 
of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign. "The Evolution of Wood- 



eating in the Loricariid Catfish genus Cochliodon." with 
Richard Van from September I, 1997 to August 31, 1998. 

Richard Ash, Postdoctoral Fellowship, Open University, 
United Kingdom. "Micromeasurement of Oxygen Isotopes 
in Early Solar System Materials," with Glenn MacPherson 
from October I, 1996 to September 30, 1997. 

Andrew Brower, Postdoctoral Fellowship, Cornell University. 
"Systematics of the Heliconnnae (Lepidoptera: Nymphal- 
idae)," with Robert Robbins from March I, 1997 to 
February 28, 1998. 

Emilio Bruna, Graduate Fellowship, University of California, 
Davis. "Effect of Habitat Fragmentation on Tropical Plant- 
Pollinator Interactions," with W. John Kress from January 
6, 1997 to March 14, 1997. 

Larry Buckley, Postdoctoral Fellowship, Southern Illinois 
University. "Morphological and Molecular Evolution of 
Iguanid Lizards: Controversy or Congruence?," with Kevin 
De Queiroz and David Swofford from March 1, 1997 to 
February 28, 1998. 

Elizabeth J. Catlos, Graduate Fellowship, University of 
California, Los Angeles. "In Situ Ion Probe Analysis of Al- 
lanite: A Potential Geochronologic Tool," with Sorena 
Sorenson from June 16, 1997 to August 22, 1997. 

Philip E. Coyle, Postdoctoral Fellowship, University of 

Arizona. "The Material Culture and Social Organization of 
Ceremonial Dance-Curing among the Uto-Aztecan Speak- 
ing Peoples of the Mexican Sierra Madre Occidental: A 
Method of Analysis," with William Merrill from June 15, 
1997 to March 14, 1998. 

Fiery A. Cushman, Short-Term Visiting Student, Geotgetown 
Day School. "Utility of ITS and Chloroplast Spacer Regions 
for Producing Phytogenies of Caribbean Gesnenads 
(African Violet Family)," with Elizabeth Zimmer from 
June 16, 1997 to September 5, 1997. 

J. Andrew Darling, Postdoctoral Fellowship, University of 
Michigan. "The Mexican and Southwestern Journeys of 
Ales Hrdlicka," with William Merrill from April I, 1997 to 
March 31, 1998. 

William Gage, Visiting Student, George Mason Univer- 
sity. "Multimedia Resources for Anthropological 
Science," with Bruno Frohlich from August 18, 1997 
to December 22, 1997. 

Chnssen E.C. Gemmill, Visiting Scientist, University of 
Colorado. "Evolutionary Relationships of Hawaiian Pzt- 
tosporum" with Elizabeth Zimmer from June 15, 1997 to 
December 14, 1997. 

Steven L. Grafe, Predoctoral Fellowship, University of New 
Mexico. "An Analysis of Well Provenienced Native North 
American Material Culture Objects Relative to the Origins 
of Columbia River Plateau Floral Beadwork," with Candace 
Greene and Kathleen Ash-Milby from June 1, 1997 to Sep- 
tember 30, 1997. 

Peter J. Hibbs, Visiting Student, University of Maryland, Col- 
lege Park. "Monographing the Rhagionidae," with Wayne 
Mathis from August 15, 1997 to August 14, 2000. 



108 



Volker Hollman-Schirrmacher, Visiting Scientist, University 
of Osnabrueck. "Shore Flies (Diptera: Ephydridae) of the 
Republic of Seychelles," with Wayne Mathis from January 
I, 1997 to December 31, 1998. 

John P. Huelsenbeck, Visiting Scientist, University of Califor- 
nia at Berkeley. "Testing Models of Cladogenesis in a 
Phylogenetic Context," with David Swofford and Michael 
Braun from August I, 1997 to July 31, 1998. 

Marianne Kinkel, Predoctoral Fellowship, University of 
Texas, Austin. "Malvina Hoffman, Physical Anthropology, 
and the Field Museum's 'Races of Mankind' Display," with 
Mary Jo Arnoldi and Christraud Geary from October 10, 
1996 to January 31, 1997. 

Vincent P. Klink, Visiting Student, University of Maryland. "In 
Situ Analysis of Ovule Development in Higher Plants," with 
Elizabeth Zimmer from May 1, 1997 to August 31, 1997. 

Christina Kreps, Smithsonian Fellowship in Museum Prac- 
tice, Center for Asian and Pacific Studies. "Bridging the 
Gaps: Participatory Approaches to Museum Development 
and Cultural Work," with Paul Michael Taylor and Nancy 
Fuller from January 27, 1997 to July 31, 1997. 

Alexander Krings, Graduate Fellowship, North Carolina State 
University. "Illustrated Guide to Costa Rican Cloud Forest 
Lianas," with Pedro Acevedo from June 9, 1997 to August 15, 

1997- 

Patricia Lambert, Postdoctoral Fellowship, University of 
North Carolina. "Violent Conflict in Prehistoric Hunter- 
Gatherer Societies of Southern California," with Douglas 
Ubelaker and Douglas Owsley from March 20, 1997 to Sep- 
tember 20, 1997. 

David B. Landon, Postdoctoral Fellowship, Boston University. 
"Archaeological Applications of Cementum Annulus 
Analysis of Cattle Teeth," with Melinda Zeder from Sep- 
tember I, 1997 to May 31, 1998. 

Michael J. Lawson, Predoctoral Fellowship, Arizona State Univer- 
sity. "Baskets, Pots, and Prayer Plumes: An Ethnohistory of 
the American Southwest Ethnographic Collections of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology, 1879— 1914," with William 
Scurtevant from August 1, 1997 to April 30, 1998. 

Adrienne J. Lazazzera, Predoctoral Fellowship, University of 
Virginia. "Evaluating the Case for Inequality: A Hopewell 
Settlement at the Fort Ancient State Memorial," with 
Bruce Smith from September I, 1997 to May 31, 1998. 

Andrew Grant McArthur, Postdoctoral Fellowship, Univer- 
sity of Victoria, Canada. "Molecular Phylogenetics of Deep- 
Sea Limpets," with M.G. Harasewych from December 15, 
1996 to January 31, 1998. 

Shilong Mei, Visiting Scientist, China University of Geoscien- 
ces. "The Main Cause of Permian Mass Extinction Events: 
Evidence from Permian Conodonts," with Douglas Erwin 
from July 1, 1997 to October 31, 1997. 

Steven J. Poe, Predoctoral Fellowship, University of Texas at 
Austin. "A Phylogeny of Anolis Using Morphological Char- 
acters," with Kevin De Queiroz and David Swofford from 
September 15, 1997 to September 14, 1998. 



Vasily Radashevsky, Visiting Scientist, Institute of Marine Biol- 
ogy. "A Cladistic and Taxonomic Analysis oiPolydora. Boccardia 
and Related Spionid Taxa (Annelida: Polychaeta)," with Kris- 
tian Fauchald from September 1, 1997 to December 31, 1997. 

Brian G. Richmond, Predoctoral Fellowship, State University 
of New York at Stony Brook. "Morphometries, Ontogeny, 
and Biomechanics of Long Bone Curvature with Implica- 
tions for Primate and Human Evolution," with Richard 
Potts from September I, 1997 to May 31, 1998. 

Lynn M. Snyder, Visiting Scholar, University of Tennessee. 
"An Investigation of Native American Material Culture in 
the Creation of Objects from the Ethnographic Collections 
of the Smithsonian," with Joallyn Archambault from Oc- 
tober I, 1996 to September 30, 1998. 

Maria S. Sprehn, Predoctoral Fellowship, University of New 
Mexico. "Ceramic Craft Specialization in the Casas Grandes 
Region, Mexico," with J. Daniel Rogers from August I, 
1997 to April 30, 1998. 

Scott J. Steppan, Visiting Scientist, Piedmont, California. 
"Phylogenetic Relationships Among Marmots Using 
Cytochrome b," with Robert Hoffmann from October 15, 
1996 to October 31, 1997. 

Martin Thiel, Postdoctoral Fellowship, University of Maine. 
"Reproductive Biology and Social Behavior of Endobiotic 
Petacarids: A Predictive Approach to the Study of Ex- 
tended Parental Care," with Mary Rice and Brian Kensley 
from September I, 1997 to August 31, 1998. 

Nancy Eveleth Todd, Visiting Scientist, George Washington 
University. "Evolution of Plio-Pleistocene Vertebrate Com- 
munities in Africa," with Anna Behrensmeyer from 
February I, 1997 to September 30, 1998. 

Peter Wilf, Predoctoral Fellowship, University of Pennsyl- 
vania. "Global Warming Across the Paleocene-Eocene 
Boundary: Vegetational Response in Southern Wyoming," 
with Scott Wing from June I, 1997 to August 31, 1997. 



National Museum of the American Indian 



Angela C. Pearce, Visiting Student, California State Univer- 
sity, Chico. "Traditional Care of Native American Objects 
Within a Museum Setting," with Marian Kaminitz from 
January I, 1997 to July 31, 1997. 



National Portrait Gallery 



Michelle Kloss, Visiting Student, University of Maryland. 
"Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century American Portaicure 
in the National Portrait Gallery Collection," with Ellen 
Miles from August 18, 1997 to May 29, 1998. 



109 



Stephen A. Mihm, Predoctoral Fellowship, New York Univer- 
sity. "The Landscape of the Panoramic Eye: Mobility, 
Representation, and Perception, 1825— 1875," w 'th 
Lillian Miller and Mary Panzer from August I, 1997 to 
July 31, 1998. 

Sue Himelick Nutty, Visiting Scholar, Eariham College. 
"Joseph Harrison, Jr.(l8lo-l874): Philadelphia Art Collec- 
tor," with Lillian Miller from January 6, 1997 to December 
31. 1997- 



National Zoological Park 



Jennifer Boniface, Graduate Fellowship, University of Mary- 
land, College Park. "Dietary Control of Cystmuria in 
Maned Wolves," with Mary Allen and Olav Oftedal from 
June 2, 1997 to August 8, 1997. 

Tracie E. Bunton, George E. Burch Fellow, Johns Hopkins 
University. "Conserved Expression of Cancer Markers 
throughout the Taxa; Relevance to Human Cancer Diag- 
nosis and Treatment," with Richard Montali from July I, 
1997 to December 31, 1998. 

John P. Dumbacher, Postdoctoral Fellowship, University of 
Chicago. "Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeny of the Genus 
Pitohui: A Test for Mullerian Mimicry and Rapid 
Morphological Radiation in Chemically Defended 
Birds," with Robert Fleischer from July 15, 1997 to 
July 14, 1998. 

Laura H. Graham, Predoctoral Fellowship, George Mason 
University. "Improving Reproductive Success to Assisted 
Breeding by Developing Effective Escrus Synchronization 
in Felids," with Janine Brown from June I, 1997 to May 31, 
1998. 

Elizabeth Harper, Visiting Student, University of Minnesota. 
"Study of the Distribution of Small Mammals in the 
George Washington National Forest," with William Mc- 
Shea from April 7, 1997 to September 7, 1997. 

Sriyanie Miththapala, Visiting Scientist, University of Sri 
Jayawardenapura. "Phylogeographic Subspecies 
Recognition of the Leopard (Panthera pardus)," with 
John Seidensticker from August 15, 1997 to December 
H. 1997- 

Gary Nunn, Postdoctoral Fellowship, University of Nottin- 
gham, United Kingdom. "Evolutionary Relationships 
Among Endangered and Extinct Hawaiian Pterodroma 
Gadfly Petrels," with Robert Fleischer from October 10, 
1996 to September 30, 1997. 

John Orrock, Visiting Student, Virginia Commonwealth 
University. "Allegheny Mountain Project," with William 
McShea from May 15, 1997 to August 15, 1997. 

Katharine M. Pell, Visiting Scientist, University of Min- 
nesota. "Unique Gamete Function and In Vicro Fertiliza- 
tion in the Clouded Leopard (Neofilis Nebulosa)," with 



JoGayle Howard from September I, 1997 to August 31, 
1999. 

Linda Margaret Penfold, Visiting Scientist, University Col- 
lege London. "Understanding and Manipulating the 
Reproductive Biology of Gerenuk (Litocranius walleri wal- 
leri): Semen Preservation, Estrus Synchronization, and Ar- 
tificial Insemination," with David Wildt from August I, 
1997 to July 31, 1998. 

Elizabeth Perry, Visiting Scientist, St. John's, Newfoundland. 
"The Effects of Sonic Booms on the Behavior and Physiol- 
ogy of Grey and Harbor Seals on Sable Island," with Daryl 
Boness from November 1, 1996 to June 30, 1997. 

Leo Shapiro, Visiting Scientist, State University of New York, 
Stony Brook. "Hybridization and the Fate of the Golden- 
Winged Warbler: A Molecular Analysis of Multiple Con- 
tact Zones," with Robert Fleisher from October I, 1996 to 
September 30, 1998. 

Daniel Joseph Shillito, Visiting Student, University of 
Albany. "Visual Perspsective Taking and Mental State 
Attribution by Orangutans," with Lisa Stevens from 
July 15, 1997 to July 14, 199S. 

Ruth A. Siaca-Colon, Visiting Student, George Mason Univer- 
sity. "Behavior Patterns of Puerto Rican Anoline Lizards in 
Captivity," with Carlos Ruiz-Miranda from February I, 
1997 to July 31, 1997. 

Beth Slikas, Postdoctoral Fellowship, University of Pennsyl- 
vania. "Phylogeny and Evolution of and Extinct As- 
semblage of Hawaiian Rails (Aves/Gruiformes/Rallidae)," 
with Robert Fleischer from April I, 1997 to March 31, 1999. 

Rebecca Spindler, Visiting Scientist, University of Melbourne. 
"Oocyte Maturation and Subsequent Gamete Interaction in 
the Domestic Cat (Felis catus)," with David Wildt from 
April I, 1997 to September 30, 1998. 

Nadja Wielebnowski, Visiting Scientist, University of Califor- 
nia. "Modulating Behavior and Endocrine Activiry to Im- 
prove Reproduction in Captive Cheetahs," with Janine 
Brown from February 24, 1997 to February 23, 1999. 

Lisa Wooninck, Predoctoral Fellowship, University of Califor- 
nia, Santa Barbara. "Relative Sperm Contribution and 
Paternity Distributions Determined with a Novel Tech- 
nique," with Robert Fleischer from May 1, 1997 to April 30, 
1998. 



Office of Architectural History and 
Historic Preservation 



Andrew M. Shanken, Predoctoral Fellowship, Princeton 
University. '"After Total War . . . Total Living': 
American Advertising and the Culture of Planning, 
1939—1960," with Cynthia Field from June I, 1997 to 
August 31, 1997. 



IIO 



Office of Plant Services 



Horticulture Services Division 

Robin M. Veder, Enid A. Haupt Fellow, College of William 
and Mary. "Bringing Nature Indoors," with Nancy Bechtol 
from June I, 1997 to May 31, 1998. 



Office of the Smithsonian Institution 
Archives 



Catherine Christen, Postdoctoral Fellowship, The Johns Hop- 
kins University. "Tropical American Field Science and the 
Smithsonian Institution: Agendas for Research and Conser- 
vation, 1945— 1975," with Pamela Henson from March 1, 
1997 to February 28, 199S. 

Daniel J. Herman, Postdoctoral Fellowship, University of 
California, Berkeley. "American Natives: Sport Hunters in 
the American Imagination," with Paul Theerman from 
June 15, 1997 to February 14, 1998. 

Melody R. Herr, Predoctoral Fellowship, Johns Hopkins 
University. "Popularizing American Archaeology in the 
Depression Era," with Pamela Henson and Arthur Molella 
from August 15, 1997 to November 14, 1997. 

Bradley Hume, Predoctoral Fellowship, Indiana University. 
"The Varied, the Average, the Type: Fracturing and Factor- 
ing the Human Subject in the Nineteenth Century," with 
Pamela Henson and Marc Rothenberg from May I, 1997 to 
August 31, 1997. 

Christian W. McMillen, Graduate Fellowship, University of 
Montana. "Nature As They See It: John Wesley Powell, the 
Bureau of American Ethnology, and the Environment," 
with Pamela Henson from June 2, 1997 to August 8, 1997. 



Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 



Carlo Benna, Visiting Scientist, Consorzio Interuniversitario 
Fisica Spaziale. "Research in Physics: UVCS SOHO Pro- 
gram," with John Kohl from October 7, 1996 to June 30, 
1997. 

Patrick J. Boyle, Visiting Student, University College, 
Dublin. "TeV Gamma Ray Bursts," with Trevor Weekes 
and Dale Alianiello from December 14, 1996 to March 14, 
1997. 

James A. Braatz, Visiting Scientist, University of Maryland. 
"Infrared and Radio Studies of H 2 o Megamaser Galaxies," 
with James Moran from December 1, 1996 to November 30, 
1997. 



Ilaria L. Cagnoni, Visiting Student, University of Milan. "Sur- 
vey of X-ray Emitters in 2—10 keV Energy Band Using 
ASCA Data," with Antonella Fruscione and Dale Alianiello 
from January 13, 1997 to November 9, 1997. 

Michael Cavagnero, Visiting Scientist, Department of Physics 
and Astronomy. "Near-Threshold Fragmentation of Atomic 
and Molecular Systems," with Eric Heller from September 
I, 1997 to May 31, 1998. 

James DiFrancesco, SAO Postdoctoral Fellow, University of 
Texas at Austin. "Using High-Resolution Observations to 
Understand Protostellar Formation; Intermediate-Mass 
Young Stellar Objects; Protobinaries," with Philip Myers 
and Dale Alianiello from February 15, 1997 to February 14, 
1998. 

Pedro Elosegui, Visiting Scientist, European Space Agency, 
VILSPA. "Detailed Geographic Variability of Predicted Sea- 
Level Change," with James Davis from January 4, 1997 to 
January 3, 1999. 

Ilya Fabrikant, Short-Term Visitor, Institute of Physics, Lat- 
via. "Effects of a Highly Excited Rydberg Electron and 
Rare-Gas Atom Collision," with Eric Heller from Septem- 
ber 15, 1997 to December 15, 1997. 

Richard Frazin, Visiting Student, University of Illinois. 
"Heating and Energy Transport Mechanisms in the Solar 
Corona," with John Kohl from September I, 1997 to 
August 31, 1998. 

Martin Gotz, SAO Predoctoral Fellow, Brown University. 
"Studies in the Origin of Large-Scale Structure in the 
Universe," with John Huchra from September I, 1997 to 
August 31, 1998. 

Jens-Uwe Grabow, Visiting Scientist, Christian-Albrechts- 
Universitat zu Kiel. "The Development and Improvement 
of Laboratory Microwave Spectroscopy in Support of 
Radioastronomical Investigations," with Patrick Thaddeus 
from November 4, 1996 to November 3, 1997. 

Sirajul Sayid Hasan, Visiting Scientist, Indian Institute of 
Astrophysics. "Solar Flux Tube Models with Radiative 
Transfer," with Wolfgang Kalkofen from November I, 1996 
to July 31, 1997. 

Todd Hunter, SAO Postdoctoral Fellow, California Institute 
of Technology. "Submillimeter Astrophysics and the 
Development of the SMA Telescope," with Dr. Paul Ho 
from October I, 1996 to September 30, 1998. 

Vassiliki Kalogera, CfA Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Il- 
linois at Urbana-Champaign. "Formation and Evolution of 
Compact Objects in Binaries," with Geotge Rybicki from 
September I, 1997 to August 31, 1998. 

Charles Katz, SAO Postdoctoral Fellow, Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology. "Submillimeter Array Project," with 
Paul Ho from September 1, 1997 to August 31, 1998. 

Edward James Kennelly, Short-Term Visitor, University of 
British Columbia. "Delta Scuti Oscillations," with Robert 
Noyes from August 24, 1997 to December 31, 1997. 

Martin Krockenberger, Visiting Scientist, Harvard University. 
"Distance Measurements to the Large Magellanic Cloud 



in 



and che Andromeda Galaxy," wirh Robert Noyes and Dale 
Aliamello from February I, 1997 to July 31, 1998. 

Jing Li, Visiting Scientist, University of Paris VII. "Ultra 
Violet Coronagrph Spectrometer Observations," with John 
Raymond from August I, 1997 to July 31, 1998. 

J.H. Macek, Visiting Scientist, The University of Tennessee. 
"Theory of the Fragmentation States of Charged Particles," 
with Eric Heller from April I, 1997 to August 31, 1997. 

Ross Mair, Visiting Scientist, Massey University, New Zealand. 
"MRI Studies of Laser-Polarized Noble Gases in Geophysical 
and Materials Science Applications," with Ronald Walsworth 
from October 28, 1996 to October 27, 1998. 

Massimo Marengo, SAO Predoctoral Fellow, International 
School for Advanced Studies, Italy. "Mid-IR Observations 
and Modelling of Circumstellar and Interstellar Dust, with 
Applications to Galaxy Clusters," with Giovanni Fazio 
from September 1, 1997 to August 31, 1998. 

Conor Patrick Masterson, Visiting Student, University College- 
Dublin. "Semi-alaytical X2 Method for Analysis of TeV X- 
ray Data Taken with the Upgraded Whipple Telescope," 
with Trevor Weekes from June 20, 1997 to June 19, 1998. 

Julie McEnery, Visiting Student, University College, Dublin. 
"Investigation of Variability of Markarian 421 at High-Ener- 
gy Gamma Ray and Optical Wavelengths," with Trevor 
Weekes and Dale Aliamello from January 5, 1997 to June 
30, 1997. 

Kristen Menou, SAO Predoctoral Fellow, University of Paris, 
France. "Study of Accretion Flows on Compact Ob]ects," 
with Ramesh Narayan from January 15, 1997 to January 14, 
1999. 

Andrea Modigliani, Visiting Scientist, University of Florence. 
"UVCS/SOHO Program," with John Kohl from July I, 
1997 to December 31, 1997. 

August Muench, SAO Predoctoral Fellow, University of 
Florida. "Near Infrared Imaging and Luminosity Function 
Modeling of Young Embedded Stellar Clusters," with Char- 
les Lada from August I, 1997 to July 31, 1998. 

James C. Muzerolle, SAO Predoctoral Fellow, University of 
Massachusetts. "Magnetosphenc Accretion in TTauri 
Stars," with Lee Hartmann from September 1, 1997 to 
August 31, 1998. 

Jukka Nevalainen, SAO Predoctoral Fellow, University of Hel- 
sinki, Finland. "Baryonic and Dark Matter Distributions in 
Clusters of Galaxies," with William Forman from Septem- 
ber 1, 1997 to August 31, 1998. 

Roopesh Ojha, Postdoctoral Fellow, Brandeis University. 
"Mapping the Coalsack in the 492 GHz Ground-State, 
Fine-Structure Line of CI Using AST/RO," with Adair 
Lane from September 1, 1997 to August 31, 1998. 

Pius N. Okeke, Short-Term Visitor, University of Nigeria. 
"Microflares in the Solar Corona and Chromosphere," with 
John Raymond from September 1, 1997 to December 31, 

1997- 
Irene Porro, Visiting Scientist, University of Padova, Italy. 
"Astrophysical Observations of an RS CVn Binary 



(HR5110) and a DLSB Halo Star (G209-35)," with Wesley 
Traub from July I, 1997 to September 30, 1997. 

Dimitnos Psaltis, CfA Postdoctoral Fellow, University of 
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. "Multi-Dimensional Radia- 
tive Transfer and Magnetic Field Structure in Accretion 
Problems," with George Rybicki from September I, 1997 to 
August 31, 1998. 

John Quinn, SAO Predoctoral Fellow, University College, 
Dublin. "TeV Gamma Ray Observations of Active Galactic 
Nuclei," with Trevor Weekes from October 1, 1996 to 
January 31, 1998. 

Somak Raychaudhury, Short-Term Visitor, Inter-University 
Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics. "Shapley Super- 
cluster and Horologium Supercluster," with Christine 
Jones Forman from June I, 1997 to August 31, 1997. 

Masao Saito, SAO Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Tokyo. 
"Submillimeter Array Project," with Paul Ho from Septem- 
ber 1, 1997 to August 31, 1998. 

Flavio Scappini, Visiting Scientist, Istituto di Spettoscopia 
Molecolare, C.N.R. "Laboratory Study of Molecules of 
Astrophysical Interest," with Patrick Thaddeus and Dale 
Aliamello from December 15, 1996 to October 31, 1997. 

Tamar Seideman, Visiting Scientist, Queen's University. 

"Reaction Dynamics," with Eric Heller and Dale Aliamello 
from March I, 1997 to July 31, 1997. 

Janine Shertzer, Visiting Scientist, College of the Holy Cross. 
"The Finite-Element Method in Atomic and Molecular 
Physics," with Eric Heller from Septembet 1, 1997 to May 
31, 1998. 

Jonathan P. Towle, Visiting Scientist, The MTL Instruments 
Group. "The Study of Carbon Chain Molecules," with 
Patrick Thaddeus from June I, 1997 to November 30, 1998. 

Ching-Hua Tseng, Visiting Scientist, Massachusetts. "Investiga- 
tions of Applications of Laser-Polarized ngXe (Xenon) Gas to 
Biomedical and Materials Science Research," with Ronald 
Walsworth from March 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997. 

Marianne Vestergaard, Visiting Student, Copenhagen Univer- 
sity, Denmark. "Broad Emission Line Profiles of Radio- 
loud and Radio-quiet Quasars," with Belinda Wilkes from 
October 1, 1996 to September 30, 1998. 

Colm Whelan, Visiting Scientist, University of Cambridge. 
"Coincidence Physics," with Eric Heller from June 7, 1997 
to September 15, 1997. 

David J. Wilner, Hubble Fellow, Falls River, Massachusetts. 
"Formation and Structure of Protostellar Disks," with 
Philip Myers from October 1, 1996 to September 30, 1998. 

Qizhou Zhang, Visiting Scientist, Harvard-Smithsonian Cen- 
ter for Astrophysics. "Dynamical Collapse and Accretion in 
Molecular Cloud Cores," with Paul Ho from February 1, 
1997 to September 30, 1997. 

Jun-Hui Zhao, Visiting Scientist, Waltham, Massachusetts. 
"Extragalactic Radio Recombination Lines, The Galactic 
Center, and Circumstellar Disk Around Very Young Stellar 
Objects," with Paul Ho from October 15, 1996 to October 
14, 1998. 



112 



Xing-Wu Zheng, Visiting Scientist, Nanjing University. 
"Bow Shock or Champagne Flow in G34.3 + 0.2 ?," with 
James Moran from May 2.0, 1997 to November 19, 1997. 



Smithsonian Environmental Research 
Center 



Cathleen A. Coss, Predoctoral Fellowship, George 

Washington University. "Transmission Dynamics and Pat- 
terns of Perkinsus Infections in Macoma balthica," with 
Gregory Ruiz from June I, 1997 to May 31, 1998. 

Cathleen A. Coss, Predoctoral Fellowship, George 

Washington University. "Transmission Dynamics and Pat- 
terns of Perktnsus Infection in Chesapeake Bay Bivalves," 
with Gregory Ruiz from June I, 1997 to May 31, 1998. 

Edwin Cruz-Rivera, Visiting Student, University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill. "Nutritional Ecology of Marine 
Mesograzers," with Anson Hines from March 1, 1997 to 
May 31, 1997. 

Matthew S. Kendall, Visiting Student, North Carolina State 
University. "Sperm Limitation as a Result of Fisheries Selec- 
tion: The Blue Crab Model," with Anson Hines from May 
26, 1997 to December 14, 1997. 

Mark Louis Kuhlmann, Postdoctoral Fellowship, Florida State 
University. "The Effects of Refuge on Complex Predator- 
Prey Interactions," with Anson Hines from January 15, 1997 
to September 14, 1998. 

Romuald N. Lipcius, Senior Fellowship, College of William 
and Mary. "Dynamics of Estuarine Benthic Species in Time 
and Space: An Individual Based Model for the Blue Crab 
and Its Prey in the Rhode River System," with Anson 
Hines from July I, 1997 to December 31, 1997. 

Zhi-Jun Liu, Visiting Scientist, University Hygienic 

Laboratory, Iowa. "Modelling Nutrient Transportation and 
Landscape Ecology in Patuxent Watershed," with Donald 
Weller from October 7, 1996 to October 5, 1998. 

Stephen P. Long, Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Senior Fel- 
low, University of Essex. "The Effects of Rising Atmos- 
pheric C0 2 and Climate Change on Natural Ecosystems," 
with Bert Drake from February 1, 1997 to January 31, 1999. 

William F.J. Parsons, Postdoctoral Fellowship, University of 
Wyoming. "Spatial Variation in Riparian Nitrate Removal: 
The Contributions of Aggregate Size, pH and Organic 
Carbon Pools," with Thomas Jordan from September 1, 
1997 to August 31, 1998. 

Richard W. Pierce, Postdoctoral Fellowship, University of 
Rhode Island. "Feeding Ecology of Planktonic Amoebae in 
Chesapeake Bay," with D. Wayne Coats from July I, 1997 
to June 30, 1998. 

Tonya K. Rawlings, Graduate Fellowship, University of 
Maryland, College Park. "Survival of Vibrio spp. in 



Microcosm," with Gregory Ruiz from June 2, 1997 to 
August 8, 1997. 

Gabtiela W Smalley, Visiting Student, University of 
Maryland at College Park. "Feeding in Ceratium Furca. a 
Red-Tide Dinoflagellate of the Chesapeake Bay," with D. 
Wayne Coats from November 18, 1996 to January 24, 1997. 

Gabnela W. Smalley, Graduate Fellowship, University of 
Maryland. "Feeding Response of the Mixotrophic 
Dinoflagellate Ceratium Furca to Light Level and Prey Den- 
sity," with D. Wayne Coats from June 2, 1997 to October 

17. 1997- 
Kelly S. Smith, Postdoctotal Fellowship, California Institute 
of Technology. "Relating the Presence and Activity of 
Denitrification Genes to Emissions of Nitrogen Gases in a 
Riparian Fotest Soil," with Thomas Jordan and Donald 
Weller from August I, 1997 to July 31, 1998. 



Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 



Orangel Antonio Aguilera Socorro, Visiting Scientist, Univer- 
sidad Francisco de Miranda. "The Venezuelan Neogene Sec- 
tion: Stratigraphic Precision and Exceptional Fossil Fish 
Faunas Correlated to Costa Rica and Panama," with 
Anthony Coates from August I, 1997 to July 31, 1998. 

John Barone, Postdoctoral Fellowship, University of Utah. 
"The Role of Herbivores and Pathogens in Determing Tree 
Diversity: A Comparative Study," with S.Joseph Wright 
and Annette Aiello from January I, 1997 to May 31, 1998. 

Renae Brodie, Predoctoral Fellowship, University of 

Washington. "Morphological Change and Terrestrial In- 
vasion: Ontogenetic Allometry in Coenobita compressus," 
with John Christy from March 1, 1997 to May 31, 1997. 

Diana Carvajal, Short-Term Fellow, Universidad Nacional de 
Colombia. "Analisis microestratografico de un conchero en 
Cerro Juan Diaz, Los Santos," with Richard Cooke from 
Octobet 15, 1996 to January 15, 1997. 

Jason Hilleary Curtis, Visiting Student, University of Florida. 
"The Environmental History of the Amazon Rain Forest," 
with Paul Colinvaux from May 15, 1997 to May 14, 1998. 

Jennifer Davidson, Visiting Student, University of California, 
Davis. "Effects of Plant Pathogens," with E. Allen Herre 
and Georgina de Alba from December 15, 1996 to Decem- 
ber 14, 1997. 

Julie S. Denslow, Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Senior Fel- 
low, Lousiana State University. "The Effects of Light and 
Litter on Seedling Dynamics Across a Rainfall Gradient in 
Panama," with S. Joseph Wright from June I, 1997 to 
August 31, 1999. 

Michael Dillon, Short-Term Fellow, University of Texas at 
Austin. "Load-lifting and Maximum Flight Performance of 
Euglossine Bees," with David Roubik from May 19, 1997 to 
August 18, 1997. 



113 



Joseph Donlan, Short-Term Fellow, Northern Arizona Univer- 
sity. "The Observanon of Flotsam and Colonized Marine In- 
vertebrates in the Tropical Pacific," with Harilaos Lessios 
from April 4, 1997 to June 24, 1997. 

Jessica R. Eberhard, Postdoctoral Fellowship, Princeton 
University. "Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Amazona 
ocbrocepbala (Psittacidae) Species Complex," with Eldredge 
Bermingham from August I, 1997 to July 31, 1998. 

Birgit Ehmer, Short-Term Fellow, Universitat Wurzburg. 
"Visual and Olfactory Orientation in the Tropical Ant 
Pamponera clavata." with William Wcislo from May 8, 1997 
to August 8, 1997. 

Tugrul Giray, Postdoctoral Fellowship, University of Illinois. 
"Orgins of Endocrine Regulation of Eusocial Behavior in 
Communal Orchid Bees (Apidae: Euglossim)," with Mary- 
Jane West-Eberhard from November I, 1996 to October 31, 
1997. 

Kyle Harms, Visiting Scientist, Princeton University. "Ex- 
ploration of Possible Causes of the Ubiquitous Increase in 
Plant Species Richness Observed with Increasing Rainfall 
in Tropical Forests," with W. Joseph Wright and Georgina 
de Alba from March I, 1997 to February 28, 1999. 

Michaela Hau, Visiting Scientist, University of Washington, 
Seattle. "Seasonal Reproduction in Neotropical Birds," 
with A. Stanley Rand from September 15, 1997 to Decem- 
ber 15, 1999. 

Iris Hendricks, Short-Term Fellow, Universiry of Groningen. 
"Patterns of Larval Supply of Coral Reef Fiches in the Per- 
las Islands, Pacific Panama," with D. Ross Robertson from 
September 8, 1997 to December 9, 1997. 

Michael Jennions, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Oxford. 
"Why Does the Timing of Mate Desertion Vary in the 
Cichlid Fish Aequickns coeruleopunaatus," with William Eber- 
hard and John Christy from August I, 1997 to July 31, 2000. 

Qinhua Jiang, Visiting Scientist, Peking University. 

"Paleoecological Setting for the Origin of Rice in South 
China," with Dolores Piperno and Georgina de Alba from 
January I, 1997 to December 31, 1997. 

Ralf Kersanach, Visiting Scientist, The Natural History 
Museum, London. "Recognizing Coral Species: A 
Molecular adn Reproductive Approach," with Nancy 
Knowlton from June 1, 1997 to May 31, 1998. 

Kaoru Kitajima, Visiting Scientist, University of Missoun- 
St. Louis. "Comparative Ecology of Tree Canopies in a 
Tropical Dry Forest Near Panama," with S. Joseph Wright 
from February 1, 1997 to June 30, 1997. 

Wiebe H.F.C. Kooistra, Visiting Scientist, Alfred-Wegener-In- 
stitut fur Polar-und Meeresforschung. "Molecular Analyses 
of Algae," with Llewellya Hillis from October 27, 1996 to 
October 26, 1999. 

Peter B. Marko, Postdoctoral Fellowship, Universiry of 
California, Davis. "Phylogenetic Analysis of Faunal Turn- 
over in Tropical American Arcid Bivalves," with Jeremy 
Jackson and Nancy Knowlton from September 1, 1997 to 
October 31, 1999. 



David Marsh, Graduate Fellowship, University of California, 
Davis. "Effects of Breeding Pond Density on Oviposition, 
Calling Site Selection, and Male Congregation in the Tun- 
gara Frog, Pbysalaemus pustulosus." with A. Stanley Rand 
from May 15, 1997 to July 24, 1997. 

Juan Mate, Predoctoral Fellowship, University of Miami. 
"The Systematics of the genus Pocillopora (Lamarck) in 
the Eastern Pacific (Panama)," with Nancy Knowlton 
and Hector Guzman from December 27, 1996 to 
January 31, 1998. 

Helene C. Muller-Landau, Predoctoral Fellowship, Princeton 
University. "Interspecific Differences in Mortality Rates, 
Light Transmittivities, and Light-Specific Sapling Growth 
Rates of Tropical Trees: Towards a Resource-Based Model 
of Tropical Forest Dynamics," with Richard Condit from 
September I, 1997 to August 31, 1999. 

Peter Nelson, Short-Term Fellow, Norrhern Arizona Univer- 
sity. "The Behavior and Ecology of Near Shore Flotsam- 
Associated Fishes in the Eastern Pacific Ocean," with Ross 
Robertson from June 15, 1997 to September 14, 1997. 

Andrew Roberts, Visiting Scientist, University of Newcastle. 
"Manipulation of the Phases of CAM in Clusia uvitana," 
with Klaus Winter from October 14, 1996 to January 15, 
1997- 

Michael Rosenberg, Short-Term Fellow, State University of 
New York at Stony Brook. "The Study of Combat and 
Morphology in Fiddler Crabs," with John Christy from 
September 15, 1997 to December 15, 1997. 

Bertrand Schatz, Short-Term Fellow, Laboratoire d'Ethologie 
et de Psychologye Animale. "Field Study of Predatory 
Strategy in the Ant Ectatomma ruidurn." with William Wcisco 
and Georgina de Alba from January 15, 1997 to April 15, 

1997- 

David DeWayne Shoemaker, Postdoctoral Fellowship, Univer- 
sity of Georgia. "Dynamics of Wolbachia in Fig Wasp Com- 
munities," with E. Allen Herre from September 1, 1997 to 
May 31, 2000. 

Miles Silman, Visiting Scientist with funding from Mellon 
Foundation, Duke University. "Tropical Forest Dynamics 
Across a Rainfall Gradient," with S. Joseph Wright and 
Julie Denslow from September I, 1997 to August 31, 1999. 

J. Andrew C. Smith, Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Senior 
Fellow, University of Oxford. "The Evolutionary Origins of 
Epiphytism and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism within the 
Neotropical Family Bromeliaceae," with Klaus Winter 
from April 1, 1997 to March 31, 1999. 

Wesley William Toller, Visiting Scientist, University of 
Southern California. "Molecular Genetic Investigation of 
the Symbiotic Association of Montastrea with Unicellular 
Dinofiagellates," with Nancy Knowlton from January 15, 
1997 to January 14, 1999. 

Mark Travassos, Short-Term Fellow, Harvard Universiry. 
"Interspecific Accoustic Communication in a Butterfly-Ant 
Mutualism," with Donald Windsor from September 15, 
1997 to December 15, 1997. 



114 



Michelle Waycott, Visiting Scientist, University of Western 
Australia. "Investigation of Caribbean Seagrass Population 
Genetics," with Penelope Barnes and Georgina de Alba 
from March I, 1997 to June 30, 1999. 

Suzanne Williams, Visiting Scientist, James Cook University. 
"Divergence and Endemicity in the World's Tropical 
Oceans," with Nancy Knowlton from June I, 1997 to 
November 30, 1998. 



Internships and Other 
Appointments 

The Smithsonian offers internships and other special ap- 
pointments to undergraduate and graduate students and 
to museum professionals. The home institution, a brief 
description of the project undertaken at the Smithsonian, 
and the dates of service are given wherever possible. 

Archives of American Art 

Kelly A. Dolan, Bachelor's Candidate, State University of 
New York at Stony Brook. Archives. June 9, 1997 through 
September 1, 1997. 

Jodie R. Gaudet, Bachelor's Degree. Manuscripts. Assisting 
the Curator of Manuscripts with the research, writing, and 
editing of four projects pertaining to the Archival collec- 
tion. January 6, 199J through April 30, 1997. 

Maria C. Gaztambide, Mascer's Candidate, University of New 
Orleans. Archives of American Art. Conducting research on 
past and active Puerto Rican artists and art organizations in 
Puerto Rico and New York. June 2, 1997 through August 
7, 1997- 

Gabriela H. Lambert, Bachelor's Candidate, Mary Washing- 
ton College. Archives. Arrange and describe the papers of 
Dr. Tornas Ybarro-Irausto. June 2, 1997 through August 8, 

1997- 

Krystyn R. Legg, Doctoral Candidate, Pomona College/Johns 
Hopkins University. Archives. June 9, 1997 through 
September 1, 1997. 

Annie Livingston, Bachelor's Candidate, Yale University. 
Archives. Assist in the arrangement of the papers of Ellen 
Hulda Johnson. The internship will provide practical ex- 
perience in the arrangement and preliminary description of 
personal papers and will strengthen the intern's knowledge 
of the historical significance and research value of primary 
sources. June 2, 1997 through August 1, 1997. 

Kendra E. Meyer, Bachelor's Degree, Savannah College of Art 
& Design. Archives. Research journals and diaries to help 
catalog important information. January 6, 1997 through 
June 1, 1997. 



Pamela Wunderlich, Master's Candidate, University of Rhode 
Island. Archives. Creating finding aids/guides to the hold- 
ings in the Archives. June 9, 1997 through August 29, 1997. 

Accessibility 

Teresa Aguirre, Bachelor's Candidate, Waubonsee Com- 
munity College. Accessibility Program. Preparation of 
marketing plan for the Accessibility Program. July I, 1997 
through August 8, 1997. 

Jessica Ratnasabapathy, High School Graduate, Channing 
School. Accessibility. Developing a technical resource 
library on museum accessibility for people with dis- 
abilities. March 3, 1997 through May 14, 1997. 

Anacostia Museum 

Okezi T Otovo, Bachelor's Candidate, Carnegie Mellon 

University. Curatorial Research/Oral Histories. Conducting 
research for the project "Connections between rural and 
urban church communities." This involves taking oral his- 
tories, interviewing, investigative photography, and ar- 
chival research. June 2, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Stephanie Wooten, Bachelor's Degree, University of Texas at 
Dallas. Research. June 4, 1997 through August 6, 1997. 

Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and Freer Gallery of Art 

Linley Becker, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Maryland, 
College Park. Ancient Near East Art. Researching and 
cataloguing a Silver Roman Cup on display in the Sackler 
Gallery. July 19, 1997 through September 19, 1997. 

Suzanne Davis, MA, New York University. AMSG/FGA. In- 
terning in the NYU Conservation Program in the objects 
division. September 8, 1997 through Sepcember 8, 1998. 

Ila Deshmukh, Bachelor's Candidate, Swarthemore College. 
Education. Aid in running "Imaginasia" program to give 
children hands-on learning of specific exhibits at the 
Arthur M. Sackler Gallery. June 6, 1997 through August 
20, 1997. 

Erica Ehrenberg, Ph.D. Candidate, Institute of Fine Arts. 
Near Eastern Art. Cataloging a collection of Sassanian 
stamp seals. November 1, 1996 through August 31, 1997. 

Subashini Ganesan, Bachelor's Degree, University of 

Rochester. Curatorial Department. Assisting the Curator 
on upcoming exhibit (1999) on the "Concept of the Hindu 
Goddess" at the Sackler. May 23, 1997 through January I, 
1998. 

Alexander Hofmann, Master's Degree, Heidelberg University. 
Curatorial. Researching the Edo and Meiji period paintings 
in the Freer Gallery of Art in preparation for exhibitions 
and publications by curators of Japanese art. April 7, 1997 
through June 29, 1997. 

Lhundup Jamphel, AMSG. To observe registrarial, photog- 
raphy, archival, and curatorial activities of the Sackler Gal- 



lic 



lery in preparing a work plan for the operations of the Con- 
servancy of Tibetan Culture. September 24, 1997 through 
October 18, 1997. 
Amy K. Jones, Bachelor's Degree, University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill Ancient Near Eastern Art. Glass 
collection research. October 31, 1996 through August 31, 

1997- 

Margaret A. Kozicharow, High School Senior, Holton-Arms 
School. Public Affairs/Education. Labeling photographs 
and slides to send out to press; organization of Archives 
projects; general office work, such as filing, copying, and 
faxing documents. July I, 1997 through August 30, 1997. 

Michelle Siu Lee, High School Student, Richard Montgomery- 
High School. Education. Research material for use in educa- 
tion program related to upcoming exhibitions. July 7, 1997 
through August 31, 1997. 

Odile Madden, MA Candidate, New York University — IFA. 
Conservation. Examination and treatment of ceramics in 
AMSG/FGA collections. July 28, 1997 through August 27, 

1997- 

Tracey Middlekauff, Ph.D. Candidate, University of Maryland 
at College Park. Education. Assisting with supply and dis- 
tribution of interpretive materials within galleries; assist- 
ing with logistical arrangements for public programs; 
organizing files on past and potential public programs; 
compiling information on Asian films in Library of Con- 
gress collection for possible screening at the Freer Gallery. 
October 9, 1996 through May I, 1997. 

Kelley Pagano, Bachelor's Candidate, Georgetown University. 
Photography. Various studio duties such as filing, printing, 
assisting photographers, etc. January 22, 1997 through May 
30, 1997- 

Ranisha Patel, High School Graduate, Walt Whitman High 
School/Yale University. Conservation. Compilation of a 
database of X-ray diffraction film information to be used 
by conservation scientists and conservators studying Asian 
works of art. June 16, 1997 through July 25, 1997. 

Deborah Pun, BA, University at Albany. Sackler Gallery. 
Assist Curator with public inquiry and exhibit preparation. 
September 15, 1997 through September 15, 1998. 

Jami Rutherford, Ph.D. Candidate, University of Maryland. 
Japanese Art. Looking at late Ukiyoe in the Freer Collec- 
tion to examine the transmission of western visual culture 
to Japan. November iS, 1996 through May 31, 1997. 

Virginia Shearer, Master's Candidate, George Washington 
University. Education. Assist with school and family 
programs in the Education Dept. January 13, 1997 through 
October 30, 1997. 

Susan Sutherland, Freer Gallery. Going through the inventory 
subject and donor cards and files of the study collection. 
The goal is to account for and create a file for every object 
in the collection. July 15, 1997 through December 31, 1997. 

Yumiko Takahashi, Bachelor's Candidate, Hood College. 
Curatorial. Research and administrative assistance for 
curatorial projects including exhibition planning and im- 



plementation. Research of permanent collection and 
cataloging. January 23, 1997 through December 31, 1997. 

Anar Virji, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Chicago. 

Education/Publications. Assisting in completion of publica- 
tions inventory and research on upcoming Japanese exhibi- 
tion. Assistance in compiling a finding aid for Asian films 
at the Library of Congress. July 14, 1997 through August 9, 
1997- 

Julia Way, Bachelor's Degree. Photography. Photography 
department internship; printing assisting photographers 
films, filling work orders, etc. May 15, 1997 through 
August 25, 1997. 

Tammy Wong, Master's Candidate, University of Maryland, 
College Park. Library. Learn the basic functions of the Gal- 
lery library, enhanced by hands-on experience. February 3, 
1997 through May 5, 1997. 

Christopher Yeung, High School Student, Sidwell Friends 
School. Education. Inventory of education slide collection 
and management of education files. July 9, 1997 through 
September 5, 1997. 

Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum 

Chizu Makiyama, Senior, Fordham University. September 19, 
1997 through January 30, 1997. 

Camellia Nick, Junior, Lewis and Clark College. Research, 
preparing and organizing for the upcoming exhibit "Under 
the Sun." September 5, 1997 through December 5, 1997. 

Jennifer Sova, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Texas. 
Registrar. Searching the Lee Nordness collection of the Ar- 
chives of American Art for evidence of title to certain ob- 
jects in CHM's possession. June 9, 1997 through August 10, 
1997- 

Conservation Analytic Laboratory 

Jeff Dunbar, Master's Degree, University of Delaware. Paper 
Lab. Summer Internship at CAL. June 16, 1997 through 
August 29, 1997. 

Stephanie Hornbeck, MA, New York University. Full-year 
graduate internship in archaeological conservation October 
1, 1997 through September 30, 1998. 

Lara Kaplan, Bachelor's Degree, Rice University. Coatings 
Lab. Summer internship at CAL. June 16, 1997 through 
August 29, 1997. 

Kung I. Kuo, Master's Degree, National Tainan University of 
the Arts. Archives. Summer internship in archives conserva- 
tion. June 16, 1997 through July 29, 1997. 

Elizabeth Robertson, MA, Queens University. Education. Full- 
year graduate fellowship in archaeological conservation. Oc- 
tober I, 1997 through September 30, 1998. 

Andrea Sheerin, Bachelor's Degree, Tulane University. Educa- 
tion. Year-long pregraduate internship. August I, 1997 
through July 31, 1998. 



Il6 



Sarah Stauderman, MA, Buffalo State College. Year-long 
graduate internship in archives conservation. September I, 
1997 through August 30, 1998. 

Center for Folklife Programs and Cultural Studies 

Cecile Abeille, Bachelor's Candidate, McMaster University. 
Folklife Festival. Assist with managing and scheduling 
volunteers at the 1997 Festival of American Folklife, as well 
as assisting volunteers and serving as a liaison for the volun- 
teer office. June 16, 1997 through July 6, 1997. 

Chris Alberding, Bachelor's Degree, Ohio Wesleyan Univer- 
sity. Folkways. Work with Smithsonian Folkways Record- 
ings marketing. June 2, 1997 through August 20, 1997. 

Thomas Aplin, graduate, University of Oklahoma. Work in 
the archives transferring older recordings onto CDs, answer 
reference questions, and research Pete Seeger martial for fu- 
ture releases. Also assisted with sorting archived files for 
transfer to new facilities in Pennsylvania. September 8, 
1997 through December 15, 1997. 

David Arkush, Bachelor's Candidate, Washington University 
in St. Louis. Folkways. Work with the documentation of 
the 1997 Festival of American Folklife and cataloging of 
generated materials. Transferring older recordings onto 
CDs. June 2, 1997 through August I, 1997. 

Lisa Bares, Bachelor's Candidate, Kalamazoo College. Folklife 
Festival. Work with the African Immigrant program at the 
1997 Festival of American Folklife by checking in partici- 
pants and presenters and also working at the music and 
dance area of the festival program. June 17, 1997 through 
August 8, 1997. 

Robin C. Bayne, Bachelor's Candidate, Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity. Folklife Festival. Work with participant staff in arranging 
travel, room, board, and hospitality for the participants at 
the 1997 Festival of American Folklife. June 2, 1997 
through July 18, 1997. 

Ounaida Bongo, The American University. Folklife Festival. 
Working on the Festival of American Folklife. Researching 
the transition and backgrounds of African immigrants. 
May 19, 1997 through July 10, 1997. 

Aaron Brenner, Bachelor's Degree, Oberlin College. Work 
with Smithsonian Folkways Recordings by helping create 
Web pages, following up on manufacturing orders and re- 
orders, and updating the marketing data base. March 5, 
1997 through June 1, 1997. 

Esther Chak, Bachelor's Candidate, Columbia University. 
Design. Work with the design department of the Fes- 
tival of American Folklife. June 2, 1997 through July 25, 
1997. 

Pearl Chan, Bachelor's Candidate, Harvard University. 

Folklife Festival. Work with the 1997 Festival of American 
Folklife program African Immigrant Folklife, organizing 
and coordinating the Teaching and Learning section of the 
program. June 2, 1997 through August 29, 1997. 



Steven A. Curtis, Bachelot's Degtee. Folkways. Work with 
Marketing for the Smithsonian Folkways Recordings. July 
14, 1997 through August 20, 1997. 

Galeet Dardashti, BA, University of Maryland, College Park. 
Work on compiling book and photo essays on Jerusalem 
and its communities' traditions. September 9, 1997 
through June 30, 1997. 

Marina del Sol, Bachelor's Degree, University of Texas at 
Austin. Folklife. June 2, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Jeremy Felsen, High School Senior, Kingsley Wilderness 
School. Archives. Working with the Folklife Archives with 
photo documentation. January 13, 1997 through July 31, 

1997- 

Daniel Gilbert, Bachelor's Candidate, Wesleyan. Folklife 
Festival. Assist with documentation of the 1997 Festival of 
American Folklife and cataloging of generated materials. 
Transferring older recordings onto CDs. June 2, 1997 
through August 15, 1997. 

Erick Gilbert, BA, University of Rochester. CFPCS. Help 
with the Jerusalem Project (a cultural exploration of the 
people that live in Jerusalem). September 26, 1997 through 
June 6, 1997. 

Paul Goldsmith, Bachelor's Degree, State University of New 
York, Geneseo. Folkways. Conducting research for and 
developing an enhanced CD for the reissue of Harry 
Smith's Anthology of American Folk Music for Smith- 
sonian Folkways Recordings. March 10, 1997 through July 
10, 1997. 

Linda Guinn, Senior, George Mason University. Work with 
the exhibition on Marroon Cultutes. September 9, 1997 
through January 31, 1998. 

Thomas Guthrie, BA, Davidson College. Work on the eve- 
ning concerts at the Barns at Wolf Trap and a day-long 
symposium at NMAH in conjunction with the Folkways 
release "Anthology of American Folklife." Also did 
preparatory work for the 1998 festival. September 15, 1997 
through December 12, 1997. 

Christine R. Hamer, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Pit- 
tsburgh. Folklife Festival. Help organize and coordinate 
the music and dance part of "African Immigrant Folklife" 
for the 1997 Festival of American Folklife. June 16, 1997 
through July 11, 1997. 

Mina Harris, Senior, UC Davis. Work with the development 
of the Foodways section of the Aftican Immigrant Folklife 
education materials. September 20, 1997 through Decem- 
ber 5, 1997. 

Anne Hege, Bachelor's Candidate, Wesleyan University, Con- 
necticut. Assist with the production of the "Sacred Sounds" 
program at the 1997 Festival of American Folklife. June 2, 
1997 through August I, 1997. 

Tanya Irvine, Folklife Festival. Worked as a logger at music 
stages for the 1997 Festival of American Folklife and assisted 
in CFPCS archives. June 18, 1997 through August 1, 1997. 

Xavien Johnson, Graduate, University of Maryland, College 
Park. African Immigrant and Folklife Program — Develop- 



II- 



men: of teachers guide and Web page. September 3, 1997 
through December 19, 1997. 

Olivia Kissel, Bachelor's Degree, University of Pittsburgh. 
Festival of American Folklife. Helped to coordinate and 
organize the music and dance portion of the African Im- 
migrant Folklife section of the 1997 Festival of American 
Folklife. June 16, 1997 through July II, 1997. 

Angela Lang, Bachelor's Candidate, Emory University. 
Folklife Festival. Helped to coordinate and organize the 
Enterprise and Crafts portion of the African Immigrant 
Folklife section of the 1997 Festival of American Folklife. 
May 12, 1997 through August 30, 1997. 

Bryan Lee, Bachelor's Candidate, University of North 
Carolina, Chapel Hill. Festival/Media. Assisting with 
Folkways music projects, Web page design, and festival 
preparation. June 2, 1997 through August 7, 1997. 

Joseph Luttnak, Bachelor's Degree, University of Rochester. 
Folklife Festival. Working with organizing files on the 
Jerusalem Project, and assisting with documentation of the 
1997 Festival of American Folklife. June 2, 1997 through 
August 15, 1997. 

Meredith MacKay, Bachelor's Candidate, College of William 
and Mary. African Immigrant Project. Assisting with the 
coordination of the African Immigrant Project at the 1997 
Folklife Festival. June 2, 1997 through August I, 1997. 

Jeremiah B. Mahlangu, Folklife. Organizational Aspects of 
the Smithsonian Folklife Festival and other issues pertain- 
ing ro policy formulation. June 23, 1997 through July 19, 

1997- 

Teresa Martyny, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Florida. 
Director's Office. Creating a survey to be sent to Folkways 
customers. Compiling the recordings in the Folklife 
Festival Archives into a spreadsheet for easier accessibility. 
October 9, 1996 through December 31, 1996. 

M. Meriam Maswanganyz, Folklife. Research for South Africa 
Promotion of General interest of International Educational 
and cultural exchange; observation and consultation con- 
cerning how communities participate in museums. June 
22, 1997 through July 18, 1997. 

Stephenie Mirra, Bachelor's Candidate, Austin College. Con- 
duct and compile research on African immigrant fabric and 
clothing stores in the Washington, D.C., area in prepara- 
tion for the Enterprise and Craft area of the African Im- 
migrant Folklife Program. January 6, 1997 through January 

*4. 1997- 

Moja N. Mwaniki, Bachelor's Candidate, Howard University. 
Folklife Festival. Working and coordinating in the center 
of the Aftican Immigrant Program for the Folklife Festival 
in 1997. June 9, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Rebecca Reich, Sophomore, Yale College. Monitoring the 
crafts area at the Worship Area of the Mississippi Delta pro- 
gram at the 1997 Festival of American Folklife. June 24, 
1997 through July 31, 1997. 

Jerusha Rhodes, Bachelor's Degree, The American University. 
Folklife Festival. Researching for the 1997 Festival of 



American Folklife program on African immigrants in the 
Washington, D.C., area. Octobet 7, 1996 through August 

31, 1997- 

Rose M. Rodriguez-Rabin, Master's Candidate, Texas A & M 
International University. Working on the annual Folklife 
Festival. June 2, 1997 through August I, 1997. 

Herbert G. Ruffin II, University of California at Santa Cruz. 
Working on the African Immigrant Project for the Festival 
of American Folklife, 1997. July 9, 1997 through August 15, 
1997- 

Diana Sherblom, Bachelor's Degree, Indiana University. Folk- 
life Festival. Researching and writing for the 1997 Festival 
of American Folklife African Immigrant program. 
October 7, 1996 through January 31, 1997. 

Kori Shlachter, Bachelor's Candidate, Stanford University. 
Folklife. Work with Smithsonian Folkways Recordings on 
the production of the Richard Dyer-Bennet release and the 
two Ella Jenkins reissues, Web sound bites, and organizing 
files. June 16, 1997 through August 22, 1997. 

Helen A. Smith, Bachelor's Degree. Folklife Festival. Wotk 
with the Rio Grande Basin Project and help with the 
Folklife Festival. June 2, 1997 through May I, 1998. 

Michael D. Spencer, Master's Candidate, University of South- 
western Louisiana. Folklife Festival. Mississippi Delta 
Project. June 2, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Derek Taylor, Master's Candidate, Northern Arizona Univer- 
sity. Folklife Festival. 1997 American Folklife Festival: plan- 
ning and implementing video production and archival 
management. June I, 1997 through August I, 1997. 

Margot Tracy, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Virginia. 
Friends of the Festival. To assist the program manager in 
working on the Fiends of the Festival for the Festival of 
American Folklife, 1997. May 27, 1997 through July 6, 1997. 

Julia M. Ward, Master's Candidate, The George Washington 
University. Folklife Festival. Worked on Foodways and 
home crafts area of the Mississippi Delta program at the 
1997 Festival of American Folklife. May 19, 1997 through 
August 31, 1997. 

John T. Westerman, Bachelor's Candidate, Portland State 
University. Folklife Fesrival. Maroon studies for the Fes- 
tival of American Folklife. January 13, 1997 through May 
16, 1997. 

Terri Whitlock, Bachelor's Candidate, School of the Art 
Institute of Chicago. Working with the photo department 
for the Folklife Festival. Publishing photos on the Web. 
June 9, 1997 through August I, 1997. 

Josh C. Wiese, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. 
Photography/ Archives. Folklife Festival aide photographer, 
research assistant for the Archives. June 2, 1997 through 
July 21, 1997. 

Center for Museum Studies 

Jessica B. Bennett, Bachelor's Candidate, College of William 
and Mary. Intern Services. To develop, research, and com- 



u8 



pile an information interview resource document to be used 
in advising interns. May 22, 1997 through July 25, 1997. 
Brooke M. Black, Bachelor's Candidate, Northern Arizona 
University. Assist with Awards for Museum Leadership pro- 
gram planning and implementation February 3-21. Catalog 
and enter thesis and dissertations citations into the 
Museum Studies database. February 3, 1997 through April 

30, 1997- 

Matthew Hartell, Bachelor's Candidate, University of South 
Carolina. American Indian Museum Studies Program. 
Gather information for a Tribal Museum Directory; tabu- 
late results of ATMS program survey; locate written 
materials to update tribal museum bibliography. July 8, 
1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Erin C. Korengold, Bachelor's Degree, University of Pennsyl- 
vania. Intern Services. Working on the July Museum 
Career Seminar for Interns May 27, 1997 through August 
10, 1997. 

Carolina Maharbiz, Bachelor's Candidate, Cornell University. 
Latino Graduate Training Seminar. Compile a notebook 
with article and book readings to accompany the seminar. 
June 2, 1997 through August I, 1997. 

Dr. Svitlana Marinova, The George Washington University. 
Developing art museums as NGOs May 5, 1997 through 
December 31, 1997. 

Deirdre M. Prins, Center for Museum Studies. Research 
project: I. to investigate the role of South Africa in plan- 
ning for the 1999 Folklife Festival, where South Africa will 
be rhe fearured country; 2. to study educational packages 
designed and distributed by the Smithsonian. June 23, 1997 
through July 19, 1997. 

Comptroller 

Carlos Williamson, Bachelor's Candidate, Strayer College. Of- 
fice of the Comptroller. Reconciling bank accounts. 
January 8, 1997 through March 28, 1997. 

Friends of the National Zoo — Communications 

Alexandra Feachem, Master's Degree, London School of 
Hygene and Tropical Med. Communications. Writing and 
editing for Zoogoer magazine. May 18, 1997 through August 
18, 1997. 

Heather A. Pilar, Bachelor's Degree, Washington College. 
Public Relations. Setting up "Newly Discovered Species" 
database; writing brochures on animal demonstrations at 
the Zoo, conservation, and the Great Barrier Reef. June 9, 
1997 through September 5, 1997. 

Hirshborn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

Eric Jack Baker, Bachelor's Degree, College of William and 
Mary. Conservation. Assisting the HMSG Sculpture Conser- 
vator in carrying out a variety of sculpture conservation 



treatments on more than seventy outdoor sculptures. Treat- 
ments will include cleansing of soiled sculpture surfaces, 
application of protective coatings, paint application, and 
helping make structural repairs. Assist Conservator in 
weekly tasks of cleaning indoor sculptures and other indoor 
projects when weather does not permit. June 9, 1997 
through August 29, 1997. 

Susan L. Borkowski, Bachelor's Candidate, The Catholic 
University of America. Education and Library. Working in 
the Library aiding the librarians in shelving and data entry. 
I will also be placed in other areas in order to experience 
and learn about other areas of the museums including 
education. February 10, 1997 through May 23, 1997. 

Evan M. Cantwell, Bachelor's Candidate, James Madison 
University. Education. Responsibilities include filing and 
labeling slides of the Hirshhorn's acquisitions and special 
requests, copy work, documentation of exhibitions, process- 
ing of film and prints, learning techniques with large- 
format cameras and 4x5 film in a studio setting. June 9, 
1997 through August 14, 1997. 

Beth Edelstein, Bachelor's Degree, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, Conservation. Assisting the HMSG Sculpture Con- 
servator in carrying out a variety of sculpture conservation 
treatments on more than seventy outdoor sculptures. Treat- 
ments will include cleansing of soiled sculpture surfaces, 
application of protective coatings, paint application, and 
helping make structural repairs. Assist Conservator in 
weekly tasks of cleaning indoor sculptures and other indoor 
projects when weather does not permit. June 9, 1997 
through August 29, 1997. 

Erin Firestone, Undergraduate, Juniata College. Organization 
and correspondence related to internship applications, sus- 
taining an active intern file, coordinating the new docent 
schedule, and attending/assisting with meetings for 
docents. Conducting research for docents. September 2, 
1997 through December 12, 1997. 

Christopher Gilbert, Bachelor's Degree, Virginia Common- 
wealth University. Curatorial. Research assistant for As- 
sociate Curator Phyllis Rosenzweig and Assistant Curator 
Olga Viso at the Hirshhorn Museum. Gave Gallery Talks 
on "Recent Acquisitions" show, researched "Toba Khedori" 
exhibition. May 7, 1997 through August 30, 1997. 

Sarah Green, Master's Candidate, The American University. 
Education/Public Affairs. Developed a marketing/promotions 
project for 1998 summer programs in the Sculpture Garden. 
(Jazz series, etc.) January 17, 1997 through May 1, 1997. 

Courtney Hewitt, Senior, University, of Vermont. Assist in 
writing educational material, participating in the docent 
program, and working with family programs. September 
!5> r 997 through December 12, 1997. 

David M. Kupperberg, High School Senior, Sidwell Friends 
School. Education. Producing a film of a discussion be- 
tween students and the Chief Curator in an effort to attract 
a younger audience to the Hirshhorn. Giving touch tours 
for the blind. May 5, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 



119 



Adina Loeb, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Pennsyl- 
vania. Curatorial. Conduct research on lesser known 
American artists in the museums permanent collection, and 
assist the sculpture curator with updating the records on 
Saul Baizerman. June 16, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Richard Pike, Graduated, St. Andrews University. Presented 
Art Night gallery talks, conducted tours of collections and 
participated in press previews. Wrote radio spots and press 
releases. July 7, 1997 through September 12, 1997. 

Patricia A. Porter, Stonehill College. Education. Assisting 
Teresia Bush in research projects, special educational 
programs, and to become involved in various museum 
programs. January 28, 1997 through May 9, 1997. 

Miyuki Shimazu, Master's Candidate, The American Univer- 
sity. Education. Developing a distance-learning educational 
program for schools nationwide on the Internet. January 16, 
1997 through December 31, 1997. 

Kristina Walton, Bachelor's Candidate, Simmons College. 
Education/Library. Library support/developing and giving 
tours of permanent collection. June 10, 1997 through 
August 15, 1997. 

Marcus Wilson, Bachelor's Candidate, Ball State University. 
Education/Library. Developed lesson plans for teachers, 
gave tours of the "Recent Acquisitions" show. June 2, 1997 
through August 8, 1997. 

International Center 

Shawn Adams, Bachelor's Degree, University of Arizona. 
Caribbean and African Projects. Intern will assist the 
project director with administrative duties in connection 
with the development of an exhibition at Elmina Castle, 
Cape Coast, Ghana, on the life of King Prempe I and with 
logistical arrangements for sending consultants and sup- 
plies to Ghana. January 6, 1997 through June 13, 1997. 

Andrews Anseku. To be trained as a Plexiglas Technician at 
OEC, which will enable the intern to provide this skill to 
the Design and Fabrication Center in Ghana. September 
22, 1997 through December 14, 1997. 

Sarah E. Cleary, Bachelor's Candidate, Emory University. Inter- 
national Gallery. Assist with the activities involved with 
"American Voices" exhibit. May 12, 1997 through August 
20, 1997. 

Melissa Doumitt, Bachelor's Degree, George Washington 
University. International Relations. To provide administra- 
tive support for the museum development project in 
Ghana. June 2, 1997 through October 10, 1997. 

Natalie G. DuMont, Bachelor's Candidate, Stanford Univer- 
sity. Tom Lovejoy's office. Assisted with the annual Smith- 
sonian Environmental Conference focusing on the regional 
area. July 15, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Isaac Erskine. To receive additional training in new techni- 
ques of exhibition fabrication, which will assist intern in 
his position as a fabricator at the Design and Fabrication 



Center, Ghana. September 20, 1997 through December 14, 

1997- 
John Fiege, Bachelor's Candidate, Carleton College. Environ- 
mental Awareness. Helping Thomas Lovejoy in researching 
for a conference concerning the state of the environment in 
the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area. December 2, 

1996 through January 15, 1997. 

Morgan Wing Goodale, Bachelor's Degree. Institute of Con- 
servation Biology. Conducting research for the Institute of 
Conservation Biology. January 8, 1997 through March 25, 
1997- 

David Hendricks, Doctoral Candidate, University of Califor- 
nia, Davis. Assisted with preparations for the Smithsonian 

1997 Environmental Conference. February 3, 1997 through 
May I, 1997. 

Sarah I. Kenderdine, Master's Degree, Otago, Curtin Univer- 
sity. Smithsonian Without Walls. Helping to develop on- 
line project "Museum Without Walls: Revealing Things" 
project management; content assemblage and design. 
November 8, 1996 through December 13, 1996. 

Lara Khouri, Bachelor's Candidate, George Washington 
University. Biodiversity/Environmental Affairs. Manage- 
ment of the Institute for Conservation Biology's list-server; 
general administrative and programmatic support. August 
2 5> 1 997 through December 12, 1997. 

Eric Quayson. To be trained in new techniques of exhibition 
fabrication at the OEC, which will assist intern in his posi- 
tion as a fabricator at the Design and Fabrication Center in 
Ghana. September 20, 1997 through December 14, 1997. 

Terry M. Redding, Master's Candidate, University of South 
Florida. Smithsonian Without Walls. Researching and col- 
lecting data on material culture for the Smithsonian 
Without Walls project. June 9, 1997 through September 5, 

1997- 
Bernard Rhule. To be trained as a graphic designer at OEC, 

which the intern will be able to provide to the Design and 

Fabrication Center in Ghana. September 20, 1997 through 

December 14, 1997. 
Christine Twining, Bachelor's Candidate, Brown University. 

Biodiversity Affairs. Conducting research for the Institute 

of Conservation Biology. June 3, 1997 through September 

15. 1997- 

Institutional Studies Office 

Nuria del Real, Universidad Autouowa. Conducted an inde- 
pendent study of visitor behavior at a Smithsonian exhibi- 
tion. Reviewed selected American visitor studies and 
designed complementary studies to be conducted with 
Spanish museum-going audiences. July 14, 1997 through 
September 30, 1997. 

Sheri L. Klein, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Connec- 
ticut. Co-authored a qualitative evaluation of the Anacos- 
tia/Moten School Partnership. Assisted with all phases of 



120 



quantitative studies in progress during her stay. June 9, 
1997 through August 8, 1997. 
Charles Vogl, BA, University of Southern California. Conducted 
a literature search for studies and evaluations related to the 
public understanding of science. Summarized studies and 
developed a bibliography as background for a forthcoming 
SI exhibition. Assisted in qualitative analysis for a plan- 
ning study for NMAI. September 17, 1997 through 
December 19, 1997. 

National Air and Space Museum 

Ian Betts, George Washington University. Aeronautics. Intern 
will work with the curator of art on a book concerning the 
U.S. space program that will be published. The book will 
be illustrated by images in the NASA Art Collection of the 
National Air and Space Museum. Intern will locate 
photographic images of art and verify the artist and title. 
June 2, 1997 through July 25, 1997. 

Anne P. Brown, Master's Candidate, American University. 
Public Affairs. Assistant edition for "Flyer" and project re- 
search in the Public Affairs office. January 16, 1997 through 
April 9, 1997. 

Bridget Burchett, Bachelor's Candidate, Purdue University. 
Media Unit. Intern will be working as a film production as- 
sistant for the Museum's proposed Imax Aviation film. 
Work on the Imax project, which includes reviewing and 
cataloging past Imax files. Drafting correspondence and 
working on pre-production tasks. June 2, 1997 through 
August 8, 1997. 

Meghan Cummings, Bachelor's Candidate, University of 
Maryland at College Park. Archives. Intern will assist with 
cataloguing, preservation, and conservation projects dealing 
with the photographic collections of the NASM archives 
Division. June 16, 1997 through August 22, 1997. 

Christine Foot, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Virginia. 
Center for Earth and Planetary Studies. Intern will extract 
topographic data of Martian and lunar craters using a tech- 
nique called photoclinometry. Photoclinometry extracts 
slope data from planetary surfaces by first assuming that 
the digital image of a particular feature has a uniform 
albedo. June 9, 1997 through October 3, 1997. 

Roberto F. Gonzalez, Jr., Bachelor's Candidate, Northern 
Illinois University. Computer Services. Assisting the LAN 
Administrator, Senior Technical manager and Museum 
programmer in their areas of specialty. July I, 1997 through 
August 8, 1997. 

Maura Hamilton, Gallaudet University. Photography 

Division. Working on photoshop, scanning negatives, and 
printing slides. Working in studio with 4x5 large-format 
view camera. March I, 1997 through June I, 1997. 

Naoise Johnston, Master's Candidate, University of Toronto. 
Archives. Intern will help establish physical and intellec- 
tual control of archival collections. Work will include writ- 
ing descriptions, arranging and rehousing collections, and 



performing preservation tasks to make archival collections 
accessible for research use. May 27, 1997 through August I, 

'997- 

Margaret McGee, Bachelor's Degree, South West Missouri 
State University. Exhibits/Education. Intern will be as- 
signed to the How Things Fly, gallery. Student will be 
engaged in maintaining current exhibits, reconfiguring 
those that need fine-tuning, and building additional 
devices. June 2, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Scott C. Mest, Master's Degree, University of Pittsburgh. 
Center for Earth and Planetary Sciences. Topographic profile 
study of Revil Vallis, Mars, using photoclinometry; Mor- 
phometric study of drainage basins and channels in the 
southern highlands of Mars. June 2, 1997 through August 

8, 1997- 

Sheelena Nti, Bachelor's Degree, Marymount University. Ex- 
hibits. Intern will draw aircraft and spacecraft on the com- 
puter using AutoCad software for the purpose of providing 
floor plans of the new NASM Dulles Center. Dtawings will 
be based on information provided by the curatorial depart- 
ments. June 2, 1997 through September 26, 1997. 

Matthew Pate, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Colotado. 
Exhibits/Education. Intern will be assigned to the How 
Things Fly gallery. Student will be engaged in maintaining 
cutrent exhibits, reconfiguring those chat need fine-tuning, 
and building additional devices. June 9, 1997 through 
August 15, 1997. 

Jennifer Ramstad, Bachelor's Candidate, Cornell University. 
Center for Earth and Planetary Studies. Analyzing lunar - 
impact on craters, and making a model that any investigator 
could use for age-dating small geologic units on the lunar 
surface. The second project involves fresh and degraded 
impact craters on the Martian surface. This is important for 
understanding the ancient Martian environment and has 
profound implications on the possibility of life on that 
planet. June 9, 1997 through August 3, 1997. 

Brandy Ries, Bachelor's Candidate, Princeton University. Cen- 
ter for Earth and Planetary Studies. Intern will extract 
topographic data of Martian and lunar craters using 
photoclimonetry. Photoclinometry extracts slope data from 
planetary surfaces by first assuming that the digital image 
of a particular feature has a uniform alledo. June 9, 1997 
through August 2, 1997. 

Gabnelle Smith, Bachelor's Candidate, Stanford Univer- 
sity. Education. Intern will assist the student services 
coordinator in managing the intern program. Student 
will assist in scheduling and recruiting volunteets for 
the unit and the "How Things Fly" summer institute. 
Intern will assist with upcoming educational program 
for the fall and winter. June 16, 1997 through August 22, 

1997- 

H. David Tristan, Bachelor's Candidate, St. Ambrose Univer- 
sity. Development. Assisting the directors of NASM with 
nonprofit fund-raising and membership programs. July I, 
1997 through August 8, 1997. 



121 



Andrea M. Zamudio, Bachelor's Candidate, Benedictine 
University. Computer Outreach. To update the National 
Air and Space Society's existing World Wide Web page. 
July I, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

National Museum of American Art 

Sherman Anderson, MA, University of Washington. NMAA 
Advanced-Level Internship Program. September 5, 1997 
through December 12, 1997. 

Kristin A. Arioli, Bachelor's Candidate, Cornell University. 
Development Office. Development Office researching 
companies/private patrons and developing proposals for 
gallery funding. June 6, 1997 through August I, 1997. 

Rebecca Black, Graduate, Newcomb College of Tuland 
University. NMAA Advanced-Level Internship Program. 
September 5, 1997 through December 12, 1997. 

Susan Breitkopf, MA, American University. NMAA Advanced- 
Level Internship Program. September 5, 1997 through 
April 24, 1997. 

Jonathan Bucci, MA, American University. NMAA Advanced- 
Level Internship Program. September 5, 1997 through April 
24, 1998. 

Adriana Burgos, Bachelor's Degree, The Savannah College of 
Art and Design. Exhibitions. Assisting in the development 
and production of Graphics for several upcoming NMAA 
exhibitions. June 6, 1997 through August I, 1997. 

Deric Carner, Bachelor's Candidate, University of California at 
Santa Cruz. Intern Programs. Put out-of-print issues of 
American Art on the journal's website. Obtaining reproduc- 
tion permission and follow up calls. Converting files to 
Adobe and CD. In addition, he will assist in Web redesign, 
create new pages, etc. June 9, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Brett Crenshaw, Registrar's Office. Assisting the professional 
staff with exhibitions and loans, collections storage, per- 
manent collections documentation, packing and shipping, 
and rights and reproductions in the Office of the Registrar 
and collections management. June 2, 1997 through August 
8, 1997- 

Mary C. Herbert, Bachelor's Candidate, The College of 
William and Mary. Registrar. Assisting in the ongoing 
activities of the Registrar's office. June 6, 1997 through 
August 1, 1997. 

Stephanie Hibner, Intern Programs. NMAA Graduate-Level 
Program — see FY96 fall NMAA interns for project descrip- 
tion. January 13, 1997 through April 25, 1997. 

Jody Huebert Hamm, Intern Programs. NMAA Graduate- 
Level Program — see FY96 fall NMAA interns for project 
description. January 13, 1997 through April 25, 1997. 

Libby Karlinger, Master's Candidate, Bryn Mawr College. In- 
tern Programs. NMAA Graduate-Level Program — see 
FY96 fall intern entries. January 13, 1997 through April 25, 
1997. 

Jeannie J. Kim, Bachelor's Candidate, Stanford University. 
Curatorial. Assisting the senior curator on the preparation 



of a series of exhibitions from the permanent collection to 
tour the United States. June 16, 1997 through August 8, 
1997. 

Christine Klicka, Bachelor's Candidate, Salisbury State 

University. Development. Interning in the Development of- 
fice assisting in design of the new membership brochure, 
forms and updating of membership database. June 2, 1997 
through July 25, 1997. 

Allison Kohrs, MA, University of California, Santa Barbara. 
NMAA Advanced-Level Internship Program. September 5, 
1997 through April 24, 1998. 

Heather Krause, Bachelor's Degree, University of Virginia. 
Curatorial Department. Assisting in the curatorial division 
with the initial research and organization of an "American 
Impressionists" exhibit. June 6, 1997 through August 1, 

1997- 

Ramona R. Lozano, Bachelor's Candidate, Metro State Col- 
lege. Latino Art. Latino Acquisitions — conduct research on 
Puerto Rican artists for exhibitions. Labeling objects. June 
2, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Kathleen McKeever, Master's Candidate, Case Western 
Reserve University. Education. Assisting in the develop- 
ment and execution of a series of teacher workshops 
scheduled for July, as well as an educational brochure. June 
6, 1997 through August 1, 1997. 

Viviana Munoz, Bachelor's Degree, Randolph-Macon 

Woman's College. Intern Programs. June 6, 1997 through 
August 8, 1997. 

Erin Parisi, University of Texas, Austin. NMAA Advanced- 
Level Internship Program. October 5, 1997 through April 
24, 1998. 

Felisa Romero, Graduate Student, Complutense University 
(Madrid). NMAA Advanced-Level Internship. September 5, 
1997 through April 24, 1998. 

Paul Ruther, MA, American University. NMAA Advanced- 
Level Internship. September 5, 1997 rhrough April 24, 1998. 

Alea Schroeder, High School Senior, Calvert High School. 
Intern Programs. Doing the frame project for Design and 
Production. Inventorying the museum collection of Frames 
and learning about everything. October 2, 1996 through 
January 31, 1997. 

Werner P. Schweibenz, Bachelor's Degree, University of 
Missouri at Columbia. New Media. Interning in office of 
New Media initiatives, reworking the NMAA website, and 
assisting in layout design for the American Art Journal. 
June 6, 1997 through August 1, 1997. 

Elizabeth Spencer, Bachelor's Degree, University of Maryland 
at College Park. Library. Providing assistance for an online 
reference service dedicated to the visual arts. Answering 3— 
400 queries using the Museum's resources (electronic and 
print) dedicated to American art scholarship. October 1, 

1996 through June 15, 1997. 

Joshua Stipkovits, MA, George Washington University. 
NMAA Advanced-Level Internship Program. September 5, 

1997 through December 12, 1997. 



122 



Deborah Trumble, MA, University of Florida. NMAA 
Advanced-Level Internship Sepcember 5, 1997 through 
December 12, 1997. 

Sarah L. Williams, Bachelor's Candidate, Oberlin College. 
Registrar's Office. Assisting with the ongoing activities of 
the Registrar's office. June 6, 1997 through August 1, 1997. 

Christine Wu, Bachelor's Candidate, Elon College. Registrar 
and Collections Management. Office of the Registrar and 
collections Management. June 2, 1997 through August 7, 
1997- 

National Museum of African Art 

Joseph Barboza, Bachelor's Candidate, Cornish College of the 
Arts. Conservation. Collection photograph project, hat 
mounting, matting of the Nigerian exhibition. June 4, 
1997 through August 15, 1997. 

H. Kellim Brown, Bachelor's Candidate, University of 

Florida. Education. Writing of essays for docent program at 
African Art. May 12, 1997 through July 15, 1997. 

Sarah Brown, Master's Candidate, UEA Sainsbury Center. 
Curatorial. Research for exhibition on influence of African 
furniture on Pierre Leurain. March 3, 1997 rhrough March 
31. 1997- 

Sarah Anita Clunis, Bachelor's Degree, Simmons College. 
Education. Documenting photographically, audially, and 
through written materials (including interviews) the 
process of combining a theatrical production with the 
Prempeh exhibit. January 6, 1997 through April 15, 1997. 

Sarah A. Clunis, Bachelor's Candidate, Simmons College. 
Education. Documenting the exhibition "A King and His 
Cloth: Asantehene Agyeman Prempeh I" and collaborating 
with the Discovery Theater on a play based on the exhibi- 
tion. This summer, working on the Thursday evening film 
program. April 15, 1997 through September 5, 1997. 

Meghan Dougherty, Bachelor's Candidate, New York Univer- 
sity. Photography. June 9, 1997 through August 6, 1997. 

Judith D. Freeman, Bachelor's Degree, University of Arizona. 
Education. Education departments and Archives. Writing 
docent reports for objects. Writing encyclopedic entries for 
Getty art index. June 30, 1997 through September 12, 1997. 

Melinda J. Lewis, Bachelor's Candidate, Spelman College. 
Director's Office. Goal of project is to provide basic skills 
to perform curatorial, education, and exhibition develop- 
ment functions in a museum. Duties include learning 
about collection-based research, African Art, assisting 
education staff, and public service. June 9, 1997 through 
January 31, 1998. 

Karen E. Milbourne, Doctoral Candidate, University of Iowa. 
Library/Curatorial. Terms/index research and bibliography 
annotation and work as needed by curatorial and research 
departments of the National Museum of African Art. June 
12, 1997 through August 21, 1997. 

Nancy Murphy, Second Year, Berkshire Community College. 
Graphics/Design. June 25, 1997 through August 22, 1997. 



Vicki V. Parry, Conservation. I will be working on several 
museum objects from NMAfA. One object is a ceramic ves- 
sel from Liberia. Other objects will be of varying origin 
and material (wood, metal, etc.). June 16, 1997 through 
June 22, 1997. 

Janet Pillai. Bachelor's Degree, University of Durbon- 
Westville. Curatorial. Study visitorship in museum 
management and administration focusing on policy, conser- 
vation, curatorial practice, sound museum management 
operation. May 13, 1997 through June 13, 1997. 

Liesl J. Scheer, Master's Candidate. Registrar. To observe the 
department's relationship to objects, records, and related 
museum staff; to gain an understanding of the automated 
collections database through hands-on experience; to work 
as a member of the registration staff on a variety of routine 
tasks following standard procedures and to assist in the 
process of deaccessioning objects from the collection. June 
2, 1997 through August 31, 1997. 

Mulyati Tahit, Faculty of Letters, Indonesia. Study collection 
management at the National Museum of African Art. Sep- 
tember 22, 1997 through November 28, 1997. 

National Museum of American History 

Corey Aber, Bachelor's Candidate, St. Albans High School. 
History. Archiving and doing discographies of the "Rock 
and Soul" exhibit. July 1, 1997 through July 19, 1997. 

Melanie A. Adcock, Bachelor's Candidate, Kansas City Art In- 
stitute. Program Planning and Design. A team project that 
involves researched interviews that will result in a publica- 
tion showing how the American History building, as well 
as its programming, has changed over the past 33 years. 
July 10, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Christopher L. Agee, Bachelor's Candidate, University of 
California, Berkeley. Internship and Fellowship office. 
Assisting fellow in research on the New Deal and housing 
legislation. June 16, 1997 through August I, 1997. 

Brian J. Almetet, Bachelor's Degree, Indiana University. 
Cultural History. Entering the Jazz Masterworks Orchestra 
musical holdings into a music publishing software, in 
order to upgrade the quality of the SJMO library. Novem- 
ber 12, 1996 through March 31, 1997. 

L. Jubica Arceneaux, Master's Candidate, University of South 
Carolina. History /Science, Medicine and Society. Docu- 
menting the industrial plant and experience of student 
workers at Hampton Institute, 1868— 1893, using archival, 
photographic, and collections research. June 9, 1997 
through August 15, 1997. 

Dina Badaluco, Senior, University of California-Davis. Research- 
ing Civil War, Reconstruction and Post-Reconstruction for 
"Blacks in the Millennium." September 16, 1997 through 
December 4, 1997. 

Naomi Baum. U.S. Costume Collection. Copying and rehous- 
ing reproduction clothing patterns (nonaccessioned objects 
for reference material to be used by researchers); also, verti- 



123 



cal files in rm. 4208 (under supervision). June 23, 1997 
through Augusc 15, 1997. 

Ellen E. Berichon, Bachelor's Candidate, College of the Holy 
Cross. Education. Assist with the creation of a teacher 
resource corner for Hands on History. Testing of HOHR 
orientation monitor, Web and resource cart, work in Hands 
on History room. June 2, 1997 through August 19, 1997. 

Nicholas Bianchi, Bachelor's Candidate, Georgetown Univer- 
sity. Fellowship Office. Primary and Secondary Research on 
housing policy and politics in 20th-century America. 
January 16, 1997 through May 16, 1997. 

Miles Bingham, Bachelor's Candidate, Dartmouth College. 
Preservation. Processing and treatment of the Vidal Collec- 
tion (newly acquired). June 9, 1997 through August 15, 

1997- 

Sarah A. Blackwell, Bachelor's Candidate, Appalachian State 
University. Education. Helping to facilitate in wet bar 
activities and help to design a hands-on learning project 
dealing with the Star Spangled Banner. May 27, 1997 
through July 25, 1997. 

Brooke L. Blower, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Califor- 
nia at Berkeley. Collections Support. Assisting staff with 
cataloging marking and housing a variety of collections in 
order to help in creation of finding aid, particularly in the 
area of women's history. June 10, 1997 through August 5, 

1997- 

Elizabeth Brantley, Master's Candidate, Louisiana State 
University. Preservation Services. Preservation in the Cos- 
tume Collection. July 7, 1997 through August 1, 1997. 

Sheila A. Brennan, Master's Degree, Bates College, BA Notre 
Dame, MA. The Lemelson Center. Helping to bring to 
completion a manuscript that will serve as a supplement to 
high school and middle school American history courses. 
Duties include researching, editing/organizing, and writ- 
ing portions of the final text. February 10, 1997 through 
June 1, 1997. 

Kirsten A. Brinker, Bachelor's Candidate, Georgetown Univer- 
sity. Office of Internships and Fellowships. The project will 
focus on collecting and interpreting articles and images of 
household appliances design and use in women's magazines 
from c.1925-1960. All work will be contributed to Shelly 
Nickles' dissertation, which examines how appliances con- 
tributed to defining middle-class lifestyles and values. June 
2 3. ! 997 through August 15, 1997. 

Clare Brown, Master's Candidate, The George Washington 
University. Office of Public Services. Reviewing the acces- 
sibility requirements and needs for the "Pursuit of 
Promise" exhibit. January 22, 1997 through May 15, 1997. 

Tracy Brown, BA, Universicy of Maryland. Research on "Sweat 
Shop" exhibit, WW. II Poster Book, and cataloging Melloy 
Collection September 8, 1997 through January 2, 1998. 

Adrienne R. Brusselars, Bachelor's Candidate, George 
Washington University. Technical History. Conducting 
research about the Nobel Prize and American Nobel 
laureates. January 31, 1997 through May 5, 1997. 



Nancy Bucy, Junior, Smith College. Ethnic Imagery Project — 
work with the Advertising History Collection surveying 
for imagery of African Americans. September 2, 1997 
through December 19, 1997. 

Matt Burns, Bachelor's Candidate, The American University. 
Science, Medicine, and Society. Performing research in sup- 
port of the exhibit "In Your Face." This includes locating 
photographs, researching objects, and writing labels. May 
12, 1997 through August 31, 1998. 

Thomas Chapman, Graduate, James Madison University. 
September 22, 1997 through May 30, 1998. 

Junko Chinen, Master's Candidate, The George 

Washington University. Program in African American 
Culture. Assist with the development of a concept 
statement on the culture of Hip-Hop, specifically on 
Hip-Hop and the youth culture of Japan. Assist with 
archiving of PAAC program boxes. June 2, 1997 through 
August 2, 1997. 

Joanna B. Church, Bachelor's Degree, Grinnell College. 

Internships and Fellowships. Research assistant for ongoing 
project, "Hollywood's Good Neighbor policy and U.S.— 
Latin American Relations, 1939— 1947." Research duties will 
focus on primary source materials found on microfilm or at 
the Smithsonian Archives Center, the National Archives, 
and the Library of Congress Motion Picture Division. June 
23, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Richard Church, Master's Candidate, University of Wisconsin 
at Stout. Internships and Fellowships. Research on historic 
markers and monuments: complete small research projects 
critiquing what is (and is not) on the landscape regarding 
various important events in U.S. History. June 2, 1997 
through August I, 1997. 

Keisha M. Clark, Bachelor's Candidate, Tuskegee University. 
Internship Office. Organization of the late summer 1997 
Brown Bag Lunch Series, assist with orientation of new in- 
terns, and represent the program in person and on the 
phone. July 7, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Geoffrey Claussen, High School Graduate, Carleton College. 
Jazz Materworks Orchestra. Helping with production of 
Jazz Masterworks Orchestra concerts, transcription of scores 
and establishment of database. June 30, 1997 through 
August 19, 1997. 

Margaret A. Compton, Bachelor's Degree, University of Texas 
at Austin. Archives Center. Archival research related to 
film and videotape collections. June 2, 1997 through 
August 8, 1997. 

Katherine M. Cook, Bachelor's Candidate, Brigham Young 
University. Fellowships Office. Assisting in research for 
Brian O'Neil on the topic of "Hollywood's Good Neighbor 
Policy and U.S.-Latin American Relations 1939-1947." 
May 5, 1997 through June 30, 1997. 

Allison Cooley, Bachelor's Candidate. Cultural History. Help- 
ing with the Electric Guitar project, especially the educa- 
tional components; "American Sampler" planning. October 
1, 1996 through December 31, 1996. 



124 



Trevor Cornelius, Bachelor's Candidate, The Indiana Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. Program Planning and Design. Work- 
ing on reinstallation of the Star-Spangled Banner, graphic 
design, and modelmaking to convey concept of ideas. June 
2, 1997 through August 1, 1997. 

Kevin A. Cross, Bachelor's Candidate, Lock Haven University. 
Medical Sciences Collection. Researching into transgeneic 
tobacco, and how tobacco plants can be cultivated to 
produce vaccines to help cure viruses. Finishing with a 
term paper describing the findings from the research. May 
2.8, 1997 through August 10, 1997. 

Julia Daunis, Smith College. Research on the Sam DeVincent 
sheet music collection. September 2, 1997 through Decem- 
ber 19, 1997. 

Douglas Q. Davis, Bachelor's Candidate, Hampton Univer- 
sity. Internships and Fellowships. Photograph for Intern 
Opportunities. Compiling information and taking photos 
to appear in next year's catalog. May 27, 1997 through 
August I, 1997. 

Marian "Kate" Davis, Smith College. Examine the American 
fashion industry during the 1920s and 1930s. Focus on 
Bernard Newman and Richard Greer. September 2, 1997 
through December 19, 1997. 

Michael F. Davis, Bachelor's Degree, St. Anselm College. 
Political History. Assist divisional staff with a variety of 
collections management projects for the Molloy labor his- 
tory collection, reviewing objects for George Washington, 
finding aid for photographs, sorting and housing document 
collection, general assistance in exhibition hall. June 9, 
1997 through August 29, 1997. 

Krista DeBusschere, Bachelor's Candidate, University of 
California at Davis. Program Planning and Design. Work- 
ing on a NMAH programming and architectural history 
publication, a project that will combine research and 
design. The publication will be in magazine format show- 
ing how the building and its programming has changed 
over 33 years. June 24, 1997 through August 29, 1997. 

Uma S. Deshmukh, Bachelor's Candidate, Swarthmore 
College. Program in African American Culture. Will do 
administrative work such as typing, using e-mail, etc. 
July 1, 1997 through August 14, 1997. 

Karen Dove, Bachelor's Degree, Fresno State University. 
Program in African American Culture. Will assist with 
research and program development for the Black Freedom 
Struggle in the midwest project. June 2, 1997 through 
August 22, 1997. 

Elizabeth Brooks Duffy, Senior, University of Kansas. Research- 
ing consumption patterns and music of Hip-Hop culture. 
August 26, 1997 through December 30, 1998. 

April Economides, Bachelor's Candidate, University of 
California at Santa Cruz. Office of Internships and Fellow- 
ships. Assisting in research for a dissertation on Anthony 
Benezet and the Atlantic Antislavery Institution (specifically 
creating a timeline on Quaker antislavery thought). 
October 18, 1996 through December 6, 1996. 



Jennifer Evanchik, Bachelor's Candidate, Marymount Univer- 
sity. Internship and Fellowship office. Working with interns 
to find out what they plan to do with their history degree 
or other degrees dealing with museum studies. Planning 
Brown Bag Lunches and coordinating meetings; times and 
locations. October 8, 1996 through December 30, 1996. 

Trina J. Evarts, Bachelot's Candidate, Potsdam State Univer- 
sity. Historical Resources. Work on sweatshop exhibition 
and the labot history collection in Political History. June 
12, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Jean-Francois Ezvan, Sophomore, American University. 
Budgeting and Marketing for the Smithsonian Chamber 
Players. September 15, 1997 through December 12, 1997. 

Emily Filler, High School Student, Ovid Elsie. Cultural His- 
tory. Assist Mr. Zimmerman in his duties, which include 
concert production and various NMAH exhibits. June 18, 
1997 through July 18, 1997. 

Kathleen P. Fleming, Master's Candidate, George 

Washington University. Director's Office. In the Project 
Manager's Office working with EPC and the Public 
Programs Group and conduct research for the Project 
Manager's Office on exhibits programs and budget outside 
the institution. January 28, 1997 through June I, 1997. 

Libbie Fteed, Lemelson Center. Collections Management and 
research for exhibitions involving the Domestic Life Collec- 
tion. Also working with the Lemelson Center's Innovative 
Lives Program, helping to coordinate and plan Fall 1997 
program. April 2, 1997 through August 31, 1997. 

Kai Frick, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Maryland at 
College Park. Science, Medicine, and Society. Otganization 
and analysis of portraits of scientists (in the Dibner 
Library), with special attention to the iconography of in- 
strumentation. June 2, 1997 through August 31, 1997. 

Angela Fritz, Bachelor's Degree, Universiry of Wisconsin at 
Madison. Archives Center. Processing Archival collection. 
June 2, 1997 through August 9, 1997. 

Jeremiah Gallay, Graduate Student, George Washington 
University. Lemelson Centet. Helping to develop the 
exhibit, "The Colors of Inventions." June 30, 1997 
through August 22, 1997. 

Greta G. Galuszka, Bachelor's Candidate, Universiry of 
California at Santa Cruz. Archives. Working on the 
Ethnic Imagery project, surveying collections, slides, 
etc., to collect illustrations. April 8, 1997 through 
June 10, 1997. 

Jennifer L. Gawronski, Bachelor's Candidate, Hope College. 
Office of Interns and Fellows. Assisting in orientating new- 
interns. General office duties for interns. March 10, 1997 
through April 30, 1997. 

Catherine E. Gazzoli, Bachelor's Candidate, University of 
California, Los Angeles. Cultural History. Doing research 
as an assistant to Ellen Hughes on sports history. March 25, 
1997 through June 5, 1997. 

Nadine Gelberg, Doctoral Candidate, Penn State Universiry. 
Cultural History. History of Sport Technology Policy, work- 



125 



ing on the Howard Head Collection. May I, 1997 through 
August 1, 1997. 

Joseph Gonzales, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Texas at 
Austin. Archives. Ethnic Imagery Project. June 9, 1997 
through August 15, 1997. 

Melissa Goodman, Sophomore, The George Washington 
University. Public Affairs. Assist Office Of Public Affairs 
with daily operations and special events. August 28, 1997 
through December 12, 1997. 

John Gorenfeld, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Califor- 
nia at Davis. History and Technology. Assist with Military- 
Preparedness section of Yeoman F exhibit case. Participate 
in artifact rehousing projects. June 24, 1997 through 
August 14, 1997. 

Sarah Gould, Junior, Smith College. Civil Rights Movement 
Conference. September 2, 1997 through December 19, 1997. 

Nathaniel B. G. Green, Bachelor's Candidate, College of Wil- 
liam and Mary. Internships and Fellowships. Research for 
Barrelhouse Blues piano music in the rural South. June 23, 
1997 through August I, 1997. 

Vishal Greenaway, Senior, Don Bosco Preparatory High 
School. Information Technology and Society. Cataloguing 
microchips donated by Texas Instruments. August 3, 1997 
through August 31, 1997. 

Jennifer Greenhill, Bachelor's Candidate, UCLA. Program in 
African American Culture. Will assist in PAAC program 
planning for 1998 and 1999. June 23, 1997 through August 
31. 1997- 

Celeste Halsema, Master's Candidate, Florida State University. 
Military History. Assist with Family Car exhibit, rehousing 
of military shoulder ranking insignia and photographic 
documentation of Zuoave uniforms. Collections manager of 
Yeoman F exhibit. June 2, 1997 through July 31, 1997. 

Gregory Hammond, Master's Candidate, University of Texas 
at Austin. Interns and Fellows Office. Assisting with ex- 
hibit preparations related to Latino imagery (The Mexican- 
American War and the Spanish-American War). July 2, 
1997 through Decembet 19, 1997. 

Kimberly Harper, Senior, University of California — Davis. 
Assist with the production and research for a recording of 
Native American women's music, and the "Heartbeat 2" 
album. September 16, 1997 through December 4, 1997. 

Anne Harrington, Bachelor's Degree, The George 
Washington University. Internship Department. 
Photographing and documenting Internship program, 
working in darkroom, assisting and learning about general 
photographic jobs here. January 27, 1997 through April 27, 
1997. 

Margaret Hayden, Bachelor's Candidate, Yale University. His- 
tory of Technology. Research on "Rock 'n' Soul" exhibit. 
Research assistant to Pete Daniel on 1950s book; project in 
Agriculture and NR collections. June 1, 1997 through 
August 1, 1997. 
David P. Hazen, Bachelor's Candidate, Winona State Univer- 
sity. Program in African American Culture. Produce a 



paper on race relations in the United States during the 
1940s and 1950s. June 16, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Taja-Nia Henderson, BA, Dartmouth College. Researching 
and assisting with the Millennium conference series. 
September 9, 1997 through December 12, 1998. 

Shawn M. Heme, Master's Candidate, University of Delaware. 
American Indian Program. Researching Cherokee language 
for a multimedia kiosk. December 30, 1996 through 
February 7, 1997. 

Dale Hershman, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Virginia. 
Internship Office. Orient New Interns, assist with late-sum- 
mer 1997 Brown Bag lunches. Represent the Internship of- 
fice. June 25, 1997 through August 5, 1997. 

Rebecca Highland, Smith College. Research on the history of 
20th-century popular culture. September 2, 1997 through 
December 19, 1997. 

Alice Hillery, Bachelor's Candidate, Goucher College. Plan- 
ning and Design. Making a foam-core model of the 
museum's third floor. Revising the model to conform to 
renovations suggested by blueprint report. May 27, 1997 
through August 1, 1997. 

Meredith Hindley, Doctoral Candidate, The American Univer- 
sity. Medical Sciences. Works with Landmark's Professor 
to coordinate a conference on visualizing history for the 
public jointly sponsored by American University and 
American History Museum. October I, 1996 through 
August 31, 1998. 

Salicia Hines, High School Student, Anacostia Senior High 
School. Curatorial. Research for the Curatorial Department. 
June 23, 1997 through August 1, 1997. 

Matthew Hobbs, Bachelor's Candidate, Furman University. 
Historical Resources. Cataloging the Jackson Collection. 
Analyzing museum surveys and preparing a report based on 
results. June 10, 1997 through August 28, 1997. 

Eli Horowitz, Bachelor's Candidate, Yale University. Science 
Medicine and Society. Studying rare portraits of scientists 
to unearth the iconography of instrumentation. July 8, 1997 
through August 27, 1997. 

Christine Hudson, BA, Davidson College. Research and other 
work related to 1998 project. September 22, 1997 through 
September 19, 1997. 

Karen Hulme, Bachelor's Candidate, West Chester University. 
Capital Programs. Research Board prospects, Star-Spangeled 
Banner project. Organizational duties. June 23, 1997 
through August 8, 1997. 

Kristin E. Hundertmark, Bachelor's Candidate, College of 
Wooster/AU Washington Semester. Publications. Inter- 
nship involves learning and using editorial criteria 
designed to address the needs of museum visitors and 
the general reader, overviewing the work of the office as 
a whole and how it relates to the museum, attending 
project meetings, editing exhibition scripts/event 
programs/other documents, proofreading script galleys, 
and doing graphics research. January 23, 1997 through 
April 30, 1997. 



126 



{Catherine Hurwich, Bachelor's Candidate, Harvard Univer- 
sity. History of Technology and Society. Work on Sweat- 
shop exhibit. June 9, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Tammy Leigh Ingram, Bachelor's Degree, University of 
Georgia. Social History. Assisting on an upcoming exhibit 
including photographs that document American family life 
over past generations pointing out both the similarities and 
the differences between family stereotypes and real-life 
families. October 15, 1996 through December 13, 1996. 

Olubayo Jackson, Bachelor's Degree, City College of New 
York. Inrernships and Fellowships. Working with Smith- 
sonian Fellow Mary Emma Gram in the middle passage In- 
stitute helping to develop source lists from area libraries 
and help coordinate events. July I, 1997 through August I, 

1997- 

Ionic Johnson, Junior, Benjamin Banneker Academic High 
School. Office of Fellowships. Will assist Marya McWhirter in 
final stages of research about African Americans and 
leisure. Research periodical literature and manuscript col- 
lections for relevant marerials. July 21, 1997 through 
August 29, 1997. 

Brad Jones, Junior, Miami University. Work on the Mal- 
loy/Labor history cataloging project, George Washington 
finding aid. August 17, 1997 through December 12, 1997. 

Lori Kaufman, Junior, Smith College. To investigate the work 
of custom dressmakers in the United States from 1855 to 
1870 (particularly African American). September 2, 1997 
through December 19, 1997. 

Maureen B. Kelley, Bachelor's Candidate, Creighron Univer- 
sity. Program in African American Culture. June 9, 1997 
through January 31, 1998. 

Brian Keough, Master's Candidate, State University of New 
York at Albany. Archives. Processing the Clifford Shaw col- 
lection. Shaw was a member of a research team that did 
pioneer work on JOSS (Johnniac Open Shop Systems). 
JOSS was an interactive programming language. June 2, 
1997 through August 9, 1997. 

Geoggrey Klein, Bachelor's Degree, St. Bonaventure University. 
Cultural History. Conducting sports research for Ellen Roney 
Hughes. August 4, 1997 through September 30, 1997. 

Lisa Kola, Bachelor's Candidate, The College of Wooster. 
Internship Office. Responsible for orientation of all new 
interns and assist with the spring 1997 Brown Bag Lunch 
series. She will also give information about the program to 
prospective interns by phone and in person. January 21, 
1997 through April 30, 1997. 

Natalie A. Landreth, Master's Candidate, Courtauld/University 
of London. Costume Conservation. June 16, 1997 through 
August 22, 1997. 

Roger Laroche, Bachelor's Candidate, Stonehill College. His- 
torical Resources. Research and document field of window 
washing (images of job description/equipment, etc.). June 
12, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

LisaLevine, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Pennsylvania. 
Musical History. Research and archiving of material for 



American Sampler series and Rock 'n' Soul exhibition. 
June 6, 1997 through August 1, 1997. 

Kathy Levitan, Bachelor's Candidate, Barnard College/Colum- 
bia University. Internships and Fellowships. Gathering the 
information and photographs for the 1997-1998 edition of 
Intern Opportunities, and seeing it through the publication 
process. Assisting with the summer 1997 Brown Bag Lunch 
series. Representing the program and explaining the 
program to prospective interns. May 21, 1997 through 
September 7, 1997. 

Justin M. Lilien, Bachelor's Candidate, New York University. 
History, Technology, and Economy. Work on Sweatshop 
exhibition and political history collections. June 2, 1997 
through August 8, 1997. 

Camilla Lindsay, Junior, Stanford University. September 17, 
1997 through December 10, 1997. 

Kristyn Linger, Bachelor's Candidate, Haverford College. 
Internships and Fellowships. Researching on "Repre- 
sentations of New York City, 1890-1940." June 23, 1997 
through August 15, 1997. 

Peter Lisius, Bachelor's Candidate, Luther College. Archives 
Center. Produce item-level catalog records for the sound 
recording series of Duke Ellington Collection. July 3, 1997 
through August 23, 1997. 

Kristie Lockhart, Bachelor's Candidate, Sarah Lawrence Col- 
lege. Director's Office. February 4, 1997 through April 27, 

1997- 

Christine Luth, College of William & Mary. Public Affairs. 
Assist with media involvement, fact sheets, slides, press 
releases, special events, etc. June 9, 1997 through August 
", 1997- 

Kathenne Marks, Bachelor's Degree, St. Mary's College of 
Maryland. History of Technology. Intern will perform a 
variety of tasks related to collections management and 
exhibit maintenance. This includes researching ob|ects, 
completing accession and nonaccesion files, housing 
objects, and inspecting and cleaning objects on exhibit and 
in the Hall of American Maritime Enterprise. Gain broad 
experience in collections management procedures. June 10, 
1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Emily S. Martin, High School Student, Connelly School of 
the Holy Child. Textiles Collection. Research and prepare a 
list of weaver's names, pattern names, owners names, and 
dates woven for coverlets in Jacquard coverlet collection. 
July I, 1997 through August 16, 1997. 

Heather Massler, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Chicago. 
Science, Medicine, and Society. Organize and analyze 
portraits of scientists, paying particular attention to 
paraphernalia in image. Portraits are located in the Dibner 
library. June 23, 1997 through September 19, 1997. 

Christopher Mayberry, Bachelor's Candidate, University of 
Missouri at Rolla. Computer Services. Assisting with main- 
tenece of networks and in administration and management. 
Also provided technical support. August 19, 1997 through 
August 8, 1997. 



127 



Andrew Melzer, Yale University. Incernships and Fellowships. 
Working on Intern Opportunities for the 1997-1998 edition. 
June 9, 1997 through August 9, 1997. 

Kevin Menard, Virginia Tech. Information and Technology. 
Assisting with projects conducted by electrical collections 
unit in order to get broad view of museum activities: 
1) lighting exhibit -collections documentation 2)power 
deregulation -historical research 3) computer awards -oral 
histories. May 21, 1997 through July 30, 1997. 

Gregory Michaelidis, Master's Candidate, University of 
Maryland at College Park. Public Services. Assist in all 
aspects of Nobel Prize project including correspondence 
and partnership implementation with Deutches Museum. 
Research on photos, objects, and manuscripts. May 27, 1997 
through August 28, 1998. 

Susan Miedler, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Michigan. 
Lemelson Center. To help with the facilitation of "Colors of 
Invention," a symposium that will be presented in Novem- 
ber. May 19, 1997 through August I, 1997. 

Sarah Miller, Bachelor's/Master's Degree, Rollins Col- 
lege/Bowling Green St. University. Social History. Propos- 
ing dates for John Berbidge sketches by comparing internal 
evidence with information to be found in "Priscilla of 
Boston" Collection in the Archives Center to assist costume 
curator with several collection projects and the organiza- 
tion of research material. April 28, 1997 through August 

I. 1997- 

Naina Mistry, Bachelor's Degree, University of California at 
Berkeley. 150th Exhibition. Editorial Assistant for "Increase 
and Diffusion" and "Access SI" websites. October 21, 1996 
through August I, 1997. 

Mary Rose Monkowski, Bachelor's Candidate, Vassar College. 
Social History. A general orientation to museum work to 
acquire an understanding of the overall function of the 
museum. This endeavor includes research, hands-on work 
with collections, and exhibition development. January 28, 
1997 through June 2, 1997. 

Rose Monkowski, Bachelor's Candidate, Vassar College. 
Program Planning and Design. Administrative design 
assistant. Entering and upkeep of project list and design. 
SWAT team schedule. Design duties include modeling and 
assisting with drawings for Yeoman F showcase and other 
design projects. June 2, 1997 through July 30, 1997. 

Teresa Mora, Master's Candidate, New York University. Ar- 
chives Center. Researching for the Ethnic Imagery Project. 
June 2, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Staci A. Morgan, Bachelor's Candidate, Mississippi State 
University. Social History. Assist staff with a variety of col- 
lections management projects; creation of photo list for 
"We the People" exhibit; housing objects in Mollery 
Labour history collection; organize campaign collections 
small paper objects. June 16, 1997 through August I, 1997. 

Teresa Moyer, Bachelor's Candidate, Bryn Mawr College. Col- 
lections Management. Interfiling integration-Internship 
will involve adding papers to accession files that are more 



recent than the microfilm project. June II, 1997 through 
August 25, 1997. 
Bradley T. Nash, Bachelor's Candidate, Harvard University. 
Internships and Fellowships. Primary Research in 19th- 
century women's periodicals. June 5, 1997 through July 25, 

1997- 
Amy Navitsky, Junior, Smith College. "Working American" — A 

social historical analysis of photographs of work. September 

2, 1997 through December 19, 1997. 
Caroline A. Nichols, Bachelor's Candidate, Mary Washington 

College. Internship and Fellowship Office. Exhibit proposal 

for 50th anniversary for the World Health Organization. 

July 7, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 
Christine Nogaki, Junior, Gettysburg College. Holiday 

Celebration September 24, 1997 through December 29, 

1997- 
Jennifer O'Neill, Master's Candidate, Newcastle University. 
Collections Management. Broad overview of the National 
Museum of American History as an organization, and a 
variety of specific projects. January 13, 1997 through April 

4, J997- 

Kelly Ogden. Bachelor's Candidate, Savannah College of Art 
and Design. Program Planning and Design. Graphic 
Design Intern for exhibition planning and design. Projects 
include the American Flag exhibition and "Celebrating the 
Piano," June 9, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Jennifer Olsen, Bachelor's Candidate, Portland State Univer- 
sity. Internships and Fellowships. Research Assistant on the 
project "History of Ecology in Latin America from 1949— 
1980." April 7, 1997 through June 6, 1997. 

Maya Orr, High School Graduare, Howard University/El- 
lington School Arts. Jazz Masterworks. Records main- 
tenance and filing, data entry, public information about the 
Summer Concert Series. June 23, 1997 through July 31, 1997. 

Elizabeth A. Pagel, Bachelor's Degree, Salisbury State Univer- 
sity. Fellowship Office. Research project involves reviewing 
19th-century scientific and photographic periodicals for 
articles commenting on the scientific use of photography. 
This research includes archival work for Alicia Gamez's 
dissertation titled "Fixing Race: Evolutionary Biology, 
Manifest Destiny and Visual Reproduction in 19th-century 
U.S. Conceptions of Race." July 7, 1997 through August 
20, 1997. 

Renee Pastore, Senior, Gettysburg College. Work with Native 
American Tribes, and Mexican Wine Makers Projects, and 
the Heartbeat Album. September 17, 1997 through Decem- 
ber 12, 1997. 

Andrea Perper, Master's Candidate, The George Washington 
University. Museum Studies. Curatorial Research and 
exhibition conceptualization assistant for the exhibit "Ways 
to See American History." May 20, 1997 through August 

ii. 1997- 
Kristin L. Peszka, Master's Candidate, The George 

Washington University. Education. The development of 
pre- and post-visit materials to complement the museum 



128 



visit for school groups (K-12), The development of a summer 
course for teachers. January 13, 1997 through April 10, 1997. 
Mark Pierson, Bachelor's Candidate, Amherst College. His- 
torical Resources/Firearms. Organizing the Bayonet collec- 
tion in the Firearms room. June 2, 1997 through August I, 

1997- 

M. Theresa Macedo Pool, Master's Candidate, University of 
Michigan. Archives Center. Surveying, organizing, rehousing, 
and assessing the geographical materials in the Warshaw 
collection of Business Americana. June 23, 1997 through 
August 29, 1997. 

Mary E. Porter, Bachelor's Candidate, Flagler College. Intern- 
ships and Fellowships. Assistant Internship Coordinator, 
Organizer of early summer 1997 Brown Bag Lunch Series, 
assist in orientation of new interns, representative of the 
program and assist with the production of the Intern Op- 
portunities catalog. April 23, 1997 through July 4, 1997. 

Daniel Portnoy, OIPPS. Photograph people, places, and ob- 
jects. September 16, 1997 through December 31, 1997. 

Kristen Pulsifer, Bachelor's Candidate, Regis College. Public 
Affairs. Assist in day-to-day office duties, respond to media 
calls and inquiries, assist staff in developing and writing 
press releases and media advisories, and generally conduct 
public relations activities. January 30, 1997 through April 

2-5. 1997- 

David Racanelli, Bachelor's Candidate, American University. 
Musical History. Jazz oral history program: creating 
abstracts (tape summaries) of interviews for research pur- 
poses. January 21, 1997 through April 25, 1997. 

Michelle Raluy, Senior, UCLA. Help intern coordinator or- 
ganize fall 1997 Brown Bag Lunch Series, assist with orien- 
tation for new interns, and serve as a representative of the 
program. September 16, 199J through December 3, 1997. 

Dennis A. Regus, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Califor- 
nia at Santa Barbara. Medical Sciences. Research Assistant 
for the exhibition on preemptively protecting the body. 
January 7, 1997 through March 13, 1997. 

Allison C. Reid, Master's Candidate, San Francisco State 
University. Lemelson Center. Innovative Lives is a series of 
lecture-demonstrations that introduces students to inven- 
tors and encourages them to explore the world of invention 
and creative thinking. January 16, 1997 through August 31, 

1997- 
Peggy Reversat, BA, American University. Evaluate visitor 

experience and services for foreign visitors, learn about 

exhibits and program development. September 15, 1997 

through December 9, 1997. 
Noah Rindos, Charles O. Ozkerson High School. Cataloging 

and researching 1,051 prints and portraits of scientists. 

September 3, 1997 through June 1, 1998. 
Lisa Robinson, Master's Degree, University of Michigan. 

Lemelson Center. Processing Archival Research. June 2, 

1997 through August 8, 1997. 
Jessica L. Roscio, Bachelor's Candidate, College of William 

and Mary. Photographic History. Work directly with collec- 



tion items and with staff to catalog information. Entering 
data into computers; assist staff in answering research 
inquiries; create object lists for researcher requests, gaining 
insight into museum work. Special project; history of ex- 
hibitions produced by the Photographic History collection 
(1888-1997). May 20, 1997 through August 14, 1997. 

Kathleen Rubin, Bachelor's Degree, University of Michigan. 
Program Planning and Design. Intern for the "On Time" 
exhibition. Participating in exhibition design, model build- 
ing, etc. January 27, 1997 through May 31, 1997. 

Nonko Sanefuji, Bachelor's Candidate, Randolph-Macon 
Woman's College. Curatorial. Research on Japanese- 
Americans in wartime concentration camps. July 2, 1997 
through August 20, 1997. 

Amy Sariti, Bachelor's Candidate, College of William & Mary. 
Hands-on Science Center. Facilitating experiments in the 
Hands-on Science room. In addition, I will be researching 
possible hands-on activities on math, as well as a research 
and demographic study for the HOSC. May 19, 1997 
through August I, 1997. 

Carmella Schaecher, Senior, Stanford University. Research for 
the conference "Free People of Color" September 17, 1997 
through December 5, 1997. 

Elke Schlueter, MA, TU Braunschweig. Research for a 
forthcoming exhibition about Nobel Prize winners. Sep- 
tember 8, 1997 through November 14, 1997. 

Andrew Schneller, Bachelor's Candidate, Brown University. 
Internships and Fellowships. Research assistant for a disser- 
tation on U.S. cultural history of government and science; 
use of resources from the Smithsonian, Library of Congress 
and National Archives. June 2, 1997 through July 5, 1997. 

Thomas J. Schroeder, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Red- 
lands. Photography. Photographing the inauguration 
activities, scanning the photographs, and placing them on 
the website. January 8, 1997 through February 8, 1997. 

Douglas Schuster, Bachelor's Candidate, George Mason 
University. Music Collection. Working on Piano 300 
project, helping research and document keyboards in 
NMAH collection. Organizing a database/photo archive. 
Also various music collection-related projects such as collec- 
tion files and public inquiries. July 10, 1997 through July 
10, 1998. 

Sascha Scott, BA, Colorado College. Research on the Star 
Spangled Banner restoration project. September n, 1997 
through September n, 1998. 

Yaroslav P. Senyk, Master's Candidate, Catholic University, 
School of Library. Archives Center. Sam De Vincent Collection 
of American Sheet Music: arrangement, description, and crea- 
tion of a finding aid. June 2, 1997 through August 31, 1997. 

Ronald Simon, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Maryland 
at College Park. Internships and Fellowships. Assisting 
with research on late-i9th-century telegraph in an effort to 
examine notions about communication and long-distance 
relationships in popular culture. May 27, 1997 through 
August 15, 1997. 



129 



Jennifer Snyder, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Wiscon- 
sin at Eau Claire. Archives Center. To complete the registra- 
tion, rehousing, arrangement, and description of the 
Maidenform Collection, an archival collection documenting 
the history of Maidenform, Inc. The completed finding aid 
will be posted on the Archives Center webpage. June 2, 
1997 through August 22, 1997. 

Mark J. Sowa, Bachelor's Candidate, The American Univer- 
sity. Cultural History. Assist with archiving "Field to 
Factory, Go Forthe and Serve" and Divisional African 
American resource materials. Preparing for Wade in the 
Water exhibition, collection, installation, and take down. 
HBCV program and project planning and development, 
newsletters-programs, etc. May 15, 1997 through December 
19, 1997. 

Suzanne M. Springer, Bachelor's Degree, University of Vir- 
ginia. History of Technology. Working and researching 
topics related to the upcoming exhibition "The History of 
Time in the U.S. — On Time." June 2, 1997 through 
August 22, 1997. 

Tricia Stadelmaier, Bachelor's Candidate, Gtove City College. 
Internships and Fellowships. Research projects with Jim 
Loewen for "Lies Across the Landscape." June 9, 1997 
through August 9, 1997. 

Eric D. Stich, Bachelor's Candidate, The American University. 
Program Planning and Design. Assisting a Graphic Designer 
on the "On Time" exhibition. May 12, 1997 through 
August I, 1997. 

Craig M. Stinson, Master's Candidate, George Washington 
University. Cultural History. Economic history of New 
Mexico under colonial Spanish rule, specifically researching 
documents accounting supplies to the missions. January 27, 
1997 through August 31, 1997. 

Elizabeth A. Sumiada Huaman, Bachelor's Candidate, 
Dartmouth. American Indian Program. Native Women's 
Music; research and production work for a forthcoming 
recording. January 23, 1997 through March 13, 1997. 

Lisa S. Tahk, Bachelor's Candidate, University of California at 
Berkeley. Social History. Assist in developing a cultural 
ethnic diversity reference file; ultimately, this will lead to a 
collection strategy. June 4, 1997 through July 25, 1997. 

Peleg Tal, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Maryland at 
College Park. Education. Facilitating in the Hands-On 
History room , and working on special educational projects 
including tour-guide booklets geared for children. 
February 24, 1997 through June I, 1997. 

Scott S. Taylor, Master's Candidate, Indiana University of 
Pennsylvania. Science and Technology. Research intern for 
Carlene Stephens, who is part of a team designing a new 
exhibition, entitled "On Time." May 12, 1997 through 
August 22, 1997. 

Therasa Tremblay, Bachelor's Candidate, University of New 
Hampshire. Office of Internships and Fellowships. Assis- 
tant Internship Coordinator, Organizer of spring 1997 
Brown Bag Lunch series, assistant in orientation of new in- 



terns, and a representative of the program. January 28, 1997 
through May 9, 1997. 

Michael Twitty, Bachelor's Candidate, Howard University. 
Program in African American Culture. Research/bibliog- 
raphical search for "Millennium Conference Series: African 
Americans from the Middle Passage to Outer Space." June 
2, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Lisa H. Tyner, Bachelor's Candidate, The American Univer- 
sity. Chief Design. Develop the conceptual application and 
design for the Star Spangled Banner project prospectus. 
This publication will contain summary descriptions of the 
projects component parts: conservation, architectural 
renovations, exhibits, history artifacts. Illustrations of ob- 
jects, gtaphics, floor plans for exhibits, technical diagrams, 
and architectutal renderings that will supplement descrip- 
tive text. February 12, 1997 through May 8, 1997. 

Nathalie van Deehen, Shenandoah University. Program in 
African American Culture. Work on public relations and 
outreach via Internet. Help to develop materials relating to 
the PAAC for discrimination online. Help to identify 
potential contacts for electronic information. Compile a list 
of Afro-American cultural websites. January 13, 1997 
through April 30, 1997. 

Nicholas M. Vaughan, High School Student, Thomas Jefferson 
High School. Numismatic Collection. Sorting and 
documenting money from the Numismatic collection. The 
money will be papet money, which will be sotted and 
rehoused. July 17, 1997 through August 27, 1997. 

Mura Venters, BA, Pomona College. Assist with exhibition on 
Nobel Prize, research and database management of the his- 
tory of the Nobel Prize and laureates. September 2, 1997 
through December 19, 1997. 

Mark D. Wahlert, Master's Candidate, The George Washing- 
ton University. Director's Office. Working on various 
management projects, strategic management, and board 
communication resources. May 19, 1997 through 
September 30, 1997. 

Elizabeth Walton, Bachelor's Candidate, George Washington 
University. Costume. Researching and cataloguing for a col- 
lection of early-20th-century lingerie dresses. July 22, 1997 
through December 31, 1997. 

Dr. Beatrix Wedi-Palscha, Doctoral Degree. Nobel Prize ex- 
hibition research and planning (including secondary 
material research). July 15, 1997 through August 22, 1997. 

Noah Buck Wester, Bachelor's Candidate, University of 
Maryland. Archives Center. Arrange and describe the Nav- 
roze Contractor Photograph Collection and the addition of 
the images from the photographic collage to the Duke 
Ellington ephemera. Help the staff of the Duke Ellington 
collection to compile 15-second sound bites from the 
Ellington Collection sound recordings series to be added to 
the Ellington Collection Web page. March 7, 1997 through 
August 31, 1997. 

Sallie G. Wheeler, Bachelor's Degree, North Carolina State 
University. Medical Sciences. Research and catalogue a col- 



130 



lection of anatomical models. Research the history of breast 
prosthetics. Get a greater understanding of how a museum 
operates. January zi, 1997 through April 4, 1997. 

Tara Y. White, Master's Candidate, State University College 
at Oneonta. Curatorial. General research for book on 
African American History and Museums. June 2, 1997 
through August 8, 1997. 

Tamara M. Wilds, Master's Degree, University of Maryland at 
College Park. Program in African American culture. The 
program in African American culture is planning to launch 
a national conference series to mark the reform of the cen- 
tury and the millennium. This national series will guaran- 
tee that African American history and culture is audible 
and visible in American academic and popular arenas. 
June 2, 1997 through August 22, 1997. 

Erik D. Wilier, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Michigan. 
Archives Center. Work on Korda collection of sports 
memorabilia. June 4, 1997 through August 31, 1997. 

Psyche A. Williams, Master's/Doctoral Candidate, University 
of Maryland at College Park. Cultural History. "Food 
Gender and Consumption in African American Culture, 
1850-1950" research for Ph.D. dissertation. June 2, 1997 
through August 8, 1997. 

Emily Wilson, Graduate, Boston University. Lemelson Cen- 
ter. Innovative Lives project. Solar car contest (Lemelson 
Center For Invention and Innovation). September 3, 1997 
through November 8, 1997. 

Anna Wirz, University of Basel. Archives Center. Processing 
film, video, and audio collections. Examine, repair, and 
prepare archival film, video, and audio materials for preser- 
vation, duplication, and long-term archival storage. July II, 
1997 through August 27, 1997. 

Joanna Yount, Master's Candidate, Appalachian State Univer- 
sity. Internships and Fellowships. Organizing the orienta- 
tion of new interns. Giving "Real Stuff' tours. Answering 
questions from interns. Assist with early-summer 1997 
Brown Bag Lunch series. May 12, 1997 through July 3, 1997. 

John G. Zagas, Bachelor's Candidate, Trinity College, 
Dublin. Internship and Fellowship Office. Help with 
orienting new people to the Museum, represent the inter- 
nship program in person and over the phone, assist with 
the placement process, support applicants through the 
process, and assist with the photography project that visually 
documents the program. February 3, 1997 through May 31, 
1997- 

National Museum of the American Indian 

Melina E. Aguilar, Bachelor's Candidate, Rutgers, the State 
Univetsity of New Jersey Research Branch/Inc. Project. 
Worked on continuation of documenting archaeological 
portion of Inka material. Learned "Embark" system used to 
catalog objects. June 9, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Alfreda G. Beartrack, Bachelor's Candidate, University of 
New Mexico. Film/Media. Responsible for implementation 



and analysis of an information survey that will be used to 
determine the status of media among tribes. I will also 
conduct a research project on Native American animators. 
January 13, 1997 through March 7, 1997. 

Kenneth M. Dawes, Research Branch. Do research on the 
Seminol Indians and the Crow material at the Research 
branch. Will identify Crow material in preparation for visit 
by Crow delegation. Searched objects and helped inventory 
collection. June 9, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Charmaine R. Jackson, Bachelor's Candidate, University of 
New Mexico. Film and Video (New York). Working on the 
1997 Native American film and video festival. June 4, 1997 
through August 14, 1997. 

Fred Jean, Bachelor's Candidate, State University at Old 
Westbury. Development. Assisting in developing a cam- 
paign to attract funding to the American Indian Museum. 
February II, 1997 through March 20, 1997. 

Kathryn Kirk, Bachelor's Candidate, Fordham University. 
Repatriation. Researching the collector history of 700+ 
human remains that were given by the MAI to NYU Den- 
tistry School. The research will be given to NYU to assist 
them in their efforts to repatriate the remains. June 2, 1997 
through August 15, 1997. 

Ian Wilson Record, Bachelor's Degree, James Madison Univer- 
sity. Public Affairs. Working in public affairs department 
at the National Museum of the American Indian. Intern 
duties include media and community relations, publica- 
tions, and article writing. November 6, 1996 through 
February 6, 1997. 

Kristi Schultz, Bachelor's Degree. Film/Education. Develop- 
ing a high school component of the NMAI Film Festival. 
June 15, 1997 through Octobet 15, 1997. 

Molly Senior, Bemidji State University. Publications. Assist 
in the development of a poetry book featuring photographs 
from the NMAI collection, and writings by the Wordcraft 
Circle of Native writers and storytellers. Work on the 
Fiddle Book and CD notes. June 2, 1997 through 
August 8, 1997. 

Paul Shell, Bachelor's Candidate, The University of Okla- 
homa. Facilities Planning/Architectural Liaison. Working 
with project liaison to ensure the NMAI is respective of the 
Smithsonian's program. Primarily, reviews of design work 
by the core design team. June 2, 1997 through August 8, 
1997. 

Malia G. Simonds, Public Affairs. Assisted in all special 
events and media-related projects occurring at the George 
Gustave Heye Center. Drafted press releases and worked 
with local businesses to collaborate on marketing material 
for lower Manhattan. June 9, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Sara Lynn Summers, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Wis- 
consin at Milwaukee. Research Branch. Assisted Collec- 
tions Management staff in securing and housing objects of 
collections. Focused on cedar mats of the Northwest Coast; 
creating mounts and securing objects in museum. June 9, 
1997 through August 15, 1997. 



Hi 



National Museum of Natural History 

Fran Biehl, Master's Degree, Northern Arizona University. 
Repatriation Office. Cultural Affiliation research portion of 
Wichita repatriation case. May 21, 1997 through August S, 

1997- 

Jennifer Cameron, High School Senior, Thomas Jefferson 
High School for Science and Technology. Mammals. 
Dietary preferences in the pygmy and dwarf sperm whales 
"Kogia breviceps" and K. simus. January 31, 1997 through 
June II, 1997. 

Renee M. Catlin, Bachelor's Candidate, St. Lawrence Univer- 
sity. Public Affairs. Assisting the office of Public Affairs 
with press clippings, media inquiries, film crews, and other 
duties as assigned. January 22, 1997 through May 2, 1997. 

Sondra Cohelan, Grad, University of California, Santa Cruz. 
Scientific Illustration — learning tricks of the profession. 
September 8, 1997 through December 15, 1997. 

Vanessa Cruz, Bachelor's Candidate, Cornell University. Ar- 
chaeology. June 2, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Zamara Cuyun Grimm, Senior, University of Minnesota, Twin 
Cities. The Environmental and cultural impact of the 
Spanish Conquest on the Toluca Valley, Mexico. September 
!S> ! 997 through November 21, 1997. 

Jinene DeRibas, Master's Candidate, The George Washington 
University. Anthropology. Internship in Collections 
Management. Learning methods used by the Department 
of Anthropology for accessioning new collections, loan pro- 
cedures, inventory control, storage methodology, and 
visitor access. May 12, 1997 through June 30, 1997. 

Nicole E. Evans, Master's Degree, University of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. Naturalist Center. Assisting the Program Direc- 
tor in a research project on the use of museum objects in 
education. I will research museums that use objects in 
education. May 18, 1997 through July I, 1997. 

Annamaria Ferruggia, Bachelor's Candidate, Penn State 
University. Public Affairs. Assists the Office of Public 
Affairs with media calls, film crews, and publicity mailings 
for museum exhibitions. Answer phone calls and other 
duties as assigned. June 15, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Kelly Ford, Master's Candidate, The George Washington 
University. Registrar/Anthropology. Through a combined 
internship with the Department of Anthropology and the 
Office of the Registrar, studied how an object is inven- 
toried and rehoused, made accessible to researchers, and 
tracked through the central records maintained in the 
Office of the Registrar. May 12, 1997 through June 26, 1997. 

Lezli Freeman, Bachelor's Candidate, Howard University. 
Public Programs. Accessioning African objects by creating 
electronic file as well as a hard copy. Technical research and 
strategic description of collections are essential. Some col- 
lections management. August 5, 1997 through October 31, 

1997- 
Jeremiah Gallay, Master's Candidate, The George Washington 
University. Exhibits. Assisting NMNH Design Office. 



Designing a creative functional, flexible docent cart for use 
in NMNH galleries. May 12, 1997 through June 30, 1997. 

Arleen Garcia, Master's Candidate, University of Wyoming. 
Anthropology. Analyzing and documenting the design, 
manufacture, use(s), wear, and microscopic use-wear of the 
ground stone artifacts from the Lindenmeier site, Colorado; 
the Horner Site, Wyoming; and the Cattle Gaurd Site, 
Colorado, all from the Paleoindian Period. June 2, 1997 
through August 8, 1997. 

Sephen A. Goroff, High School Student, Lab School of 
Washington. Education. Working in the Office of 
Education's Discovery Room. October 21, 1996 through 
April 30, 1997. 

Tene D. Greene, Bachelor's Degree, University of Arizona. 
Paleobiology. Morphological Analysis of Permian Aged 
Taenioptens, characterization of morphological variation in 
the fossil plant Taeniopteris. Develop acats base on the mor- 
phology by using quantitative measures. June 2, 1997 
through August 8, 1997. 

Aislynn H. C. Griffin, Bachelor's Candidate, Macalester 
College. Exhibits. Help prepare a traveling exhibition and 
organize a conference on indigenous knowledge and the 
environment. June 2, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Jennifer Hatch, Senior, University of California — Davis. 
September 16, 1997 through December 14, 1997. 

Mai-Li Hokama, Bachelor's Degree, Brown University. 

Anthropology. Conserving Polynesian bark cloth including 
bibliographic and photographic work. October 7, 1996 
through December 13, 1996. 

Carolyn L. Houser, Bachelor's Candidate, Virginia Tech. 
Mineral Sciences. Establishing a classification system for 
anorogenic pegmatites and mending/changing the classi- 
fication system for orgenic pegmatites to fill in the gaps; 
both systems should be flexible enough to allow for any 
further changes needed in the future. January 15, 1997 
through August 31, 1997. 

Cynthia Innis, Bachelor's Degree, Catholic University of 
America. Exhibit Design. Silk-screening, typesetting, sign 
production, and doing various inks, painrs, glues, and some 
power tools. October 17, 1996 through May 31, 1997. 

Jeanette C. Kaines, Master's Degree, University of East 
Anglia. Exhibits. Assisting with the new Geology Hall 
March 3, 1997 through March 28, 1997. 

Riva Khoshaba, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Chicago. 
American Indian Program. Compiling a bibliography on 
material culture for the American Indian Program. June 23, 
1997 through August 29, 1997. 

David P. Kuwayama, Bachelor's Degree, University of Wiscon- 
sin. Anthropology. Primary project is the development of a 
computer-aided drafting database management system to 
graphically catalog and analyze skeletal pathologies. 
January 15, 1997 through May 30, 1997. 

Alicia V. LaValle, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Michigan. 
Division of Fishes. Conservation of scientific illustrations for 
the Division of Fishes. June 9, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 



132 



Lisa Lee, Bachelor's Candidate, Smith College. Working with 
conservation and preservation of scientific illustrations of 
fish; visual imaging for the World Wide Web. June 16, 
1997 through August 22, 1997. 

Jane LeGrow, Bachelor's Candidate, Pennsylvania State 

University. Anthropology. Working with Dr. Loring on the 
Aleutian collections he tecovered during the 1996 field 
season. May 19, 1997 through July 25, 1997. 

Jung Lim. Bachelor's Degree, The George Washington 
University. ADP. Assist in projects involved with 
geographic information systems, duties include digitizing, 
database entry editing, and map production. June 10, 1997 
through August 51, 1997. 

Nick Longrich, Bachelor's Candidate, Princeton University. 
Ornithology. Researching Avian paleontology. May 27, 
1997 through August 1, 1997. 

Gerrish Lopez, Bachelor's Degree, University of New 
Hampshire. Anthropology. Analysis of ethnic diversity 
during the Colonial period in Central Mexico. August 4, 
1997 through September 30, 1997. 

Arion T. Mayes, Doctorate, University of Colorado at Boulder. 
Repatriation. Responsible for inventorying, aging, sexing, 
metric traits, nonmecric traits, and pathological assessment 
of human skeletal remains. Final report to include sugges- 
tions for cultural affiliation. June 2, 1997 through August 
8, 1997. 

Todd McConchie, Bachelor's Candidate, George Washington 
University. Vertebrate Zoology. Biology and geographic dis- 
tribution of the pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps). 
February 3, 1997 through May 31, 1997. 

Ayumu Ota, Master's Candidate, The George Washington 
University. Education. Developing an evaluation methodol- 
ogy for the electronic field trip component of the Natural 
Partners Initiative. Evaluating the Naturalist Cart Pro- 
gram. January 13, 1997 through April 10, 1997. 

Kim Owsley, High School Student, Fairfax High School. 
Physical Anthropology. Data entry and general office assis- 
tance. June 20, 1997 through December 20, 1997. 

Steve Pomernaki, Undergraduate, University of California — 
Santa Cruz. Help conduct inventory of a lithics collection 
that must be returned to Canada. September 29, 1997 
through December 15, 1997. 

Kenneth G. Poocha, Bachelor's Degree, University of Arizona. 
Anthropology. Bibliography for Colorado River and 
Yuman tribes. June 2, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Meredith J. Pyle, Bachelor's Candidate, University of 

Maryland at Baltimore Co. Handbook Office. Assisting the 
research for the Handbook of North American Indians. 
June 9, 1997 through August 31, 1997. 

Katherine Roberson- Young, Bachelor's Candidate, Wesleyan 
University. Anthropology. Work with film footage of a 
Tibetan Settlement in Mundgod, South India (1979); 
write short descriptions and summaries for indexing 
and cataloging purposes. June 3, 1997 through 
August 8, 1997. 



Steve Rosenberg, Undergrad, University of California — Santa 
Cruz. Helping to inventory a lithics collection that must 
be returned to Canada September 29, 1997 through Decem- 
ber 15, 1997. 

Margo L. Rosingana, Bachelor's Candidate, The American 
University. Handbook of North American Indians. Re- 
search on both historical and contemporary photography of 
Native American people especially in the Plateau culture 
area. January 13, 1997 through April 28, 1997. 

Page Selmsky, Bachelor's Candidate, The George Wash- 
ington University. Anthropology. Assist in moving of 
physical Anthropology collections. Inventory Old World 
material from the Hirshhorn. January 13, 1997 through 
June I, 1997. 

Nihad Shabbar, Doctoral Candidate, The George Washington 
University. Public Programs. To participate in planning 
and development of activities related to installing new 
exhibits on human evolution, European prehistory, and 
ancient Egypt including helping with collections and 
library research and with script development. June 9, 1997 
through August 30, 1997. 

Rajshree Solanki, Bachelor's Candidate, University of 
Tennessee at Knoxville. Archaeology. Ceramic Analysis, 
database maintenance. January 6, 1997 through March 16, 

'997- 

Joanna Spooner, Senior, Thomas Jefferson High School for 
Science and Technology. Systematics and evolution of 
Cetecea (whales/dolphins) September 15, 1997 through 
January 30/98. 

Tarissa L. Spoonhunter, Bachelor's Degree, University of Mon- 
tana. Repatriation. Gathering of documentation to evaluate 
the cultural affiliation of Native American human remains 
and funerary objects from Texas as part of the repatriation 
process. June 2, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Elizabeth Stern, High School Senior, Holton Arms School. 
Anthropology/Archeology. Learning how archaeologists use 
ceramic shards to learn about past cultures May 2, 1997 
through May 30, 1997. 

Elizabeth Stern, Bachelor's Candidate, Washington Univer- 
sity. Anthropology. Working to reconstruct pottery from 
an archaeological dig. July 1, 1997 through August 18, 1997. 

Leslie Taylor, Master's Candidate, George Washington Univer- 
sity. Handbook of Native American Indians. Research on 
issues relating to North American Indian historical 
photographs. January 17, 1997 through May 15, 1997. 

Carolyn E. Thornton, Bachelot's Candidate, University of 
Louisville. Anthropology. Working with human skeletal 
temains from Jordan or Baharain, looking for signs of 
trauma and disease. Octobet 7, 1996 through December 13, 
1996. 

Abigail VanDuyne, Master's Candidate, Harvard Graduate 
School of Education. Education. June 16, 1997 through 
August 1, 1997. 

Flora Waples-Trefil, Bachelor's Candidate, University of 
Chicago. Molecular Systematics Lab. Using genetic 



133 



markers to redraw/discover phlogenics of plants. June 23, 
1997 through August 29, 1997. 
Jessica M. Warren, Bachelor's Candidate, Cambridge Univer- 
sity. Mineral Sciences. Origin of cathode luminescence in 
world jadeitite deposits. July 9, 1997 through September 

30, 1997- 

Wendy Wasserman, Master's Candidate, George Washington 
University. Anthropology. Hawaiian Collections at the 
Smithsonian and their donors: Biographies, histories, and 
summaries. January 7, 1997 through June 30, 1997. 

Marie Watkins, Doctoral Candidate, Florida State University. 
Handbook of North American Indians. Comparative study 
of turn-of-the-century paintings and photographs of 
American Indian's purchased by the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. May 12, 1997 through May 23, 1997. 

Shu-mei Yang, Bachelor's Degree, The George Washington 
University. Anthropology. Preparing a grant proposal for 
the care and exhibition of a group of painted paper kites, 
which were a gift from the Imperial Chinese government to 
the United States in 1876. June 30, 1997 through August 
22, 1997. 

Dale Young, Doctoral Candidate, Howard University. IMS. 
Researching in Molecular Phylogenic Studies on the 
Species of Central American birds to confirm their relation- 
ships, etc. May 19, 1997 through August 22, 1997. 

National Museum of Natural History — Research 
Training Program 

Mac H. Alford. Bachelor's Candidate, Mississippi College. 
Botany. Describing a new species of Commelina from 
Africa using morphological, cytological (chromosome 
number), and anatomical characters. May 24, 1997 through 
August 2, 1997. 

Amy Balanoff, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Texas at 
Austin. Invertebrate Zoology. Helping to organize and 
curate the spring snail collections. May 24, 1997 through 
June 30, 1997. 

Katherine Bash, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Texas at 
Austin. Entomology. The Leepidoptera of NAS Mirarnar: 
what we can learn from fauna surveys. Demonstration of 
the importance and applications of fauna surveys. May 27, 
1997 through August 2, 1997. 

Linda Boose, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Delaware. 
Entomology. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Ostrinia — 
the European corn Borer complex. May 24, 1997 through 
August 2, 1997. 

Whitney Butler, Bachelor's Candidate, Gettysburg College. 
Anthropology. Survey of various NMNH archaeological 
human skeletal remains to determine the prevalence of scurvy. 
This will provide insight into dietary differences between 
archaeological human populations. May 24, 1997 through 
August 23, 1997. 

Jessica Cafarella, Bachelor's Candidate, Duke University. 
Anthropology. Survey of various NMNH archeological 



human skeletal collections to determine the prevalence of 
scurvy (vitamin C deficiency). This will provide insight 
into dietary differences between archeological human 
populations. May 24, 1997 through August 2, 1997. 

Josh Campbell, Bachelor's Candidate, Auburn University. 
Paleobiology The project will be an evaluation of Pecop- 
tens foliage at the Pennsylvanian and Parmina age. May 23, 
1997 through August 2, 1997. 

Kerri M. Carlson, Bachelor's Candidate, Miami University. 
Anthropology. This project will involve a vertical assess- 
ment of the various techniques used to determine tribal 
cultural affiliation within the context of current U.S. 
repatriation legislation. May 24, 1997 through August 2, 

1997- 

Joshua A. Chamot, Bachelor's Candidate, The College of Wil- 
liam and Mary. Paleobiology. Analysis of stable carbon 
isotope ratios. Attempting to correlate stable carbon 
isotope ratios in fossil plants with an anomalous 8x13 C 
spike near the Paleocene/Eocene boundary. May 24, 1997 
through August 8, 1997. 

Klint A. Cowan, Bachelor's Candidate, Antioch College. 
Mineral Science. Conducting a study of silicate and heavy 
metal differentiation in the early solar nebula, by analyzing 
the macroscopic structure and particle masses of meteorites. 
May 24, 1997 through August 2, 1997. 

Emma Mae Dawson, Bachelor's Candidate, Southern Illinois 
University. Botany. Identification of Rhods phyta, 
Phaeophyta, and Chlorophyta from the Dominican 
Republic by preparing specimens for anatomical studies 
including whole and stained mounts, microtechniques, 
freeze — murotome sectioning, and photomicrography. 
May 24, 1997 through July 2, 1997. 

Gregory A. Dehn, Bachelor's Candidate, Colorado College. 
Mineral Sciences. Testing the idea that metal and silicate 
were fractionated by mass. This will be done by examining 
metal-silicate mass equivalence in meteorites known to 
have formed through melting, differentiation, and mixing 
on the surfaces of asteroids. May 24, 1997 through August 
2, 1997. 

Luisa I. Falcon-Alvarez, Bachelor's Candidate, UNAM. Inver- 
tebrate Zoology. Identification of Larval and paralarval 
stages of the Cephalopod family Gonatidae, with a 
biogeographical study of the family. May 24, 1997 through 
August 22, 1997. 

Noah R. Feinstein, Bachelor's Candidate, Harvard University. 
Invertebrate Zoology. Members of the gastropod genus 
Xenophora attach corals and other objects to their shells, 
ostensibly in an effort to camouflage their outlines. This 
project will examine the association between Xenophora 
and certain deep-water corals, and will include a survey of 
coral species attached, as well as a spatial analysis of attach- 
ment pattern. May 24, 1997 through August 2, 1997. 

Emily F. Greenfest, Bachelor's Candidate, Bryn Mawr College. 
Paleobiology. Measuring and analyzing insect herbovory on 
a lower Permian flora in order to test hypotheses about the 



154 



coevolution of insects and planes. May 24, 1997 through 
August 2, 1997. 

Sarah Hood, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Nevada at 
Reno. Invertebrate Zoology. In this project the student will 
describe a new species of a pelagic nemertean wotm and 
assemble comparative data to be included in a cladistic 
analysis. May 24, 1997 through August 2, 1997. 

Pablo Santiago Jarrin Valladares, Bachelor's Candidate, Pon- 
tificia Universidad Catocicaden Ecu. Vertebrate Zoology. 
Finalization of a diagnostic Key for Bat Species (chicrop- 
tera) from che Amazon, based on norphometrics. May 24, 
1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Darren Locke, Bachelor's Degree, Norwich University. 

Mineral Sciences. Perform research on samples of ancient 
volcanic ash and associated sedimentary rocks of the 
central Appalachians. June 23, 1997 through 
September 1(5, 1997. 

Christian McKeon, Bachelor's Candidate, The Evergreen State 
College. Invertebrate Zoology. Analysis of the squid family 
Onychoteothide from the collections of the Amsterdam 
Mid-North Atlantic Plankton Expedition. May 24, 1997 
through August 2, 1997. 

Tatiana Mikhailova, Moscow State University. Zoology. Com- 
paring the natural conditions of the species existence in the 
Palearctic and Nearctic by comparing the distribution 
maps with geographical data maps. We will create "dot" 
distribution maps of the species, using GIS system (Arc 
View, Arc Info) available in the ADP office. May 24, 1997 
through August 16, 1997. 

Nathan Muchhala, Bachelor's Candidate, Earlham College. 
Vertebrate Zoology. A new species of Soleichthys from 
tropical seas of Northern Australia. May 24, 1997 through 
August 2, 1997. 

Anna Munoz, Bachelor's Candidate, New Mexico State 

University. Vertebrate Zoology. The project will consist of 
the analysis and comparison of advertisement calls and/or 
morphological characteristics of Elentherodactylus 
fenestrarus populations from Peru and Brazil to determine 
whether these populations are comprised of the same 
species. May 24, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Carla S. Nappi, Bachelor's Candidate, Harvard University. 
Paleobiology. Assessing characteristics and performing 
cladiscic analyses of Permian and Triassic species of sub- 
ulitid gastropods, determining the phylogenetic relation- 
ship between Triassic and Permian species, and inferring 
from this the gastropod characters that contributed to 
species' survival of the end-Permian mass extinction. 
May 24, 1997 through August 2, 1997. 

Bronwen Presswell, Bachelor's Degree, University of Wales 
Aberystueytti. Fishes. Description of a new species of fresh- 
water characid fish from Guyana, S. America, apparently re- 
lated to the characidiin genus Flachocarax. Discussion of 
the new species' relationships to the subfamily 
characidiinae and especially Gachocarx. May 24, 1997 
through August 2, 1997. 



Surangi Punyasena, Bachelor's Candidate, Yale University. 
Vertabrate Paleontology. The study aims to evaluate dif- 
ferent measures of diversity in the Plio-Pleistocene Turkana 
Basin Mammal Fauna, with comparison to Modern Faunal 
diversity. May 24, 1997 through August 23, 1997. 

Christopher Richards, Bachelor's Candidate, Oberlin College. 
Invertebrate Zoology. The use of comparative anatomy and 
histology to determine the taxonomy of an undesenbed 
species of Pantionemerteay worm. May 24, 1997 through 
August 2, 1997. 

Traesha R. Robertson, Bachelor's Candidate, Angelo State 
University. Paleobiology. Conduct an evaluation of the 
genus Pecopteris foliage of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. 
May 24, 1997 through August 2, 1997. 

Jeannie Skalsky, Master's Candidate, Texas A&M. Botany. 
Revision of the Caribbean species of the flowering plant 
genus Liabum (Compositae). May 24, 1997 through August 

2, 1997- 

W. Leo Smith, Bachelor's Degree, University of California at 
San Diego. Vertebrate Zoology. A new species of Belanoperca 
(Teleostei: Serramdae: Spinephelinea: Diploprionin) with a 
discussion of Diploprionin relationships. May 24, 1997 
through August 2, 1997. 

Rebecca Spokony, Bachelor's Candidate, Cornell University. 
Botany. Examining the degree of genetic variability found 
in DNA sequences from the nuclear nbosomal ITS and 
chloroplast spacer regions as a means to study the evolu- 
tionary relatedness of the species in Phaseolus. The relation- 
ships found will be compared with previous variability 
studies done with seed storage proteins and DNA fragment 
markers assessed with AFLP. May 24, 1997 through 
August 2, 1997. 

Brian Yang, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Michigan. 
Herpetology. The project will examine whether a currently 
recognized species of lizard (Holbrookia maculafa) should 
be divided into two or three species based on morphologi- 
cal and geographic data. May 24, 1997 through August 22, 
1997. 

National Portrait Gallery 

Angela Bourne, Master's Candidate, Tufts University. Catalog 
of American Portraits — researching, gathering and catalog- 
ing biographical information for the National Portrait 
Gallery archives and Web database. July 1, 1997 through 
August 22, 1997. 

B. Erin Buckner, Senior, Rutgers College. To assist with a 
living history program, Lens of History, to be presented on 
Saturdays in conjunction with the special exhibition "Math- 
ew Bishop's Portraits." September 2Z, 1997 through Decem- 
ber 12, 1997. 

Sophie Cantell, Smith College. Presidential portraits of 

George Washington. September 2, 1997 through December 
19. 1997- 



135 



Carla Ceruzzi, High School Student, Cantetbury School. Com- 
puter Services. "Gateway Project" — which will develop a 
thematic approach to collections information on the 
Smithsonian website. The theme of the project is migra- 
tions of people, cultures, and ideas. June 16, 1997 through 
July 18, 1997. 

Kathleen Chen, Senior, Walter Johnson High School. Graphics. 
Assist with production of Edith Wharton, Matthew Brady, 
and George Marshall exhibits opening fall 1997. July 15, 
1997 through November 14, 1997. 

Melissa Ciappetta, Bachelor's Candidate, Muhlenberg College. 
Education. Responsibilities: Manage intern application 
files, perform a variety of clerical duties (reply to telephone 
and written inquities about NPG's internship program, 
schedule orientation appointments, prepare exit clearances 
and certificates, assist with the summer intern conference). 
June 5, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Angelica M. Docog, Doctorate Degree, University of 

Manchester. Curatorial. Researching portraits representing 
the Hispanic tradition of portraiture in North America for 
a future exhibition. October 7, 1996 through December 13, 
1996. 

Laura M. Fionlli, Bachelor's Candidate, University of 
Chicago. Office of the Historian. June 23, 1997 through 
August 29, 1997. 

Laura E. Firczuk, Bachelor's Degree, The American Univer- 
sity. Education. Assist the Public Program Director in 
producing Cultures in Motion Programs, and the Portrait 
Gallery's film series. May 12., 1997 through July 28, 1997. 

Amber Frid-Jimenez, Bachelor's Degree, Wesleyan University. 
Design and Production. Assisting in the design and produc- 
tion of the "Mathew Brady's Portraits: Images as History, 
Photography as Art" and "Edith Wharton's World: 
Portraits of People and Places" exhibitions. July 14, 1997 
through September 19, 1997. 

Regina Galea, Smith College. Research and annotation of the 
Charles Willson Peale family papers. September 2, 1997 
through December 19, 1997. 

Ann Hollinger Gibson, Bachelor's Degree, Stephens College. 
Catalog of American Portraits. Doing biographical research 
on subjects and artists, cataloging, and incorporating data 
and images into a national online database. October 7, 1996 
through December 23, 1996. 

Laura E. Gilmour, Bachelor's Candidate, Randolph -Macon 
College. Catalog of American Portraits. Duties include 
biographical research on subjects and artists, cataloging, 
and incorporating data and images into a national online 
database. May 27, 1997 through August 29, 1997. 

Bernadine Gonsalez, Master's Candidate, University of Texas 
at Austin. Library. Assisting in processing materials for the 
Ray Smith caricature and cartoon collection in the 
NMAA/NPG library. March 3, 1997 through April 3, 1997. 

Emily Hage, Master's Degree, University of Maryland. Prints 
and Photographs. Researching celebrity caricatures. May 
21, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 



Brenda Ingersoll, Bachelor's Candidate, Lawrence University. 
Education. Collaboration and research for NPG educational 
previsit materials. July 9, 1997 through August 30, 1997. 

Sarah Keller, Bachelor's Degree, University of Chicago. 
Curatorial/Painting and Sculpture. George Washington 
portrait exhibit. June 23, 1997 through August 29, 1997. 

Sinclair Kelly, High School Student, Harpeth Hall School. 
Design and Production. Assist in the production and main- 
tenance of gallery areas and displays as well as in the 
production and installation of graphics for the National 
Portrait Gallery's permanent collection and fot special 
exhibitions. January 5, 1997 through January 24, 1997. 

David Y. Kim, Bachelor's Candidate, Amherst College. Peale 
Family Papers. Conducting biographical research on various 
sitters painted by the Peale Family, as well as assisting with 
the publication of the Peale Family Papers, a compilation 
of the letters of C.W. Peale et al., which is now in its 6th 
volume. June 2, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Nora E. Langhirt, Bachelor's Degree, Franklin and Marshall 
College. Education. Assist public program director in 
producing Cultures in Motion programs and film series. 
July 21, 1997 through September 30, 1997. 

Anne Leonard, Bachelor's Degree, Yale University. Painting 
and Sculpture. Researching NPG's collection of portrait 
sculpture by Jo Davidson, and assist with general curatorial 
research. July 7, 1997 through August 1, 1997. 

Helene Mason, Bachelor's Candidate, Institut D'Etudes Poli- 
tiques de Pans. Office of Development. Participating in all 
aspects of the National Portrait Gallery's Development 
including research SCAN training, prospect meetings, and 
events. October 1, 1996 through August 30, 1997. 

Maura Partrick, Bachelor's Degree, Savannah College of Art 
and Design. Public Affairs. Assisting Public Affairs for 
openings of "Edith Wharton's World: Portraits of People 
and Places" and "Matthew Brady's Portraits: History as 
Photography." July I, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Rhia Rae, Bachelor's Candidate, Florida International Univer- 
sity. Catalog of American Portraits. Conducting biographi- 
cal research on subjects and artists, cataloging, and 
incorporating data and images into a national online 
database. May 19, 1997 through July 31, 1997. 

Beth Skirkankh, Bachelor's Degree, State University of New 
York at Purchase. Design and Production. Assist in 
graphics office with the production of recent acquisitions, 
Matthew Brady and Edith Wharton exhibitions, including 
silkscreening processes, computer tasks, and label installa- 
tion; also gallery "rounds." June 30, 1997 through August 

8, 1997- 

Shannon Sloan, Bachelor's Candidate, California State at San 
Bernadino. Education. Set up a docent training program for 
the National Portrait Gallery. June 16, 1997 through 
August 29, 1997. 

Anna Staton, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Maryland in 
Baltimore Co. Photographs. Assist curator with programs 
and publications for upcoming exhibition, "Matthew 



136 



Brady's Portraits"; coordinate with the Curator of Educa- 
tion. May 12, 1997 through August 22, 1997. 

Catherine Telfair, Graduated, Manchester College. September 
8, 1997 through December 19, 1997. 

Frederick A. Ulnch, Bachelor's Candidate, Union College. 
Administrative Office. Conducting the biographical 
research for the Hans Namuth exhibition. June 9, 1997 
through August 7, 1997. 

Laura G. Webb, Bachelor's Candidate, University of 

Maryland, College Park. Peale Family Papers. Internship in 
documentary editing and historical research. A comparative 
study of the autobiography of Charles Willson Peale, and 
two biographies prepared by his sons. February 3, 1997 
through May 15, 1997. 

Terri Whitlock, Bachelor's Candidate, The School of the Art 
Institute of Chicago. Photographs. Intern will assist the 
Assistant Curator of Photographs in researching and 
cataloging a recently acquired collection of photographs, as 
well as helping in the rearrangement of a portion of the 
Gallery's photographic storage. June 9, 1997 through 
August I, 1997. 

National Postal Museum 

Kristin Clark, Bachelor's Degree, Hope College. Collections. 
Assist the loan coordinator with processing incoming and 
outgoing materials, producing reports and packing and un- 
packing objects, participate in exhibit preparation, installa- 
tions, and take down of exhibitions. August 25, 1997 
through December 8, 1997. 

Siobhan Creem, Bachelor's Degree, Utah State University. Col- 
lections Management. Assist the registrar and the conserva- 
tion office in coordinating and preparing objects to be sent 
to the "World Philatelic Exhibition Pacific '97," in San 
Francisco, May 29, 1997. January 27, 1997 through Septem- 
ber I, 1997. 

Elizabeth Duncan, Bachelor's Degree, University of Wiscon- 
sin at Madison. Public Affairs. Updating all press materials 
in the museum's media kit, updating and writing new cap- 
tions for publicity photographs, writing a press release and 
a public service announcement for radio for an up-coming 
public program, assembling several hundred new media 
kits, and responding to letters of inquiry and to phone in- 
quiries as needed; assisting with upcoming special events 
and fund-raising projects. January 21, 1997 through March 
13. 1997- 

Christine Kreger, Junior, Lewis and Clark College. To become 
familiar with various aspects of collections management, 
assist with cataloging, installation, etc. September 9, 1997 
through December 4, 1997. 

Janalyn Moss, Master's Candidate, University of Illinois at 
Springfield. Collections Management. Become familiar 
with various aspects of Collections Management, assist the 
Registration Specialist with cataloging, inventory, account- 
ability, and data entry projects. Participate in exhibition 



preparation, installation, and take down. Inventory: Inter- 
nal Revenue stamps, U.S. plate proofs, archival material; 
data entry: Revenue stamps, plate proofs; cataloging: 
philatelic material, discreet collections in albums, postal 
history material. May 19, 1997 through August 22, 1997. 

Patricia Reidy, Bachelor's Degree, Providence College. Educa- 
tion Department. Conduct tours for elementary and high 
school students. Assist in the management of all facets of 
the upcoming public program "Stamp-Ability" — including 
providing assistance to guest lecturers, creating at least one 
educational stamp activity wotksheet to be used by visitors 
at the event, and registering and mounting student stamp 
collections. Assist with the Graceful Envelope Contest, 
1997. March 3, 1997 through April 27, 1997. 

Catherine Roan, High School Graduate, Winston Churchill 
High School. Education. Provide tours for elementary and 
high school students. Conduct research on and survey 
student tour programs in other museums in Washington, 
D.C. Suggest improvements to National Postal Museum. 
June 18, 1997 through July 25, 1997. 

National Zoological Park 

Patricia S. Chen, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Texas at 
Austin. Graphics/Photography. Aid the 200 photographer 
in photography and cataloging of photos. May 19, 1997 
through August 15, 1997. 

Sata Childs, Cornell University. Animal Health. Animal 
Health Intern with a project in cardiac disease in great 
apes. May 30, 1997 through August 17, 1997. 

Kathy Chu, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Maryland at 
College Park. DZR -Nutrition. Sodium Appetite in Desett 
Tortoises. June 3, 1997 through August 31, 1997. 

Elaine Franklin, Bachelor's Candidate, Virginia Tech. Depart- 
ment of Mammals. Design and implement visitor surveys 
at the Great Ape House and Think Tank, update fact sheets 
on pygmy marmosets and black-and-white colonies 
monkeys, work as zoo keeper and interpreter in the Gteat 
Ape House. May 21, 1997 through August 22, 1997. 

Alejandro Garcia, DVM Candidate, Michigan State Univer- 
sity, College of Veterinary Medicine. Pathology. Training 
in the veterinary pathology of animals in the zoo collection, 
individual case reports, and necropsy work. Special projects 
in certain areas such as iron accumulation in livers of north- 
ern fur seals. May 14, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Geotge R. Lejano, Bachelor's Degree, The George 
Washington University. Electronic Communication. 
Electronic Communication: Internet, HTML coding for 
Web designing, Multimedia applications such as Ditector 5 
and 6, Premiere 4.2, Infini — D 3.0. August 20, 1997 
through August 31, 1997. 

Bilenda P. Madison, 3rd Year, Tuskegee University School of 
Veterinary Medicine. Animal Health. Assistance in animal 
health procedures such as physical exams and radiology; 



137 



research, special projects in medicine caneschesidogy. 
May 26, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Maria Nemethy, Bachelor's Candidate, Harvard University. 
Zoological Research. Compositional analysis of primate 
milks using atomic absorption spectroscopy. June 2, 1997 
through August 31, 1997. 

Sira Palerm, Bachelor's Degree, University of California at 
Santa Barbara. Biology-Animal Behavior. Study golden lion 
tamarin behavior. October 1, 1996 through December 31, 
1996. 

Jill Prewitt, Bachelor's Candidate, University of New 
Hampshire. Team B-GLT. Exhibit Interpretation/Hus- 
bandry. Feeding and maintenance of the golden lion 
tamarin conservation program. Writing weekly updates of 
golden lion tamarin behavior. May 15, 1997 through 
August 15, 1997. 

Mischa Schuler, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Virginia. 
Horticulture. Working on water purification research using 
wetland plants for an aquatics exhibit opening in 1999. 
Also working on educational supplements to the exhibit. 
May 28, 1997 through July 15, 1997. 

Michelle Smith, Bachelor's Degree, Utah State University. 
Mammals. Working with the golden lion tamarin 
reintroduction program. August I, 1997 through 
October 31, 1997. 

Office of the Secretary I Community Affairs 

Jacqueline Alvarez, Northeastern Illinois University. Office of 
the Secretary/Commumry Affairs. July I, 1997 through 
August 8, 1997. 

Office of Exhibits Central 

Melanie A. Adcock, Bachelor's Candidate, Kansas City Art In- 
stitute. Inter Departmental Internship. Intern will work in 
graphics, fabrication, packing, crating, etc., rotating 
around all areas of OEC. Intern will keep a journal of ex- 
periences and take pictures for presentations at the Kansas 
City Art Institute. May 17, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Matthew Brady, Master's Candidate, George Mason Univer- 
sity. Production. Exhibit production and fabrication. July 
14, 1997 through July 14, 1997. 

David W. Douglas, Rochester Institute of Technology. 

Graphics. Ongoing production work in the graphics area of 
Exhibits Central. April 28, 1997 through August 31, 1997. 

Daria Gasparini, Bachelor's Degree, College of William and 
Mary. Central OEC Administration. Helping to coordinate 
OEC projects, maintain calendars, organize schedule, 
develop time tables based on projections. June 9, 1997 
through September I, 1997. 

Elizabeth Glover, Bachelor's Candidate, Corcoran School of 
Art. Graphics. Doing graphic design for exhibits and publi- 
cations. June 13, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 



Lisa J. Hooper, Bachelor's Candidate, Shephard College. 

Finishing. Working in the finishing department with a spe- 
cial focus on displaying finishes and exhibition installation 
preparation. May 19, 1997 through August 20, 1997. 

Marcial D. Huaman, Wilson High School. Exhibit Design. 
To learn about exhibit design. May 28, 1997 through 
August 27, 1997. 

Elizabeth Hunter, Master's Candidate, George Washington 
University. Design. June 30, 1997 through December 31, 
1997- 

Wesley D. Kirk, Bachelor's Candidate, Howard University. 
Graphics. Assisting with Graphics for display production. 
March 5, 1997 through May 30, 1997. 

Wesley D. Kirk, Bachelor's Degree, Howard University. 
Model Shop. June 2, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Jennifer Luong, Bachelor's Candidate, University of California 
at Berkeley. Exhibits Central. Assisting in various depart- 
ments of the OEC, such as Modelmaking, Fabrication, 
Design, Graphics. May 28, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Amelie Pierron, Bachelor's Candidate, Ecole Catondo 
(France). Working for the Model Shop. June 23, 1997 
through August 16, 1997. 

Jessica Porter, Bachelor's Degree, University of Delaware. 
Editorial. Editorial work on exhibitions. October io, 1996 
through December 31, 1996. 

Denise Poy, Bachelor's Candidate, University of California at 
Berkeley. Editing/Model Shop. Working on editing in the 
Model Shop unit. June 2, 1997 through August 12, 1997. 

Tracie Sam, MA, George Washington University. Intern in 
the Design Department at the OEC. August 26, 1997 
through November 28, 1997. 

Jared D. Serwer, Princeton University. Exhibition. Design of 
Exhibition space for Latino Center. June 9, 1997 through 
August 15, 1997. 

Office of Environmental Management and Safety 

Tara J. Lewis, Master's Candidate, Southeastern University. 
Office of Environmental Management and Safety. Assist 
with data to customize and successfully implement a com- 
puterized medical records system. Research occupational 
medical groups involved in the mandated medical 
programs. June 2, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Office of the General Counsel 

Monique Bona, Law Candidate, George Washington Law 
School. General Counsel. Intern will be assigned a variety 
of legal research projects. Intern will draft memorandum 
for attorneys use. Intern will be exposed to a variety of 
research skills. January 13, 1997 through April 18, 1997. 

Francis B. Connel, Bachelor's Degree, Howard University/ 
Georgetown. Assist attorneys on a wide variety of legal 
issues; work on clerical paralegal skills such as filing, 
databases, and research. July 14, 1997 through July 25, 1997. 



138 



Nancy D'Erasmo, Bachelor's Degree, University of Maryland. 
Assist attorneys on a wide variety of legal issues; work on 
clerical paralegal skills such as filing, databases, and 
research. July 14, 1997 through July 25, 1997. 

Heather Gottry, Graduate, Georgetown University Law 
Center. Draft legal memorandum for attorneys on a wide 
variety of legal issues. September 24, 1997 through 
December 31, 1997. 

Susan E. Lake, Bachelor's Candidate, Catawba College. 

Library. Physically organize OGCs law library's collection 
with appropriate location map and labels, list of holdings 
produced in electronic format, and system put in place to 
charge books out to the users. May 19, 1997 through 
August 27, 1997. 

Office of Human Resources 

Dawn Dhavale, Bachelor's Degree, Clark University. Systems 
Branch. Inventory of current OHR forms and assisting in 
Web page development. June 2, 1997 through August 8, 

1997- 
Hugo E. Naranjo, MBA Degree, Strayer College. Human 
Resources. Activities with organizations and individuals to 
help in locating Latino candidates; to outreach to the 
Spanish community. June 2, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Office of Imaging, Printing, and Photographic Services 

Marion-Fairlie S. Benson, Bachelor's Candidate, New York 
University. Photo Services/Natural History. Scanning nega- 
tives and positives for publication on the Web for other 
uses. FTP transfers to customers. April 20, 1997 through 
July 31, 1997. 

Gregory W. Elder, Photography. Working with staff photog- 
raphers in a range of studio-oriented photography of 
artifacts in the Smithsonian collection to photographing 
cultural festivals sponsored by the museum. May 30, 1997 
through July 30, 1997. 

Heidi E. Fancher, Maryland College of Art and Design. Web 
design. Working on the Web database, identifying images 
without OIPP negative numbers. Working in photoshop, 
scanning images for the Web or printing on dye sub 
printer. June 2, 1997 through August 19, 1997. 

Wei Lin, The American University. Electronic Imaging. Scan- 
ning HTML for the Web. Doing OIPP work orders in im- 
aging branch. Scanned 35mm and 4X5-inch negatives for 
digital use. Did FTP transfers. February 1, 1997 through 
May i, 1997. 

Rebecca Schork, Bachelor's Candidate, Rochester Institute of 
Technology. Imaging. Assistant to Chief of the Image and 
Technology Service. Scanning of 35G 4x5 images on Mac 
computers for printing and digital use. June 9, 1997 
through August 4, 1997. 

Kristina Stephens, Bachelor's Candidate, The George 

Washington University. Photography. Performing a variety 



of photographic assignments, improving the knowledge of 
developing techniques for black-and-white film. February 
3, 1997 through June 30, 1997. 
Melanie Watrous, Bachelor's Candidate, Columbia College. 
Printing and Photographic Services. Photo Imaging Assis- 
tant. Assisted Chief of Images and Technical Services with 
scanning 35mm and 4X5 inch film for printing and publish- 
ing on the Web. October 30, 1996 through January 31, 1997. 

Office of Information Technology 

Jeffrey E. Carter, Master's/Bachelor's Degree, Mary 

Washington College and George Mason University. SIRIS 
Branch. Developing a core list of archival collections 
management requirements. Conducting a market survey of 
archival sofrware systems. Writing a report that sum- 
marizes the strengths and weaknesses of those systems. 
April 28, 1997 through July 25, 1997. 

Charles Hyatt, Bachelor's Candidate, Lincoln University. Net- 
work. Working with the group rolling out Novell and 
Group Wise to understand the intricacies of networking. 
Spend time with different divisions of the Network Group 
to help develop a fuller understanding of the inter-related- 
ness of the physical plant, software, data, and communica- 
tions issues. Develop a report on the management of wide 
area networks. May 5, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Noel Williams, Bachelor's Candidate, Sinclair Community 
College. Communications. Building, testing, installing, 
and labeling CAT 5 cable; installing fiber optic jumpers 
and documentation of WAN hardware and cabling; con- 
structing database information; and assisting with day-to- 
day operation of WAN. June 2, 1997 through August 8, 
1997- 

Office of Membership and Development 

Abbigale Bricker, Bachelor's Candidate, James Madison 

University. Updated and enhanced the OMD home page on 
the Smithsonian website. June 16, 1997 through August 15, 

1997- 
Elrette Coulter, MBA, George Washington University. Assist- 
ing with activities of the Women's Committee, updating 
database of Women's Committee records, and working 
with committee members on special projects. September 11, 

1996 through May 30, 1997. 

Lizanna Dusatko, Bachelor's Degree, Ohio University. Con- 
tributing Membership. Produced high-quality resource 
manuals for the Contributing Members' Lounge. January 8, 

1997 through March 28, 1997. 

Kazuharu Ishida, Master's Degree, Keio University, School of 
Media and Government. Contributing Membership. 
Making office procedures manual, researched home pages 
on the Internet relating to membership, generated market- 
ing ideas, analyzed needs in international membership. 
March 17, 1997 through June 1, 1997. 



139 



Nadine Kim. Adminiscracive preparation and event follow-up 
necessary in maintaining a philanthropic constituent and 
membership program. December 3, 1996 through January 

31. 1997- 

Erica M. Rau, Bachelor's Candidate, St. Mary's College of 
Maryland. Women's Committee. Managing mailing list for 
Craft Show applications. Proofreading SWC address book. 
Creating databases of corporate donors. June 9, 1997 
through August 31, 1997. 

Jennifet Reber, Bachelor's Candidate, The American Univer- 
sity. Information Services. Becoming familiar with reference 
material and periodicals in the Central Research library, in 
order to assist with its maintenance act as a helpful contact, 
conduct orientation tours, evaluate current references. 
October 1(5, 1996 through December 12, 1996. 

Betsy Rosenblum, Graduate, George Washington University. 
OMD. Assisting with activities of the Women's Commit- 
tee, updating database of Women's Committee records, and 
working with committee members on special projects. 
September 10, 1996 through May 30, 1997. 

Tanja D. Stich, Bachelor's Degree, University of Akron. 
Development. Transferred annual report and AAA "Silent 
Screening" information to a database. Researched top 100 
foundations and add to database. June 16, 1997 through 
August 22, 1997. 

Office of Public Affairs 

Dale Hershman, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Virginia. 
Public Affairs. June 17, 1997 through August 9, 1997. 

Eden I. Miller, Rutgers College of Rutgers University. 
Folklife Festival. Work with the press to inform them 
about the 1997 Festival of American Folklife and aid them 
on the days of the festival. June 2, 1997 through August 29, 
1997. 

Michelle L. Murray, Bachelor's Candidate, Towson State 
University. Public Affairs. Worked with film crews, han- 
dling logistics and escorting them. Updated media lists, 
did research, and worked at the press tent for the Folklife 
Festival. June 2, 1997 through August 22, 1997. 

Rae Russell, Master's Candidate, Oklahoma State University. 
Public Affairs. Updating OPA's current mailing list of 
5,500 names of universities, libraries, and others. June 9, 
1997 through August 7, 1997. 

Office of Physical Plant — Architectural History and 
Historic Preservation 

Melissa Draper, Bachelor's Candidate, Dartmouth College. 
Architectural History and Historic Preservation. Serving as 
an exhibition assistant for a exhibition on Samuel Pierpont 
Langley, third secretary of the Smithsonian; conducting 
original research on John Flanigan, sculptor of a bas-relief 
of Lanley, and compiling information for the exhibit. 
March 31, 1997 through June 6, 1997. 



Fabian Goncalves-Borrega, Castle Collection Restoration Lab. 
Making detailed conservation reports of all object treat- 
ments for the collection record. Assist the Keeper of the 
Castle collection in any special projects that may prove 
educational. March 4, 1997 through October I, 1997. 

Pernilla Holmes, BFA, Concordia University. Research on the 
history of early-l9th-century buildings on the grounds of 
the National Zoological Park. 

Marc R. Perrotta, Architectural History. To conduct Primary 
Research on design theories of museums during the period 
1850 through 1900, focusing on British and American ex- 
amples. Compiling data from various archives and libraries. 
Reviewed the general store of knowledge, created a bibliog- 
raphy, and wrote a research paper summarizing findings. 
June 2, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Patrick Poisson, Architectural History and Historic Preserva- 
tion. Project defining the meaning and definition of crafts 
in relation to museums during the period of 1850 through 
1900. June I, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Lara Pomernacki, Senior, Smith College. Research the Holt 
House on the grounds of the National Zoo as requested. 
September 2, 1997 through December 19, 1997. 



Office of Physical Plant — Horticultural Services 
Division 



Aislinn M. Adams, Second Year Student, National Botanical 
Gardens, Dublin, Ireland. Working with all aspects of col- 
lection management of the orchid collection. Work with 
cultivation, identification, recording growth and flowering 
habit, labeling, verifying nomenclature, inventory, and 
label preparation. January 20, 1997 through April II, 1997. 

Ashley D. Brown, Master's Candidate, Parsons School of 
Design/Cooper-Hewitt. Updating accession cards and files. 
Completing a physical inventory of the pieces, describing 
and documenting the artifacts, and photographing and 
labeling objects as needed. November 25, 1996 through 
January 31, 1997. 

James M. Carson, Bachelor's Degree, Stockton State College. 
Work with the integrated pest management program, 
studying and analyzing insects, diseases, nematodes and 
physiological problems on garden plants, and work with 
garden management techniques. May 19, 1997 through 
August 8, 1997. 

Colleen M. Graves, Bachelor's Candidate, Virginia Polytech- 
nic Institute and State University. Work with the main- 
tenance and educational programs for the Mary L. Ripley 
Garden. This will include planting, watering, fertilizing, 
and pest control for annuals, perennials, bulbs, and herbs. 
Responsible for similar care for the trees and shrubs in the 
garden and may also involve some pruning of these plants. 
Will also answer public inquiries and give tours to visitors. 
June 9, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Lisa Griffin, Bachelor's Candidate, Oregon State University. 
Work with the Bromeiiad Collection and with the tropical 



140 



plane program; water, fertilize, groom, plant, and group 
the Bromeliad Collection. In addition, learn and apply 
plant collection management techniques by identifying, 
labeling, recording, and accessioning specimens. June 23, 
1997 through September 12, 1997. 

Kirsten B. Larsen, Master's Candidate, Colorado State Univer- 
sity. Work in the Butterfly Garden, maintaining proper 
conditions for the plant/butterfly habitats; observe the 
seasonal changes in butterfly populations, and their life in 
the habitats. With the approval of funding, plans for 
development of an educational centet will begin during 
this time. Intern will assist with these plans. June 2, 1997 
through August 15, 1997. 

Francie Schroeder, Bachelor's Candidate, George Washington 
University. Cataloging the Garden Club of America Collec- 
tion of 35mm slides into the AAG collection. Refining the 
guidelines being used for evaluation of 35mm slides of gar- 
dens and landscapes. January 6, 1997 through March 28, 

1997- 

Kathryn Swain, New York Botanical Garden, School of Profes- 
sional Horticulture. Maintenance of Enid A. Haupt Gar- 
den. September 2, 1997 through December 19, 1997. 

Matthew S. Vinten, Bachelor's Candidate, Ball State Univer- 
sity. Assist the Landscape Architect in working with plans 
of the museum grounds; to include verifying plants on the 
site, preparing drawings to accurately represent the 
landscape, reviewing and evaluating construction drawings 
for HSD involvement, and some design of landscape areas 
affected by construction. May 19, 1997 through July 25, 

1997- 

Molly E. Waters, Bachelor's Candidate, Utah State University. 
Work with the horticulturists and gardeners in maintain- 
ing the Enid A. Haupt Garden. This includes watering, 
weeding, fertilizing, identifying and controlling pests, and 
grooming annuals, perennials, shrubs, and mixed plants in 
urns and baskets. Cultivating roses, formal parterres, and 
tropical plants in an outdoor setting. June 30, 1997 
through September 19, 1997. 

Office of the Smithsonian Institution Archives 

Somer L. Cross, Bachelor's Candidate, Hollms College. Joseph 
Henry Papers. Researching Joseph Henry and his life and 
times. This includes newspaper research and work at the 
Library of Congress. January 6, 1997 through January 31, 
1997. 

Suzanne J. Erera, Bachelor's Candidate, Princeton University. 
Assisted in processing the archives record unit 321, some 90 
cubic feet of historical records documenting the interna- 
tional exchange of art exhibitions and events from 1965 to 
1981 coordinated by the NMAA's office of program support. 
Helped to arrange and preserve the records and to create a 
guide for researchers. June 2, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Laura Garrett, BA, University of California-Davis. To com- 
pile a finding aid and database on Latin American holdings 



in the SI Archives. September 15, 1997 through November 7, 

1997- 

Alyssa D. Pease, Bachelor's Degree, University of Maryland at 
College Park. Detailed preservation assessments of OSI A 
collections, implemented environmental monitoring, iden- 
tified and removed mold from several collections, rehoused 
select collections. June 2, 1997 through September 26, 1997. 

Patricia J. Rettig, Master's Candidate, University of Maryland 
at College Park. Preservation. Surveying the archival collec- 
tions in order to assess preservation problems and needs for 
the writing of a preservation plan. May 19, 1997 through 
July 25, 1997. 

Jenny Rozen, Master's Candidate, The George Washington 
University. National Collections Program. Assisting in the 
revision of the Smithsonian Directive 600 by compiling all 
associated forms regarding collections management. Con- 
ducting onsite interviews with collections management 
staff regarding procedural implementation and created 
draft format of procedures manual. May 12, 1997 through 
December 30, 1997. 

Christa Savino, Bachelor's Degree, Johns Hopkins University. 
Detailed preservation assessments of OSIA collections, 
implemented environmental monitoring, identified and 
removed mold from several collections, rehoused select 
collections. May 27, 1997 through October 17, 1997. 

Jonathan Seitz, Bachelor's Degree, University of Wisconsin at 
Madison. Joseph Henry Papers. Conducted a study of the 
relationship between Joseph Henry's teaching and research. 
Gave technical assistance for the Henry Papers website. 
June 2, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Charlotte Sturm, Senior, Smith College. A Smithsonian Family 
Album September 2, 1997 through December 19, 1997. 

Office of Sponsored Projects 

Carol Bella, Bachelor's Candidate, Gallaudet University. Account- 
ing. Assisting in the preparation of invoices. Recording bank 
statements. February 25, 1997 through May 15, 1997. 

Kate Fritzsche, Bachelor's Candidate, Lawrence University. 
Programs. Review and select funding information to be dis- 
tributed via the Web, produce and enhance a semiannual 
OSP publication, assist in setting up all training activities, 
research and compile all necessary information for OSP's 
Web page. June 16, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Stephen Goldsmith, Bachelor's Candidate, The George 
Washington University. Assisting in the preparation of 
invoices. Reconciling bank statements. Preparing recon- 
ciliation worksheets for various contracts. Assisting in the 
process of invoice payments. March 10, 1997 through 
July 10, 1997. 

Elizabeth Gruse, Bachelor's Candidate, Lycoming College. 
May 12, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Babette Hoffman, Bachelor's Candidate, Barnard College/ 
Columbia University. May 27, 1997 through August n, 
1997. 



141 



Cecilia Thu Nguyen, Bachelor's Degree, Universicy of 
Maryland at College Park. Assisting in the updace of the 
grants management database. Preparing reconciliation 
worksheets and assisting in the processing of invoices. 
May 13, 1997 through August 31, 1997. 

Salome Nnanga, Bachelor's Candidate, Trinity College. 
June 16, 1997 through July 31, 1997. 

Keron Stradford, Bachelor's Degree, Kean College. Grants. 
Writing grants for the Smithsonian Institution. June 2, 
1997 through September 30, 1997. 

Micah Wasserman, Bachelor's Candidate, George Mason 
University. Financial. Assisting in "closing out" funds, 
reconciling accounts, helping prepare financial reports, 
assisting in determining if a refund to the sponsor is 
necessary, assisting in confirming that subcontracts have 
been closed, and documenting reports. May 20, 1997 
through August 7, 1997. 

Product Development and Product Licensing 

Michelle S. Blum, Bachelor's Candidate, University of the 
Pacific. Resource Room. Working in the resource room. As- 
sisting with developing products, researching. June 5, 1997 
through August 15, 1997. 

Hilary Gottschalk, Master's Candidate, San Francisco State 
University. Marketing. Researching and developing a 
marketing brochure that will include information on licen- 
see history and advertising for purposes of distribution to 
potential licensees. January 15, 1997 through April I, 1997. 

Linnea M. Grim, Bachelor's Candidate, The College of Wil- 
liam and Mary. Licensing. To assist product managers with 
coordination of licenses, including, but not limited to, 
research, administrative duties, generating and labeling 
photography, updating product sheets and royal charts, and 
meeting with curators and licensers. May 19, 1997 through 
August 1, 1997. 

Katrina McLoughlin, Bachelor's Candidate, Dublin City 
University. Calendar. Research for Smithsonian 
engagement calendar, licensing opportunities, and 
marketing opportunities. June 18, 1997 through 
August 6, 1997. 

Jenny H.C. Palmer, Bachelor's Candidate, Universicy of 
St. Andrews. June 23, 1997 through August 29, 
1997. 

Lauren Parkhill, Senior, Universicy of California— Santa Cruz. 
September 16, 1997 through December 5, 1997. 

Smithsonian Magazine 

Lesley C. Hallman, Bachelor's Candidate, The George 
Washington University. Smithsonian magazine internship 
through the American Sociecy of Magazine Edicors. May 2, 
1997 chrough August 8, 1997. 



Smithsonian Astropbysical Observatory 

James R. Chisholm, Bachelor's Candidace, Northwescern 
University. HEAD. ROSAI HRI Scudy of the Pleiades Scar 
Cluster. June 9, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 

Rebecca J. Danos, Bachelor's Candidate, Wellesley College. 
Astrophysics. Studying the effects of supernova heating on 
the propercies of cluscers of galaxies. The project will in- 
volve controlled experiments wich ab initio numerical 
simulations of cluster formacion. The goal will be co under- 
scand how che lent input from supernova affects the evolu- 
tion of the gas. These can be used co have inferences about 
the matter density of che universe and will provide a quan- 
titative model to interpret che recently measured evolucion 
of the cluster luminosity function. June 9, 1997 through 
August 15, 1997. 

Michael Dorris, Bachelor's Candidate, Vanderbilt University. 
HEA. Look into correlacion becween photometrically deter- 
mined luminosicicies of galaxies in discanc (Z~o.5) clusters 
and redshift in order to better investigate galaxy cluster 
evolution and cosmological implications. June 8, 1997 
through August 15, 1997. 

Lynne M. Raschke, Bachelor's Candidate, Haverford College. 
High-Energy Astrophysics. Investigating the long-term 
variability of "normal" giant stars. June 9, 1997 through 
August 15, 1997. 

Brian Rebel, Bachelor's Candidace, Grinnell College. High 
Energy. Cepheid Discance co M31. Decerminacion of the 
discance co che galaxy M31 using the Cepheid period 
luminosity relacion. June 8, 1997 chrough Augusr 15, 
1997. 

Erik Rosolowsky, Bachelor's Candidace, Swarchmore College. 
Geo. The projecc incends co use large-scale speccral-line 
maps of che ISM to scudy gas mocion in scar forming 
regions. These maps will be analyzed by gradienc-ficcing 
and correlation programs and che resulcs compared co exist- 
ing data from computer simulacions. June 8, 1997 chrough 
August 15, 1997. 

Alicia M. Soderberg, Bachelor's Candidace, Baces College. 
High Energy. Parcicipaced in gachering daca and execuced 
subsequenc measuremencs of supernovae brighcness and 
colors. Daca reduction and analysis led to che creacion of 
new poincs on che Hubble diagram. June 9, 1997 chrough 
Augusc 15, 1997. 

Jesse J. Souchwick, Bachelor's Candidace, US. High Ener- 
gy. Invescigacion of che fabricacion and performance of 
new multilayer coacings chac should allow refleccion of 
X-rays up co iookeV. June 9, 1997 chrough Augusc 15, 

1997- 
Jason Wrighc, Bachelor's Candidace, Boscon University. 
High Energy. Scudying images from che X-ray sacellite 
ASCA of che supernova remnanc G299. 9-2.9. From 
chese daca, decermining if G299 is a cencer-filled 
remnanc and scudy ics shrocne. June 9, 1997 through 
Augusc 15, 1997. 



142 



Smithsonian Early Enrichment Center 

Kathleen Y. Chen, High School Student, Walter Johnsen 
High School. Assisting in planning, teaching, and super- 
vising children (4—5); education. June 30, 1997 through 
August 8, 1997. 

Diane Holloway. Relationship between the early years' 
education and museum use. Programming for SEEC tor 
November and December criteria for use both for SEEC 
and home Museum. October 8, 1996 through 
December 17, 1996. 

Smithsonian Environmental Research Center 

Aisha Almond, Bachelor's Candidate, Coppin State College. 
Education. Coordinating and designing a teacher's manual 
for an educational activity on blue crabs. June 2, 1997 
through August 8, 1997. 

Micah O. Almond, Bachelor's Candidate, Virginia Polytech- 
nic and State University. Forest Canopy. Study of the 
footprint of turbulent fluxes and winds measured at a 
single point within the fotest canopy. June 16, 1997 
through August 15, 1997. 

Stacey Bealmear, Second Year, Anne Arundel Community 
College. Carbon Dioxide Lab. A study of the effects of 
rising atmospheric CO : concenttations on the native vegeta- 
tion in a Chesapeake Bay wetland ecosystem. May 22, 1997 
through August 20, 1997. 

Courtenay H. Brown, High School Graduate, University of 
Virginia. C0 2 Lab. Compiling and analyzing data from the 
CO; enrichment experiments on the Rhode River Water- 
shed and at the Kennedy Space Center. June 2, 1997 
through August 15, 1997. 

Anita S. Chapa, Bachelor's Degree, University of Texas, 
Austin. Upland Plant Ecology. Preliminary studies on the 
effects of artificial defoliation of three woodland herbaceous 
species. February 24, 1997 through May 31, 1997. 

Saharah Moon Chapotin, Bachelor's Degree, Stanford. Study 
the effect of springtime ultraviolet radiation on May apple 
plants. January 20, 1997 through May 23, 1997. 

Samantha P. Cotton, Bachelor's Candidate, University of 
Maryland. Education. Coordinating, with another in- 
tern, and designing a teachers manual for an educational 
activity on blue crabs. June 2, 1997 through August 8, 
1997. 

Michelle L. Daley, Bachelor's Degree, University of New 
Hampshire. Wetlands. Examining wetland affects on 
nutrient and pesticide concentrations from agricultural 
runoff". June 9, 1997 through August 29, 1997. 

Suzanne Graham, Bachelor's Candidate, San Diego State 
University. Study of the invasion and impact of nonin- 
digenous marine species associated with powerplants of 
the Chesapeake Bay. May 28, 1997 through September 2, 
1997- 



David Grass, Junior, Middlebury College. Study of the chan- 
ges in the chemical composition of water as it passes into 
and out of a forest ecosystem. September 8, 1997 through 
December 12, 1997. 

Kristin Harderode, Education. Worked on an education 
exhibit about blue crabs and oysters. Assisted with K-6 
environmental programs. March 3, 1997 through June 13, 

1997- 

Megan Kelly, Bachelor's Candidate, University of South 
Carolina. Research. Effect of parasitism on the photoactic 
response of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium sanguineum. 
May 12, 1997 through July 18, 1997. 

Matthew O. Nicklin, Bachelor's Degree. Research. A study of 
the effects of disturbances on nonindigenous species of a 
Chesapeake Bay community. June 16, 1997 through 
September 16, 1997. 

Wendi W. Olson, Bachelor's Degree, Gallaudet University. 
Education/Chemistry. Volunteer — Prepared the solution 
for experiment, collect water sample. March 25, 1997 
through June I, 1997. 

Sara E. Osborn, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Pennsyl- 
vania. Crab Lab. Study the effects of alternative prey species 
on predation rates of Chesapeake blue crabs. May 19, 1997 
through August 15, 1997. 

Mary E. Russ, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Maryland. 
Forest Canopy Lab. Measurement of outer canopy com- 
plexity with helicopter-borne laser altimetry. May 27, 1997 
through August 15, 1997. 

Danielle Sanchez, Bachelot's Candidate, Texas A&M. Predator- 
prey relationships in an estuary environment: effects of 
estuary leeches upon the vulnerability of gtass shrimp to 
predation by fish. May 26, 1997 through August 28, 
1997. 

Paige P. Shelby, Bachelor's Candidate, Dartmouth College. 
Research. A research study examining differences in 
nutrient cycling and allocation patterns (carbon and 
nitrogen) on a bilayer evergreen/deciduous canopy in 
Maryland. June 23, 1997 through August 31, 1997. 

Naomi Skoglund, Bachelor's Candidate, Hampshire College. 
Wetlands. Studying nutrient uptake in a constructed wet- 
land on the Eastern Shore. February 24, 1997 through 
May 31, 1997. 

Masae Ueno, Master's Degree, Utah State University. Educa- 
tion. Constructed Native American sttuctures along the 
Java History Trail. Developed a teachers manual of Native 
American activities for grades K-6 May 5, 1997 through 
August 29, 1997. 

Joan A. West, Bachelot's Candidate, University of Chicago. 
Canopy Research. Effect of the mode of tree death on the 
growth and survival of Beech seedlings. June 23, 1997 
through August 29, 1997. 

Felisa L. Wolfe, Bachelor's Candidate, Obetlin College and 
Conservatory. Host-parasite interactions: early development 
of the parasitic dinoflagellate Amoebophrya ceratii. 
May 26, 1997 through August 29, 1997. 



143 



Smithsonian Institution Libraries 

Rachel Bien, Master's Candidate, University of Maryland at 
College Park. Preservation. Intern in the Preservation Ser- 
vices Department. January 21, 1997 through May 31, 1997. 

Visan Marcela Doina, Master's Degree, University "Babes- 
Bolva" Lluj -Ro. Catalog Department. Overview of the 
Library. Cataloging SIL materials and reviewing cataloging 
methods and tools. March 31, 1997 through May 23, 1997. 

Dagmar Kahler, FHH, FB Bibliothek und Information. 
NMNH Branch. Assisting in the daily routines of the ver- 
tebrate and invertebrate library collections. Working under 
the directory of two senior librarians. Working on special 
collections management projects. Becoming acquainted 
several major non-Smithsonian research libraries. April I, 
1997 through August 31, 1997. 

Julie Monng Bigbee, Master's Degree, University of Oklahoma/ 
Library Science. Anthropology Libraries. Cataloging 
BAE/Library items at the Anthropology Library and 
preserving and caring of archival items in the libtary's 
collection. June 2, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Kaitlin Shinnick, Smith College. Research on the life and 
work of Edward Curtis. September 2, 1997 through 
December 19, 1997. 

Jennifer J. Snyder, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Wis- 
consin at Eau Claire. Museum Reference Center. Updating 
of bibliographies and subject files. Routine library work as 
needed. June 20, 1997 through August 22, 1997. 

Smithsonian Institution Press and Productions 

Sarah Fan, Amherst College. Acquisitions. Various research 
projects on upcoming books. June 23, 1997 through August 

22, 1997- 
David Konschnik, Bachelor's Candidate, Columbia Univer- 
sity. Productions. Logging and dubbing videos, learning to 
use editing equipment, and production process. May 19, 
1997 through September I, 1997. 

Smithsonian Institution Retail 

Cesar M. Bocachica, Bachelor's Candidate, Collegio Mayaguer, 
UPR. Museum Shops. Spread sheet analysis of marketing 
for Museum shops. June 2, 1997 through August 8, 1997. 

Kazuharu Ishida, Master's Degree, Graduate School of Media 
and Government, Keio University. Mail Order Division. 
Review and prepare analysis of nonprofit direct mail busi- 
ness. Study customers. January 21, 1997 through March 29, 
1997- 

Smithsonian Office of Education 

Patricia M. Brunetto, Bachelor's Degree, University of Albany 
at New York. Summer Seminars. An external evaluator for 



selected courses in the summer seminars for teachers. June 
16, 1997 through August 9, 1997. 

Karen Buchholz, Bachelor's Candidate, Marburg University/ 
Bridgewater College. Serve as a team member on a variety 
of tasks that will draw upon the intern's interest in educa- 
tion, particularly in adult education. Plan seminar courses 
for teachers, prepare a survey to gather data about teacher's 
needs, plan a mini-exhibition for a museum school. 
February 3, 1997 through February 28, 1997. 

Betsy Burr, Western Washington University. Wider Audience 
Development Program. Assisting with the "Teachers Night 
at the Smithsonian." June 23, 1997 through September 12, 

1997- 

S. Sita Gyan-Gorski, Master's Degree, University of Western 
Florida. Education. Helping to develop materials to bridge 
Smithsonian Office of Education and che Museum Magnet 
School, and collaborate on museum-based project that 
involves community resources, parental involvement, and 
student-directed learnings. April I, 1997 through 
August 31, 1997. 

Jessica Wright, Bachelor's Candidate, College of William and 
Mary. School Partnership. Assisting in the research and 
design of discovery boxes for the Smithsonian Office of 
Education in partnership with the Brent Museum Magnet 
Elementary School. June 10, 1997 through August 5, 1997. 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

Ariadne Angulo, Ph.D. Candidare, University of Toronto. 
Work on Tungara project with Drs. Stanley Rand and Mike 
Ryan. May 15, 1997 through July 15, 1997. 

Daniel Colon, BA, Harvard University. Smith-INRENARE- 
USAID. Study on forest usage by different ethnic groups in 
the watershed of the Canal, with a special emphasis on the 
usage of medicinal plants. June 23, 1997 through August 
20, 1997. 

Liliana Ferrari, Licenciada, Fundacion Miguel Lillo. Work on 
"Tungara Frogs" project with Stanley Rand and Mike Ryan. 
May 15, 1997 through July 15, 1997. 

Maribel Gonzalez Torres. DNA variation on highland and 
lowland avian species complexes: two Panamanian case 
studies. November 8, 1997 through November 8, 1998. 

Sasha Silver, Bachelor's Degree, Princeton University. Fellow- 
ship. October 1, 1996 through September 30, 1997. 

Anjali Deshmukh, High School Graduate. Smithsonian Study 
Tours. July 7, 1997 through August 22, 1997. 

The Smithsonian Associates 

Elizabeth Garvey, Bachelor's Candidate, University of 
Michigan. Coordinating the Young Benefactors' Annual 
meeting and Gala and Silent Auction. June 2, 1997 through 
August 9, 1997. 

Charles Mastropietro, Bachelor's Candidate, Ringling School 
of Art and Design. Film Programming. Programming the 



144 



Animation/Film Studies series. Working on the Photog- 
raphy and Discovery Theater areas for The Associate. May 5, 
1997 through July 5, 1997. 

Catherine Roan, High School Graduate, Winston Churchill 
High School. Database work. June 18, 1997 through July 25, 
1997. 

Jon Sandstrom, Bachelor's Candidate, University of Virginia. 
Travel tours and programs. Development of programs, 
projects for the winter and spring tours for the team of 
Binney Levine at TSA programming. June 5, 1997 through 
July 18, 1997. 

Lynly Schroeder, Bachelor's Degree, The College of William 
and Mary. Smithsonian Study Tours. Provide support to 



U.S. and Canada Study Tours through phone calls to con- 
firm sites, meals, vendors' editing catalogue copy, and tour bul- 
letins; research for tour destinations and photos to be used in 
catalog; typing purchase orders; preparing staff representative 
notebooks; ordering books from publishers; revising 
itineraries; etc. June 2, 1997 through September 5, 1997. 
Elizabeth Stranges, Bachelor's Candidate, University of 

Maryland. Young Associates. Oversight for the daily opera- 
tion of the Smithsonian Summer Camp for students ages 4- 
13, including the coordinating of forms, youth teacher 
assistants schedules, off-site field trips, and speakers, as well 
as supervising the campers during lunch and drop-off/pick- 
up. June 16, 1997 through August 15, 1997. 



Research Associates 

Research Associates status is conferred by the Directors of Museums, Re- 
search Institutes, and Offices on individuals from outside the Institution 
who are conducting ongoing research in which the Smithsonian has collec- 
tions or expertise. Research Associates are granted access to the Institution's 
facilities and reference resources and often consult or collaborate with Smith- 
sonian researchers. Most appointments of Research Associates are for a dura- 
tion of three years and are renewable. The following is a list of individuals 
who held the title of Research Associate during fiscal year 1997. 



Center for Folk life 
Programs and Cultural 
Studies 



Mr. Kenneth Bilby 



National Air and Space 
Museum 

Dt. John R. Breihan 

Dr. Tsevi Mazeh 

Dr. Vladimir Strelnitski 



Conservation Analytical 

Laboratory National Museum of 

African Art 

Ms. Jacqueline S. Olin 

Dr. Labelle Pmssin 

Freer Gallery of Art I 

Arthur M. Sackler Gallery National Museum of 



Dr. Esin Atil 

Mr. W. Thomas Chase 

Ms. Elisabeth West Fitzhugh 

Mrs. Mary S. Slusser 



American Art 



Dr. Wanda M. Corn 
Dr. Charles C. Eldredge 



National Museum of 
Natural History 

Department of Anthropology 

Dr. Tamara L. Bray 

Dr. Alison S. Brooks 

Mr. Roger H. Colten 

Dr. Anita G. Cook 

Dr. Karen Marie Dohm 

Dr. Jean-Paul Dumont 

Dr. Gillian Feeley-Harnik 

Dr. Ann Fienup-Riordan 

Dr. Catherine S. Fowler 

Dr. George C. Frison 

Dr. Joan M. Gero 

Dr. James Lowell Gibbs, Jr. 

Dr. Diane Patrice Gifford-Gonzalez 

Dr. James B. Griffin 

Mr. Norman Hallendy 

Dr. Kris L. Hardin 

Dr. Catherine A. Hawks 

Dr. Charlene James-Duguid 

Dr. Richard T Koritzer 

Mr. Edgardo Krebs 

Dr. Joel C. Kuipers 

Dr. H. Leedom Lefferts 

Dr. Bonnie S. Magnes-Gardiner 

Dr. Sally McLendon 

Dr. Berry J. Meggers 

Dr. Margareta Musilova 

Dr. Christopher Nagle 

Dr. Bruce D. Ragsdale 

Dr. Robert G. Schmidt 

Dr. Douglas Siegel-Causey 

Dr. Kenyan G. Tomaselli 

Dr. John W. Verano 

Dr. Frederick A. Winter 

Dr. John E. Yellen 



I4> 



Office of Biodiversity Programs 
Dr. Claude Gascon 

Department of Botany 

Dr. Patrick Herendeen 
Dr. Merideth Anne Lane 
Dr. Elberr L. Little 
Dr. Diane S. Littler 
Dr. Alicia Lourteig 
Dr. Mark Plotkin 
Dr. Robert J. Soreng 
Dr. Basil Stergios 
Dr. Anna L. Weitzman 

Department of Entomology 

Dr. David Adamski 

Dr. Joachim Adis 

Dr. David H. Ahrenholz 

Dr. Annette Aiello 

Dr. Vitor O. Becker 

Dr. William E. Bickley 

Dr. Andrew Van Zandt Brower 

Mr. Robert C. Busby 

Dr. Astrid Caldas 

Mr. Curtis J. Callaghan 

Dr. Robert W. Carlson 

Dr. Gabriela Chavarria 

Dr. Gregory W. Courtney 

Dr. Eduardo Dominguez 

Dr. Lance Durden 

Dr. Robert L. Edwards 

Dr. Neal L. Evenhuis 

Mr. John Fales 

Dr. Douglas C. Ferguson 

Dr. Adrian B. Forsyth 

Dr. Amnon Freidberg 

Dr. Raymond G. Gagne 

Dr. E. Eric Grissell 

Dr. Ralph E. Harbach 

Dr. Michael W. Hastriter 

Dr. Thomas J. Henry 

Dr. Ronald W. Hodges 

Dr. Gustavo Hormiga 

Dr. George O. Krizek 

Dr. Gerardo Lamas 

Dr. Bette Loiselle 

Dr. Arnold S. Menke 

Dr. Douglass R. Miller 

Dr. Scott E. Miller 

Dr. Charles Mitter 

Dr. Steve Nakahara 

Dr. David A. Nickle 



Dr. Allen L. Norrbom 
Dr. Paul A. Opler 
Mr. Enrique G. Ortiz 
Dr. James Pakaluk 
Dr. John T. Polhemus 
Dr. Patricia Gentili Poole 
Mr. Curtis Sabrosky 
Dr. Nikolaj Scharff 
Dr. Michael E. Schauff 
Dr. Jeffrey W. Shukz 
Dr. Robert L. Smiley 
Dr. David R. Smith 
Dr. M. Alma Solis 
Dr. Felix A.H. Sperling 
Dr. Manya B. Stoetzel 
Dr. F. C. Thompson 
Dr. Robert Traub 
Dr. Natalia J. Vandenberg 
Dr. Richard E. White 
Dr. Norman E. Woodley 

Department of Invertebrate Zoology 

Dr. G. Denton Belk 

Dr. Barbara Best 

Dr. Darryl L. Felder 

Dr. Mark J. Grygier 

Dr. John R. Holsinger 

Dr. E. Taisoo Park 

Mr. Richard E. Petit 

Dr. Marjorie L. Reaka-Kudla 

Dr. Janet W. Reid 

Dr. Edward E. Ruppert 

Office of Exhibits 
Prof. Franz Zeithammer 

Department of Paleobiology 

Dr. William I. Ausich 

Dr. Raymond L. Bernor 

Dr. Annalisa Berta 

Dr. Robyn Burnham 

Dr. Zhongyuan Chen 

Dr. James M. Clark 

Dr. Stephen J. Culver 

Dr. John D. Damuth, Jr. 

Dr. Katherine Sian Davies-Vollum 

Dr. Daryl P. Domning 

Dr. J. Thomas Dutro, Jr. 

Dr. Ralph E. Eshelman 

Dr. Jerzy Fedorowski 

Dr. Thomas G. Gibson 

Dr. Michael D. Gottfried 

Dr. Rex Alan Hanger 



Dr. Robert W. Hook 

Dr. Carol L. Hotton 

Dr. Nigel Hughes 

Dr. Scott E. Ishman 

Dr. Thomas W Kammer 

Dr. Carl F. Koch 

Dr. Christopher G. Maples 

Dr. Jerry N. McDonald 

Dr. Herbert W. Meyer 

Dr. Robert B. Neuman 

Dr. William A. Oliver Jr. 

Dr. Lisa E. Osterman 

Dr. John Pojeta.Jr. 

Dr. Louis J. Pnbyl.Jr. 

Dr. Kenneth D. Rose 

Dr. William J. Sando 

Dr. Judith Skog 

Dr. Anthony Socci 

Dr. I. Gregory Sohn 

Dr. Hans-Dieter Sues 

Dr. Kammer W. Thomas 

Dr. Joshua I. Tracey 

Dr. James W. Valentine 

Dr. Andrew G. Warne 

Dr. David Bruce Weishampel 

Dr. Frank C. Whitmore 

Dr. Keddy Yemane 

Dr. Ellis L. Yochelson 

Department of Vertebrate Zoology 

Dr. Ronald Altig 
Dr. Aaron Matthew Bauer 
Mr. Bruce M. Beehler 
Dr. Eleanor D. Brown 
Dr. John R. Burns 
Dr. John E. Cadle 
Dr. Philip J. Clapham 
Dr. Rafael O. De Sa 
Dr. C. Kenneth Dodd, Jr. 
Dr. Andrezej Elzanowski 
Dr. Louise H. Emmons 
Dr. Robert Ewan Fordyce 
Dr. Thomas H. Fritts 
Dr. Alfred L. Gardner 
Dr. J. Whitfield Gibbons 
Dr. David A. Good 
Dr. Harry J. Grier 
Dr. Lester A. Hart 
Dr. Lawrence R. Heaney 
Dr. Richard Highton 
Dr. Aleta Hohn 
Mr. Ivan Ineich 
Mr. Morton L. Isler 
Mrs. Phyllis R. Isler 



146 



Dr. Elisabeth Kalko 

Dr. Roy K. Kropp 

his.. Roxie C. Laybourne 

Dr. Bradley C. Livezey 

Dr. Jonathan B. Losos 

Dr. Linda E. Resnik Maxson 

Mr. Roy W. McDiarmid 

Mr. Joseph C. Mtchell 

Dr. Molly R. Morns 

Dr. Thomas A. Munroe 

Dr. Guy G. Musser 

Dr. Hidetoshi Ota 

Dr. William Perrin 

Mr. Gregory K. Pregill 

Dr. John E. Randall 

Hon. S. Dillon Ripley, II 

Dr. Teresa K. Rowles 

Dr. Elizabeth Anne Schreiber 

Dr. Norman J. Scott, Jr. 

Dr. Jiakun Song 

Mr. Wayne C. Starnes 

Dr. David L. Stein 

Mr. Ian R. Swingland 

Dr. Merrill Varn 

Mr. Richard J. Wassersug 

Mrs. Marilyn J. Weirzman 



National Zoological Park 



Biological Programs 

Dr. Ann P. Beyers 
Dr. Karen L. Goodrowe 
Dr. Mary M. Hagedom 
Dr. Stephen J. O'Brien 
Dr. Nancy Cameron Pratt 
Dr. William F. Rail 
Dr. Mitchel Schiewe 
Dr. Samuel K. Wasser 



Dr. Deborah Caldwell Hahn 

Dr. Yadvendradev Jhala 

Dr. William R. Lance 

Dr. Mary Victoria McDonald 

Dr. Charles W. McDougal 

Dr. Jill D.Mellon 

Dr. Brian Miller 

Dr. Illar Muul 

Dr. Terry Phillips 

Dr. Edward D. Plotka 

Dr. Jorge Humberto Vega Rivera 

Dr. Terry Lynn Roth 

Dr. George Schwede 

Dr. Bridget Joan Stutchbury 

Dr. Michael Stuwe 

Dr. Richard H. Wagner 

Dr. Per Wegge 

Dr. Paul J. Weldon 

Dr. Pan Wenshi 

Dr. Nadja Wielebnowski 

Dr. Kevin Winker 

Department of Zoological Research 

Dr. John M. Francis 
Dr. David W.Johnston 

Department of Herpetology 

Dr. James B. Murphy 
Interpretive Programs 
Dr. Judy M. Manning 



Office of the Provost 



Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory 



Dr. Wilton S. Dillon 



Dr. Alastair Cameron 
Dr. Alyssa Goodman 
Dr. Josh Grindlay 
Dr. Robert Kirshner 
Dr. Chris Kochanek 
Dr. Avi Loeb 
Dr. Jane Luu 
Dr. Ramesh Narayan 
Dr. William Press 



Smithsonian Tropical 
Research Institute 



Dr. Tomas Arias 

Dr. Hector Barrios 

Dr. Mary Alice Coffroth 

Dr. Laurel Collins 

Dr. Nicholas Georgiadis 

Dr. Gregory S. Gilbert 

Dr. Mahabir Gupta 

Dr. Roberto Ibanez 

Dr. Jorge Illueca 

Dr. Peter Jung 

Dr. Howard R. Lasker 

Dr. Steve Mulkey 

Dr. Diomedes Quintero 

Dr. Robert E. Ricklefs 

Dr. Tyson Roberts 

Dr. Michael Ryan 

Dr. Hans-Ulnch Schnitzler 

Dr. Robert F. Stallard 

Dr. Henry Stockwell 

Dr. Melvin Tyree 



Conservation Research Center 

Dr. Steven R. Beissinger 

Dr. Joel Berger 

Dr. Sue A. Ellis 

Dr. Richard Despard Estes 

Dr. John Gordon Frazier 

Dr. Martha S. Fujita 



Office of the Smithsonian 
Institution Archives 



Joseph Henry Papers 
Dr. Albert E. Moyer 



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Publications of the 
Smithsonian 
Institution Press in 
Fiscal Year 1997 



During fiscal year 1997, the Smichsonian Institution 
Press released more than 70 publications, including 
trade books, exhibition catalogs, monographs, museum 
guides, and sound recordings. The most important are 
listed below. 

University Press 

Beebe, Reta. Jupiter: The Giant Planet. 2d ed. 

Beidelman, T. O. The Cool Knife: Imagery of Gender, Sexuality. 

and Moral Education in Kaguru Initiation Ritual. 
Bonar, Eulalie H., ed. Woven by the Grandmothers: Nineteenth- 
Century Navajo Textiles from the National Museum of the 

American Indian. 
Cassidy, Donna M. Painting the Musical City: Jazz and Cultural 

Identity in American Art. ipio-ip40. 
Cullen, Jim. The Civil War in Popular Culture: A Reusable Past. 

(pbk.) 
Curtis, L. Perry, Jr. Apes and Angels: The Irishman in Victorian 

Caricature. Rev. ed. 
Delano, Jack. Photographic Memories: The Autobiography of Jack 

Delano. 
de Oliveira, Nicholas, Nicola Oxley, and Michael Perry, with 

rexts by Michael Archer. Installation Art. (pbk.) 
Dierikx, Marc. Fokker: A Transatlantic Biography. 
Dillehay, Tom D. Monte Verde: A Late Pleistocene Settlement in 

Chile. Vol. 2: The Archaeological Context and Interpretation. 
Dilworth, Leah. Imagining Indians in the Southwest: Persistent 

Visions of a Primitive Past. 
Elias, Scott A. The Ice-Age History of Southwestern National 

Parks. 
Ernst, Carl H., and George R. Zug. Illustrations by Molly 

Dwyer Griffin. Snakes in Question: The Smithsonian Answer 

Book. 
Foresta, Merry A. American Photographs: The First Century. 



Fuller, Kathryn H. At the Picture Show: Small-Town Audiences 

and the Creation of Movie Fan Culture. 
Garland, MarkS. Illustrations by John Anderton. Watching 

Nature: A Mid-Atlantic Natural History. 
Goddard, Ives, ed. Languages. Vol. 17: Handbook of North 

American Indians. 
Goodman, Steven M., and Bruce D. Patterson, eds. Natural 

Change and Human Impact in Madagascar. 
Grier, Katherine C. Culture and Comfort: Parlor Making and 

Middle-Class Identity, 1850-1930. 
Haddow, Robert H. Pavilions of Plenty: Exhibiting American 

Culture Abroad in the ipsos. 
Helfgott, Leonard M. Ties That Bind: A Social History of the 

Iranian Carpet, (pbk.) 
Henderson, Amy, and Adrienne L. Kaeppler. Exhibiting 

Dilemmas: Issues of Representation at the Smithsonian. 
Hilden, Patricia Penn. When Nickels Were Indians: An Urban, 

Mixed-Blood Story, (pbk.) 
Jakab, Peter L. Visions of a Flying Machine: The Wright Brothers 

and the Process of Invention, (pbk.) 
Johnsgard, Paul A. The Hummingbirds of North America. 2d ed. 
Kenrick, Paul, and Peter R. Crane. The Origin and Early Diver- 
sification of Land Plants: A Cladistic Study. 
Kerber, L. L. Von Hardesty, ed. Stalin's Aviation Gulag: A 

Memoir of A ndrei Tupolev and the Purge Era. 
Kinsey, Joni L. Plain Pictures: Images of the American Prairie. 
Kohl, Michael E, and John S. Mcintosh, eds. Discovering 

Dinosaurs in the Old West: The Field Journals of Arthur Lakes. 
Kramer, Carol. Pottery in Rajasthan: Ethnoarchaeology in Two In- 
dian Cities. 
Lavenda, Robert H. Photographs by Ronald M. Schmid. 

Corn Fests and Water Carnivals: Celebrating Community in 

Minnesota. 
Manrhorne, Katherine E., with John W. Coffey. The Landscapes 

of Louis Remy Mignot. 
Marquardt, Virginia Hagelstein, ed. Survivor from a Dead Age: 

The Memoirs of Louis Lozowick. 
McNutt, John, and Lesley P. Boggs. Photographs by Helene 

Heldring and Dave Hamman. Running Wild: Dispelling the 

Myths of the African Wild Dog. 
McShea, William J., H. Brian Underwood, and John H. Rap- 
pole. The Science of Overabundance: Deer Ecology and Population 

Management. 
Morse, Don F. Sloan: A Paleoindian Dalton Cemetery in Arkansas. 
Moser, Joanne. Singular Impressions: The Monotype in America. 
Murdy, Edward O., Ray S. Birdsong, and John A. Musick. 

Fishes of Chesapeake Bay. 
Norton, Bryan G., Michael Hutchins, Elizabeth F. Stevens, 

and Terry L. Maple, eds. Ethics on the Ark: Zoos, Animal Wel- 
fare, and Wildlife Conservation, (pbk.) 
Owen, Kenneth. Concorde and the Americans: International 

Politics of the Supersonic Transport. 
Pattie, Susan Paul. Faith in History: Armenians Building 

Community. 
Rich, Doris L. Amelia Earhart: A Biography, (pbk.) 



158 



Roberts, Lisa C. From Knowledge to Narrative: Educators and the 

Changing Museum. 
Robinson, Susan Barnes, and John Pirog. Mabel Dwight: A 

Catalogue Raisonne of the Lithographs. 
Samuel, Lawrence R. Pledging Allegiance: American Identity and 

the Bond Drive of World War II. 
Smulyan, Susan. Selling Radio: The Commercialization of 

American Broadcasting. 1920—1934. (pbk.) 
Spudis, Paul D. The Once and Future Moon. 
Whittington, Stephen L., and David M. Reed, eds. Bones of the 

Maya: Studies of Ancient Skeletons. 
Wilson, Don E. Photographs by Merlin D. Turtle. Bats in 

Question: The Smithsonian Answer Book. 
Wilson, Don E., and Abelardo Sandoval. Manu: The Biodiversity 

of Southeastern Peru. 
Wright, Helena E. Prints at the Smithsonian: The Origins of a 

National Collection. 

Smithsonian Collection of Recordings 

Hot Jazz on Blue Note 
Star-Spangled Rhythm 

Federal Series Publications 
Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology 

40. William L. Merrill, Marian Kaulaity Hansson, Candace S. 
Greene, and Frederick J. Reuss. "A Guide to the Kiowa 
Collections at the Smithsonian Institution." 443 pages, 129 
figures, frontispiece. 28 February 1997. 

41. Douglas H. Ubelaker. "Skeletal Biology of Human 
Remains from La Tolita, Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador." 53 
pages, 28 figures, 31 tables. 15 May 1997. 

Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 

84. Lars Peter Kvist and Laurence E. Skog. "Revision oiPear- 
cea (Gesneriaceae)." 47 pages, 22 figures, I table. 5 Decem- 
ber 1996. 



Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 

83. Porter M. Kier. "Oligocene Echinoids of North Carolina." 
37 pages, 6 figures, II plates, 2 tables. 6 May 1997. 

84. James C. Tyler and Alexandre F. Bannikov. "Relationships 
of the Fossil and Recent Genera of Rabbitfishes (Acan- 
thuroidei: Siganidae)." 35 pages, 21 figures, I table. 2 Sep- 
tember 1997. 

Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 

581. Marian H. Pettibone. "Revision of the Sigalionid Species 
(Polychaeta) Referred to Psammolyce Kinberg, 1856, 
Pelogenia Schmarda, 1861, and Belonging to the Subfamily 
Pelogeniinae Chamberlin, 1919. 89 pages, 60 figures. 13 
March 1997. 

582. Marc E. Epstein. "Revision and Phylogeny of the 
Limacodid-Group Families, with Evolutionary Studies on 
Slug Caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea)." 102 pages, 
409 figures, 7 tables. 3 October 1996. 

584. Wayne N. Mathis and Lorenzo Munari. "World Catalog 
of the Family Tethinidae (Diptera)." 27 pages, frontispiece. 
22 November 1996. 

585. Charles L. Staines and Susan L. Staines. "Type Specimens 
of Hispinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the National 
Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution." 25 
pages. 16 June 1997. 

587. Fenner A. Chace, Jr. "The Caridean Shrimps (Crustacea: 
Decapoda) of the Albatross Philippine Expedition, 1907— 
1910, Part 7: Families Atyidae, Eugonatonotidae, 
Rhynchocinetidae, Bathypalaemonellidae, Processidae, and 
Hippolytidae." 10S pages, 29 figures. 15 September 1997. 

588. Louis S. Kornicker and Douglas J. Barr. "Anchialme 
Ostracoda (Halocyprididae) from San Salvador, Bahamas." 
20 pages, 11 figures, 3 tables. 24 February 1997. 

589. Victor G. Springer and M. Eric Anderson. "Catalog of 
Type Specimens of Recent Fishes in the National Museum 
of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 8: Suborder 
Zoarcoidei (Anarhichadidae, Bathymastendae, Pholidae, 
Ptilichthyidae, Scytalinidae, Stichaeidae, Zoarcidae)." 27 
pages, 2 figures. 24 July 1997. 



Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences 



Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology 



37. Daniel Jean Stanley, James E. McRea, Jr., and John C. 
Waldron. "Nile Delta Drill Core and Sample Database for 
1985-1994: Mediterranean Basin (MEDIBA) Program." 428 
pages, 10 figures, 2 tables. 6 December 1996. 



52. Grace Cohen Grossman, with Richard Eighme Ahlborn. 
"Judaica at the Smithsonian: Cultural Politics as Cultural 
Model." 252 pages, 70 color figures, 72 black and white 
figures. 21 March 1997. 



159 



Publications of the 
Staff of the Smithsonian 
Institution and Its 
Subsidiaries in Fiscal 
Year 1997 



Anacostia Museum and Center for 
African American History and Culture 



James, Portia. "Changing Role of the Curator." MAAM 
Forum. June 1997. 

. "Community-based Research for Exhibition 

Development." Paper presented at the meeting of the 
American Association of Museums, January 27—28, 1997. 

Willis, Deborah. "The Image of Paul Robeson." In Jeffrey C. 
Stewart, ed., Paul Robeson: Artist and Citizen. New 
Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1997. 

. In Search of Balance: The Artist Scholar. Washington, 

D.C.: Smithsonian Institution/Anacostia Museum and 
Center for African American History and Culture, 1997. 

. Life on the Road: The Photographs of Milt Hinton. 



Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997. 
Willis, Deborah and Cottman, Michael. The Family of Black 

America. New York: Crown Publishers, 1996. 
Willis, Deborah and Lusaka, Jane, eds. Visual Journal: 

Photography in Harlem and DC in the Thirties and Forties. 

Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996. 



Archives of American Art 



Office of the Director 

Grant, Susan. Paris: A Guide to Archival Sources for American 
Art History. Washington, DC: Archives of American Art, 
Smithsonian Institution, 1997. 



Malloy, Nancy and Catherine Stover. A Finding Aid to the 
Walter Pach Papers. Washington, D.C.: Archives of 
American Art, Smithsonian Institution, 1997. 

Southeast Regional Collector 

Kirwin, Liza. Lecture. "Advertisements and the Construction 
of the East Village Art Scene in Mass Art Magazines, 
1981-1987," College Art Association annual conference, 
New York, February 15, 1997. 

. Gallery talk. "Homage to a Still Life by Carlos 

Almaraz," National Museum of American Art, March 19, 

1997- 
. Lecture. "The Neo-Bohemians: East Village Artists 



Ten Years After," Oral History Association annual meeting, 
New Orleans, September 25, 1997. 



West Coast Regional Center 

Karlstrom, Paul J., Panelist, "A Painter's Paradise," Santa 
Barbara Museum of Art, Santa Barbara, CA, January 1997. 

■ — . Lecture. "American Popular Culture," National 

Gallery of Australia, Canberra, Australia, March 1997. 

. Keynote speaker. "American Popular Culture and its 



Impact Abroad," American Studies Association annual 
meeting, Taipei, Taiwan, June 1997. 
. Lecture. "American Popular Culture and its Impact 



Abroad," National College of the Arts, Tianan, Taiwan, 
June 1997. 
. Radio interview. "Arts Today" program, Australian 



Broadcast Corp., Canberra, Australia, live from San 
Francisco, CA, March 1997. 
. Radio interview. "Arts Today" program, Australian 



Broadcast Corporation, Melbourne, Australia, March 1997. 
. Lecture. "Bohemianism and the Arts," Oral History 



Association annual meeting, New Orleans, LA, September 

1997- 
. Lecture. "California Art and Culture and their 



Influence on Popular Culture in the U.S.," University of 
Canberra Convocation, Australia, March 1997. 
. Lecture. "California Artists: On the Edge of 



America," The Snite Museum of Art, University of Notre 
Dame, WI, April 1997. 
. Lecture. "History is in the Details," Art Gallery of 



New South Wales, Australia, March 1997. 
. Lecture. "History is in the Details," Customs House 



Gallery, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 
March 1997. 
. Panelist. "Mexico, Muralism and Modernism in 



Northern California," Mexican Masterpieces Conference, 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art, CA, January 1998. 

. Lecture. "On the Edge of America: California Art 



and Popular Culture," Power Institute of Fine Arts, 
University of Sydney, Australia, March 1997. 
. Lecture. "On the Edge of America: California 



Modernist Art and Culture," Victorian School of the Arts, 
Melbourne, Australia, March 1997. 



160 



. Lecture. "On the Edge of America: Modernist Art in 

California and a Sense of Place," Museum of Fine Arts, St. 
Petersburg, FL, December 1996. 

. Lecture. "Oral History at the Archives of American 



Art," Southwest Oral History Association annual meeting, 
Pasadena, CA, April 1997. 
. Lecture. "The Impact of American Popular Culture 



on the West," The Sydney Institute, Sydney, Australia, 
March 1997. 
. Lecture. "The Other Side of Light: Pans, Symbolism, 



Monsters, and American Art," Queensland Art Gallery, 
Brisbane, Australia, March 1997. 
. Article. "Tribute to George Tsutakawa (1910-1997)," 



International Examiner. Seattle, WA, January 1998. 

New York Regional Center 

Polcari, Stephen, Article. "Houston Mark Rothko," The 
Burlington Magazine CXXXIX #1132 (July l997):5O5~507. 

. Lecture. "The Ethos of Force, Power, and Violence: 

War Survivals in Domestic Culture in the Late 1940s and 
1950s," Colloquium on Vital Forms/Visual Arts in America, 
1940— 1960, The Brooklyn Museum, April 1997. 

. Lecture. "Jackson Pollock and the Historiography of 



the 'Unconscious'," Pollock Colloquium, The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, May 1997. 
Polcari, Stephen and Sims, Lowery, Catalogue. Richard 
Pousette-Dart (ipi6-ipp2). Metropolitan Museum of Art, 
New York, 1997. 



Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. 
Sackler Gallery 

Office of the Director 

Beach, Milo C, and Ebba Koch. King of the World: The 

Padshahnama, An Imperial Manuscript from the Royal Library, 
Windsor Castle. London and Washington, D.C.: Azimuth 
Editions and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian 
Institution, 1997. 

Bliss, Susan. "The Freer Gallery of Art." In The Art of 
Affluence, 79—83. Hong Kong: Edinburgh Financial 
Publishing (Asia), 1997. 

Research and Collections Division 

Con, Louise Allison. "Vietnamese Ceramics in Japanese 

Contexts." In Vietnamese Ceramics: A Separate Tradition. 

Edited by John Stevenson and John Guy. Chicago: Art 

Media Resources, 1997. 
. "Twentieth-century Asian Crafts in the Sackler 

Gallery." Oriental Art 43, no. 3 (autumn 1997) 18—24. 



. "Asian Ancestors." In Mark Hewitt: Potter. Raleigh, 

N.C.: Visual Arts Center, North Carolina State University, 
1997- 

. "Art in the Hollow of the Hand." In Ceramics by 



Fance Franck. St. Petersburg, Russia: The State Hermitage 

Museum, 1996. 
Dehejia, Vidya J. Discourse in Early Buddhist Art: Visual 

Narratives of India. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal 

Publishers, 1997. 
. "The Dominance of Space Over Time in India's 

Visual Narratives." In Paradigms of Indian Architecture: Space 

and Time in Representation and Design. SO AS Collected 

Papers on South Asia 13. Edited by G. Tillotson. London: 

Curzon Press, 1997. 
, ed. Representing the Body: Gender Issues in Indian Art. 



New Delhi: Kali for Women, 1997. 

Douglas, Janet G. "The Study of Chinese Archaic Jades using 
Non-destructive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy." Acta 
Geologica Taiwanica 32 (i996):43— 54. 

Janet G. Douglas, and Chase, W. Thomas. "Technical Studies and 
Metal Compositional Analyses of Bronzes of the Eastern 
Eurasian Steppes from the Arthur M. Sackler Collections," 
Appendix II, 306—18. In Emma C. Bunker, Ancient Bronzes of 
the Eastern Eurasian Steppes from the Arthur M, Sackler Collections. 
New York: Arthur M. Sackler Foundation, 1997. 

Douglas, Janet G., Hsien Ho Tsien, and Li-Ping Tan. 
"Geology of Tremolite Rock and Petrofabrics of Archaic 
Chinese Yu." Acta Geologica Taiwanica 32 (l996):85— 101. 

Farhad, Massumeh. "Arts of the Islamic World at the Sackler." 
Oriental Art 43, no. 3 (autumn I997):42— 47. 

Gunter, Ann C. Entries for Abydos, Anatolia, 

Antioch-on-the-Orontes, Aphrodisias, Aspendos, Assos, 
Didyma, Elmali, Gordion, Great Altar at Pergamon, 
Halikarnassos, Miletos, Pergamon, Perge, Sardis, Troy, and 
Xanrhos. In An Encyclopedia of the History of Classical 
Archaeology, Edited by Nancy de Grummond, Westport, 
Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996. 

. "Ancient Anatolia." In Encyclopedia of Near Eastern 

Archaeology, 127—31, edited by Eric M. Meyers et al. New 
York: American Schools of Oriental Research and Oxford 
University Press, 1997. 

. "A Collection of Ancient Iranian Ceramics." Oriental 



Art 43, no 3 (autumn I997):25~30. 

Jett, Paul. Book review of The Materials of Sculpture and The 
Technique of Greek Bronze Statuary. Journal of the American 
Institute for Conservation 35, no. I (l996):65— 66. 

Lentz, Thomas W. "The First Ten Years and the Next Ten 
Years." Oriental Art 43, no 3 (autumn I997):2— 8. 

Merrill, Linda. "James McNeill Whistler as Decorator." In 
Encyclopedia of Interior Design, 1382—83. Edited by Joanna 
Banham, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997. 

So, Jenny F. Contributor to sections on Chinese bronzes, 
mirrors, jade carvings, and belthooks, as well as Korean 
mirrors. In The Dictionary of Art. New York: Grove's 
Dictionaries, 1996. 



161 



. Addendum to "A Hongshan Jade Pendant in the 

Freer Gallery of Art." Originally published in Orientations 
(May 1993), 171. Hong Kong: Orientations Publications, 

1997- 
. "The Ornamented Belr in China." Orientations 



(March l997):70-79. 

Stuart, Jan. "Where Chinese Art Stands: A History of Display 
Pedestals for Rocks." In Worlds Within Worlds: Chinese 
Scholars' Rocks. 85-108. Edited by Robert Mowry, 
Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Universiry Art Museums, 1997. 

. "Calling Back the Ancestor's Shadow: Chinese 

Commemorative and Ritual Portraits." Oriental Art 43, no 3 
(autumn I997):8-I7. 

, Review of Fruitful Sites: Garden Culture in Ming 



Dynasty China by Craig Clunas. China Quarterly 148 

(December I996):I393— 95. 
Winter, John. "Ink: I. Types and Properties; II. Uses: III. 

Conservation," Vol. 15, 849—56: and "Japan: VI. Painting; I. 

Materials and Techniques," Vol. 17, 139—420. In The 

Dictionary of Art. New York: Grove's Dictionaries, 1996. 
. "Gamboge." In Artists' Pigments, a Handbook of Their 

History and Characteristics. Vol. 3, 143—55. Washington, 

D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1997. 
Winter, John, Christopher A. Maines and James H. Dickerson 

II. "Applications of Image Processing and Analysis in 

Research on Works of Art." In Imaging the Past: Electronic 

Imaging and Computer Graphics in Museums and Archaeology. 

Occasional paper no 114. British Museum, London 

(i99(5):35-48. 
Winter, John, and Helmut Schweppe. "Madder and Alizarin." 

In Artists' Pigments, a Handbook of Their History and 

Characteristics, Vol. 3, 109-42. Washington, D.C.: National 

Gallery of Art, 1997. 
Yonemura, Ann. "Beyond the Brush: Japanese Prints, Paper 

Works and Photographs." Oriental Art 43, no. 3 (autumn 

I997):3i-4i. 
. "The Art of Calligraphy and the Wakan rCei shd." In 

Japanese and Chinese Poems to Sing: The Wakan rC^ei sha, 

260-70. Edited and translated by J. Thomas Rimer and 

Jonathan Chaves. New York: Columbia University Press, 

1997- 



Center for Folklife Programs and 
Cultural Studies 

Printed Materials 

Belanus, Betty J. and Nomvula Mashoai Cook. "A Taste of 
Home: African Immigrant Foodways." In Festival of 
American Folklife Program Book, edited by Carla M. Borden, 
51—53. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. 



Belanus, Betty J., and Diana Baird N'Diaye. "African 

Immigrant Folklife: Building and Bridging Communities." 

Smithsonian Talk Story (11) (Spring I997):3~4. Washington, 

D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. 
. "African Immigrant Folklife: Building and Bridging 

Communities." Smithsonian Talk Story (12) (Fall I997):6. 

Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. 
Borden, Carla M., editor. Smithsonian Talk Story (11) (Spring 

1997). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. 
, editor. Smithsonian Talk Story (12) (Fall 1997). 

Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. 
, editor. Festival of American Folklife Program Book. 



Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. 
Cadaval, Olivia and Emily Botein. "Reports from the Border." 

Smithsonian Talk Story (12) (Fall I997):8. Washington, D.C.: 

Smithsonian Institution. 
Dunlap, Brenda, project director. A World of Sound Catalogue. 

Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Folkways Recordings. 
, project director. Smithsonian Folkways Catalogue of 

Recordings ippj. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Folkways 

Recordings. 
, project director. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings 



Music for Children Catalogue. Washington, D.C.: 
Smithsonian Folkways Recordings. 
, project director. Bernice Johnson Reagon: Singer, 



Composer. Cultural Historian and Recording Artist 
Brochure. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Folkways 
Recordings. 

Early, James. "Multiculturalism: Preparation for 21st Century 
Global Civil Society." In Proceedings of the Marshall University 
Multicultural and International Conference on Developing Cultural 
Competencies for Tomorrow's Global Leaders, edited by Aimee A. 
Howley. 

. "Sacred Sounds: Belief and Society." Smithsonian Talk 

Story (n) (Spring I997):4. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian 
Institution. 

. "Center Sponsors Film Premiere." Smithsonian Talk 



Story (11) (Spring I997):i4. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian 
Institution. 
. "Sacred Sounds: Belief and Society." Smithsonian Talk 



Story (12) (Fall I997):5- Washington, D.C: Smithsonian 
Institution. 
. "Culture and Community-Building: South Africa 



Exchange." Smithsonian Talk Story (12) (Fall lS)97)'-7- 
Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution. 
. "Premiere oiPaniolo Hawai'i: Cowboys of the Far 



West." Smithsonian Talk Story (12) (Fall I997):9- Washington, 
D.C: Smithsonian Institution. 
. "Sacred Sounds: Belief and Society." In Festival of 



American Folklife Program Book, edited by Carla M. 
Borden, 60—62. Washington, DC: Smithsonian 
Institution. 
Horowitz, Amy. "Performance in Disputed Territory: Israeli 
Mediterranean Music." In Musical Performance, edited by 
Amnon Shiloah (iX3):43— 53- 



162 



"The Morher of All Tours." Smithsonian Talk Story (n) 



(Spring I997):9- Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian 
Institution. 
. "Smithsonian Folkways Recordings: Not an 



Ordinary Label . . . Not So Easy to Label." Smithsonian Talk 
Story (II) (Spring I997):n-I4. Washington, D.C.: 
Smithsonian Institution. 
. "A Banner Season for Smithsonian Folkways." 



Smithsonian Talk Story (12) (Fall 1997):!. Washington, D.C.: 

Smithsonian Institution. 
Horowitz, Amy, and Bernice Johnson Reagon. Compilation 

and production of Give Your Hands to Struggle. SF 40049. 
Horowitz, Amy, and Reuven Namdar. "Overcoming Music 

Ghettos: An Interview with Avihu Medina, Mizrahi 

Musician in Israel." Cultural Survival Quarterly 

20<4):55-59- 
Hunt, Marjorie and Richard Kurin. "In the Service of the 

Presidency: Workers' Culture at the White House." 

Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives and Records 

Administration 28(4). 
Kurin, Richard. "The Festival on the Mall." Anthro Notes 

19(1)- 
. "The Hope Diamond: Gem, Jewel and Icon." In 

Exhibiting Dilemmas, edited by Amy Henderson and 

Adrienne Kaeppler, 48—69. Washington, D.C.: 

Smithsonian Institution. 
. "America's Smithsonian: What and Where's The 



Story." Grapevine. Newsletter of the Material Culture 
Forum. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. 
. "Festival of American Folklife." In American Folklore: 



An Encyclopedia, edited by Jan Brunvand. New York: 
Garland Press. 
. "Center for Folklife Programs and Cultural Studies." 



In American Folklore: An Encyclopedia, edited by Jan 
Brunvand. New York: Garland Press. 
. "Ralph Rinzler." In American Folklore: An 



Encyclopedia, edited by Jan Brunvand. New York: Garland 
Press. 
. "Introductory Statements." In Deeply Rooted, Broadly 



Shared. Durham: University of New Hampshire. 
. "From Smithsonian's America to America's 



Smithsonian." Museum Anthropology zi(i):zj— 41. Special 
issue on National Narrative, edited by Geoff White. 
. "Director's Talk Story." Smithsonian Talk Story (11) 



(Spring I997):2. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian 
Institution. 
. "Director's Talk Story." Smithsonian Talk Story (12) 



(Fall 1997;1:2-3. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. 
. "The Festival of American Folklife: Culture, Dead or 



Alive?" In Festival of American Folklife Program Book, edited 
by Carla M. Borden, 8— 11. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian 
Institution. 
Maloney, Michael and Peter Seitel and Stephanie Smith. "Web 
News." Smithsonian Talk Story (11) (Spring I997):L4. 
Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. 



N'Diaye, Diana Baird. "African Immigrant Culture in 
Metropolitan Washington, DC: Building and Bridging 
Communities." In Festival of American Folklife Program Book. 
edited by Carla M. Borden, 36-39. Washington, D.C.: 
Smithsonian Institution. 

N'Diaye, Diana Baird, and Gilbert Ogunfiditimi and 
Frederick Ogunfiditimi. "Yoruba Naming Ceremony in 
Washington, DC." In Festival of American Folklife Program 
Book, edited by Carla M. Borden, 44. Washington, DC: 
Smithsonian Institution. 

N'Diaye, Diana Baird, and Ann Nosiri Olumba. "Local Radio 
and Local Populations: African Immigrants in Washington, 
DC" Cultural Survival Quarterly 20(4)^1— 54. 

Parker, Diana. "The Mississippi Delta." Smithsonian Talk Story 
(11) (Spring I997):i. Washington, DC: Smithsonian 
Institution. 

• l 997 Festival in Review." Smithsonian Talk Story (12) 

(Fall I997):j. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. 

. "Friends of the Festival." Smithsonian Talk Story (12) 



(Fall 1997)7. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. 
. "The Festival of American Folklife and You." In 



Festival of American Folklife Program Book, edited by Carla 

M. Borden, 8. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. 
Place, Jeff. Compilation and liner notes to Lead Belly. Bourgeois 

Blues: The Lead Belly Legacy, Vol. z SF 40045. 
Place, Jeff, et al. Liner notes to Anthology of American Folk 

Music. SF 40090. 
Place, Jeff, and Guy Logsdon. Compilation and liner notes to 

Woody Guthrie. This Land is Your Land: The Asch Recordings, 

Vol. 1. SF 40100. 
. Compilation and liner notes to Woody Guthrie. 

Muleskinner Blues: The Asch Recordings, Vol. z SF 40101. 
Reiniger, Arlene. "The Mississippi Delta." Smithsonian Talk 

Story (12) (Fall 1997^4. Washington, DC: Smithsonian 

Institution. 
. "Iowa Folklife: A Learning Guide for Teachers, 

Students, and Senior Citizens." Smithsonian Talk Story (12) 

(Fall I997):i3. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. 
Seeger, Anthony, guest editor. Cultural Survival 

Quarterly — Traditional Music m Community Life: Aspects of 

Performance, Recordings 20(4). 
. "Voices, Flutes and Shamans in the Amazonian Rain 

Forest." In The Laura Boulton Lecture Series, edited by 

Thomas Vennum, 63-74 and audio examples on audio 

cassette. Phoenix: The Heard Museum. 
. "Traditional Music in Community Life: Aspects of 



Performance, Recordings, and Preservation," an 
Introduction to the edited papers. Cultural Survival 
Quarterly 2O(4):20-22. 
. "The Sound of Music: Suya Song Structure and 



Experience." Cultural Survival Quarterly 2o(4):25— 25. 
. "Ethnomusicology and Music Law" (reprint of 1991 



article). In Bruce Ziff and Pratima V. Rao, Borrowed P ower: 
Essays on Cultural Appropriation, $2—67. New Brunswick: 
Rutgers University Press. 



10; 



. Compilation and liner notes to Smithsonian Folkways 

World Music Collection. SF 40471. 
. Review of Music Grooves, Essays and Dialogues, by 

Charles Keil and Steven Feld. American Anthropologist 



99(3):66o. 
. "Cantando os cancoes dos estrangeiros: Indios 



brasielrios e musica de derivagao portugessa no seculo 
xx/Singing the Stranger's Songs: Indians and Music of 
Portuguese Derivation in the Twentieth Century." In 
Portugal e mundo — encontro de culturas na musicalP ortugal 
and the World — The Encounter of Cultures in Music, edited by 
Salwa El-Shawan Castelo-Branco, 475—507. Lisbon: 
Pubilicacoes Dorn Quixote, Ltda. 

Seitel, Peter, editor. Liner notes to Anthology of American Folk 
Music. SF 40090. 

Vennum, Thomas, Jr. "Lacrosse." In Encyclopedia of North 
American Indians, edited by Frederick Hoxie. Boston: 
Houghton Mifflin Co. 

, editor. Laura Bolton Ethnomusicology Lectures. Phoenix: 

Heard Museum. 

. Das indianische Lacrosse-Spiel: der Kleine Bruder des 



Krieges. Ipstein, Germany: Baum Verlag. 
. "Indian Veteran Album Released." Smithsonian Talk 



Story (i2)(Fall I997):9- Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian 
Institution. 
, producer. American Warriors: Songs for Indian Veterans. 



Rykodisc RSD/RAC 10370. 
, producer. Wisconsin Powwow and Naamikaaged: Dancer 



for the People video set. SF 48004. 
Vennum, Thomas, Jr., and Richard LaFernier. "Dressing for 

the Wisconsin Ojibwe Powwow: Embodying Community." 

Cultural Survival Quarterly 20(4X45— 50. 
Vidaurri, Cynthia and Olivia Cadaval. "La Cuenca del Rio 

Bravo/The Rio Grande River Basin Program." Smithsonian 

Talk Story (11) (Spring 1997X6. Washington, D.C.: 

Smithsonian Institution. 
. "Folklife Field Research Series." Smithsonian Talk 

Story (12) (Fall I997):I3. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian 

Institution. 



Sound Recordings 

The Bahamas: Islands of Song. SF 40405 . 

Close to Home, Old-Time Music from Mike Seeger's Collection, 

1952-1967. SF 40097. 
Cuba in Washington. SF 40461. 
Give Your Hands to Struggle. SF 40049. 
Woody Guthrie. This Land Is Your Land: The Asch Recordings, 

Vol. 1. SF 40100. 
. Muleskinner Blues: The Asch Recordings, Vol. z SF 

40101. 
Lead Belly. Bourgeois Blues: The Lead Belly Legacy, Vol. 2. SF 

40045. 
The New Lost City Ramblers. There Ain't No Way Out. SF 

40098. 



Toshi Reagon. Kindness. SF 40095. 

Harry Smith, editor. Anthology of American Folk Music. SF 

40090. 
Smithsonian Folkways World Music Collection. SF 40471. 
Songs of the Old Regular Baptists: Lined-Out Hymnody from 

Southeastern Kentucky. SF 40106. 
Voices of the Civil Rights Movement. SF 40084. 
Wade in the Water: African American Sacred Music Traditions. SF 

40076. 



Hirskkorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 



Department of Public Programs 

Benezra, Neal. Directions: Juan Muiioz. Washington, D.C.: 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 1997. 
Exhibition brochure. 

. "Extending His Reach." In Miroslaw Balka: Selection, 

51-66. Oslo: Museet for Samtidskunst, 1997. 

. "Thomas Schiitte: Ironic Outdoor Monuments," 



Flash Art 3, no. 192 (January-February i997):8o— 83. 
. Entries in The Art Institute of Chicago: 



Twentieth-Century Painting and Sculpture. New York: Hudson 
Hills Press, 1996. 

Fletcher, Valerie J. "Alberto Giacometti: A Modern Master." 
In Alberto Giacometti, II— 42. Japan: Hiroshima Prefeccural 
Art Museum, with Shizuoka Prefectural Museum of Art 
and Ashikaga Museum of Art, 1997. 

. "Julio Gonzalez: A Sculptor's Drawings/Les Dessins 

d'un sculpteur/der Bildhauer und seine Zeichnungen." In 
Julio Gonzalez: Dessiner dans I'espacelZeichnen im Raum, 
54—63. Bern: Skira Editeur and Kunstmuseum Bern, 1997. 

The Hirshhorn Collects: Recent Acquisitions 1992-1996. Foreword 
by James T. Demetrion. Washington, D.C.: Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden, 1997. Exhibition catalog. 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden: 150 Works of Art. 

Foreword by James T. Demetrion. Contributions by Valerie 
J. Fletcher, Frank Gettings, Judith Zilczer, Phyllis 
Rosenzweig, Amada Cruz, and Anne-Louise Marquis. New 
York and Washington, D.C.: Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden in association with Harry N. Abrams, 
1996. 

Kidd, Diane, and Maryanne Del Gigante. Family Guide. 
Original illustrations by Diane Kidd. Washington, D.C.: 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 1996. 

Lawrence, Sidney. "The Color of Art." American Art II, no. I 
(Spring l997):2-9. Condensed reprint, KOAN 5, no. 7 
(April 1997): 8-10. 

Rosenzweig, Phyllis. Directions — Monochrome: Louise Lawler. 
Washington, D.C.: Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden, 1997. Exhibition brochure. 



164 



. Directions: Rudolf Schwarzkogler. Washington, D.C.: 



Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 1996. 
Exhibition brochure. 

Viso, Olga M. "About Salcedo." Biography of Dons Salcedo in 
David Moos, Atrabrliarios. Kansas: Edwin A. Ulrich 
Museum of Art, Wichita State University, 1997. Exhibition 
brochure. Excerpted from Neal Benezra and Olga M. Viso, 
Distemper: Dissonant Themes in the Art of the Ippos. 
Washington, D.C.: Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden in association with D.A.P./Distributed Art 
Publishers, 1996. Exhibition catalog. 

. 'Cultural Imposition: The Other Side of the Coin 

(Carlos Alfonzo as a Case History)." Art Papers 21, no. 2 
(March-April I997):l6-2I. 

. INTRANATURA. Baltimore: Baltimore School 33 



Art Center, 1996- Exhibition brochure. 
.Jeff Wall. Washington, D.C.: Hirshhorn Museum 



and Sculpture Garden, 1997. Exhibition brochure. 
. Sculpture Now ipp6. Washington, D.C.: Washington 



Sculptors Group, 1996. Exhibition brochure. 
Zilczer, Judith. "Alfred Stieglitz." Dictionary of Art. Vol. 29, 

pp. 654—57. London: Grove, 1996. 
. "The Armor) - Show." Dictionary of Art. Vol. 2, p. 447. 

London: Grove, 1996. 
. Richard Lindner: Paintings and Watercolors. 1948-1977. 



Essay by Peter Selz and Chronology by Claudia Loyall. 
Munich: Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in 
association with Prestel Verlag, 1996. Exhibition 
catalog. 
. Richard Lindner: Gemalde und Aquarelle. Essay by 



Peter Selz and Chronology by Claudia Loyall. Munich: 
Prestel Verlag, 1997. Exhibition catalog (German 
edition). 
. Richard Lindner: Paintings and Watercolors. 1948-19JJ. 



Washington, D.C.: Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden, 1996. Exhibition brochure. 
. "Richard Lindner's Symbolic Universe." American Art 



Review 9, no. I (January/February I997):l04~9. 
. "USA: XII. Patronage." Dictionary of Art. Vol. 31, 



pp. 662—63. London: Grove, 1996. 



National Air and Space Museum 



Office of the Director 

Engen, Donald D. Wings and Wamiors: My Life as a Naval 

Aviator, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 

1997. 
Lopez, Donald S. Into the Teeth of the Tiger, reprinted as part of 

the History of Aviation Series, edited by Von Hardesty. 

Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997. 



Aeronautics Division 

Crouch, Tom. "Octave Chanute: Pioneer of Flight," National 
Soaring Museum Historical Journal. (Vol. 18, No. 2, May 

1997), pp.4-16. 
. "Octave and the Indiana Glider Trails of 1896," 

AlAA Journal (May 1997, Vol. 35, No. 5) pp. 769-775. 
. "Capable of Flight: The Saga of the 1903 Wright 



airplane," in Amy Henderson and A. Kaeppler, eds., 
Exhibiting Dilemmas: Issues of Representation at the 
Smithsonian. (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution 
Press, 1997) pp. 92-116. 
. "Local Son: John Joseph Montgomery and the Glider 



Trail of 1884," Journal of the West (July 1997: vol. 36, No. 5) 
pp. 21-29. 
. "Risky Business: Some Thoughts on Controversial 



Exhibitions," Museum International (July-September 1997; 

No. 3), pp. 8-14. 
Davies, Ron. Airlines of Asia since ip20. London: Putnam, 1997. 
. Lindbergh, An Airman, His Aircraft, and his Great 

Plights, McLean, Virginia: Paladwr Press, 1997. 
. Airlines of Latin America Since ipip McLean, Virginia: 



Paladwr Press, 1997. 
. TransBrasil: An Airline and its Aircraft. McLean, 



Virginia: Paladwr Press, 1997. 
. "Sixty Years in the Life of Revista Aerea: The 



Changes that Occurred in the Airlines of Latin America," 

Revista Area. 
Jakab, Peter. Paperback edition, Visions of a Plying Machine: 

The Wright Brothers and the Process of Invention. Washington, 

D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997. 
. "Seeking Answers: The Wrights Build a Wind 

Tunnel." Re-print of chapter 6, Visions of a Flying Machine: 

The Wright Brothers and the Process of Invention. Hagerstown, 

Ind.: Philip R. Belt, 1997. 
— . "Otto Lilienthal: The Greatest of the Precursors." 



AlAA Journal 35 (April I997):6oi-07. 
. "Linking Theory and Practice: Theodore von 



Karman and the Formation of Modern Aerospace 
Engineering." In The Martians: Hungarian Emigre Scientists 
and the Technology of Peace and War, ipip-jp8p. Edited by 
George Marx. Veszprem, Hungary: OOK-Press, 1997. 
. "Elmelet es Gyakorlat: Karman Todor es a Modern 



Repulesi-Urkutatasi Technika Kialakulasa." Fizikai Szemle: 
Magyar Fizikai Folydirat 6j (March I997):85— 87. 
. "Why Wilbur and Orville." Chapter 9 in Readings in 



Technology and Civilization: Volume III. The Twentieth Century. 

Edited by William F. Trimble and James R. Hansen. New 

York: American Heritage Custom Publishing, 1997. 
Neufeld, Michael J., Editor. Planet Dora: A Memoir of the 

Holocaust and the Origins of the Space Age, by Yves Beon. 

"Mittelbau-Dora: Secret Weapons and Slave Labor." 

Boulder, Co.: Westview Press, 1997. 
. Die Rakete und das Reich: Wernher von Braun, 

Peenemunde und der Beginn des Raketenzeitalters (Berlin: 



165 



Brandenburgisches Verlagshaus, 1997), a revised German 
translation of The Rocket and the Reich. 
. "Heylandr's Rocket Cars and the V-2: A Little 



Known Chapter in the History of Rocket Technology." 
With Frank H. Winter. In History of Rocketry and 
Astronautics: Proceedings of the Twenty-Six History Symposium of 
the International Academy of Astronautics, ed. by Phillipe 
Jung (San Diego: Umvelt, Inc., for the American 
Astronaurical Society, 1997), 41—72. 

Pisano, Dominick. 'Aerospace Industry," Collier's Encyclopedia 
jppj International Yearbook, 156—57. 

. "Collision Course" (The Demise of the National Air 

Races). Air & Space Smithsonian. April/May 1997, 28—35. 

. "The Dawn Patrol and the World War I Air Combat 



Film Genre: An Exploration of American Values" in 
Hollywood's World War I: Motion Picture Images, ed. by Peter 
C. Rollins Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State 
University Popular Press, 1997, 59—78. 
. Film review, The Wright Stuff, written, produced and 



directed by Nancy Porter Productions for The American 
Experience, 1996, in The Journal of American History. 
December 1997, 1169-1171. 



Center for Earth and Planetary Studies 

Bulmer, M.H., 1997. Comparisons of mass movements from 
modified domes on Venus to submarine volcaniclastic 
deposits on Earth. Int. Conf. Volcanic Activity and the 
Environment, IAVCEI, Mexico, p. 134. 

. Comparisons between mass movements on Venus 

associated with modified domes and those from 
escarpments. Lunar Planet. Sci. XXVII, 177-178, 1997. 

Campbell, B.A., Venus surface processes: Results from 
Magellan and questions for future exploration, Easrern 
Geophysical Society Mtng, 1997. 

. Comparison of radar and Clementine multispectral 

data for the lunar maria, LPSC XXVIII, 1997. 

Campbell, B.A., R.E. Arvidson, M.K. Shepard, and R. 

Brackett, Remote sensing of surface processes, in Venus II, 
503-526, 1997. 

Campbell, B.A., B.R. Hawke, and T.W. Thompson. 
Long-wavelength radar studies of the lunar mana._/. 
Geophys. Res., 102, 19,307-19,320, 1997. 

Campbell, B.A., and M.K. Shepard. "Effect of Venus surface 
illumination on photographic image texture," Geophys. Res. 
Letters, 24, 731-734, 1997. 

Cook, A.C., T.R. Watters, and M.S. Robinson. New Stereo 
Image Analysis of Mariner 10 Images of Mercury, 
Vernadsky-Brown Microsymposium on Comparative 
Planetology 26, Moscow, Oct 13-17, 1997, pp. 26-27. 

Craddock, R.A., L.S. Crumpler, J.C. Aubele, and J.R. 

Zimbelman, Geology of Chryse Planitia and the Viking I 
landing site: Implications for the Mars Pathfinder mission, 
Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, E2, 4161- 4183, 1997. 



Craddock, R.A., T.A. Maxwell, and A.D. Howard, Crater 
morphometry and modification in the Sinus Sabeus and 
Margaritifer Sinus regions of Mars, Journal of Geophysical 
Research. 102, E6, 13,321—13,340, 1997. 

Craddock, R.A., L.S. Earon, C.J. Russo, and R.F. Torley, A 
new method for determining the emplacement 
mechanism(s) of rocks on Mars, Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., 
XXVII, 263-264, 1997. 

Craddock, R.A., M.S. Robinson, B.R. Hawke, and A.S. 
McEwen, Clementine-based geology of the Moscoviense 
basin, lunar farside, Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., XXVII, 
265-266, 1997. 

Edgett, K.S., B.J. Butler, J.R. Zimbelman, and V.E. 

Hamilton. Geologic context of the Mars radar "Stealth" 
region in southwestern Tharsis,J. Geophys. Res. (Planets), 
102, E9, 21545-21568, 1997. 

Hanley, D., and J.R. Zimbelman Quantifying topographic 
control of lava flow emplacement: Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. 
Trans. Am Geophys. Union 78(17), S327, 1997. 

Jacobberger, P. A. "Color," in Encyclopedia of Planetary Sciences, 
ed. Rhodes W Fairbridge and James H. Shirley, 1st. ed. 
London; New York: Chapman and Hall, 1997, pp. 114-115. 

. "Landsat," in Encyclopedia of Planetary Sciences, ed. 

Rhodes W. Fairbridge and James H. Shirley, isr. ed., 
London; New York: Chapman and Hall, 1997, p. 690. 

. "SPOT," in Encyclopedia of Planetary Sciences, ed. 



Rhodes W. Fairbridge and James H. Shirley, 1st. ed., 
London; New York: Chapman and Hall, 1997, p. 690. 

Jacobberger, PA. and Jellison, G.P 1997 "Remore Sensing," in 
Encyclopedia of Planetary Sciences, ed. Rhodes W 
Fairbridge and James H. Shirley, 1st. ed. London; New 
York: Chapman and Hall, 1997, pp. 689—696. 

Johnston, A., Engle, F.C., and Bulmer, M.H., 1997. 

Topographic mapping of the Lloqueta River Basin, Peru. 
Submitted to the American Association of Geographers. 

Marchenko, AG., A.T. Basilevsky, H. Hoffmann, G 

Neukum, E. Hauber, and A.C. Cook, The Mouth of Ares 
and Tiu Valles, Mars: Geology and Crater Counting, 
Vernadsky-Brown Microsymposium on Comparative 
Planetology 26, Moscow, Oct 13-17, 1997, pp. 79-80. 

Margot, J.L., D.B. Campbell, B.A. Campbell, and B.J. Butler, 
Lunar dielectric constants for aperture synthesis 
polarimetry, LPSC XXVIII, 1997. 

Merenyi, E., A.S. McEwen, M.S. Robinson, and R.A. 

Craddock, Spectral mapping of Mare Moscoviense, lunar 
farside, from Clementine UWIS data, Lunar Planet. Sci. 
Conf., XXVII, 939-940, 1997. 

Pettengill, G.H., B.A. Campbell, D.B. Campbell, and R.A. 
Simpson, Surface scattering and dielectric properties, in 
Venus II, 527-546, 1997. 

Schenk, P., and Bulmer, M.H. Slope failures at Euboea 
Montes, Io. Lunar Planet. Sci. XXVII, 1245-1246, 1997. 

Watters, T.R., and M.S. Robinson. Radar and 

Photoclinometric Studies of Wrinkle Ridges on Mars,/. 
Geophys. Res. (Planets), v. 102, p. 10,889—10,903. 



166 



Watters, T.R., M.S. Robinson, and A.C Cook. Comparison of 
Discover)- Rupes, Mercury- with terrestrial thrust faults: 
New estimates of the decrease in radius of the planet due to 
global contraction, LPSC XXVIII, p. 1507— 1508, 1997. 

. Topographic models for Discovery Rupes, Mercury 

using digital stereophotogrammetry and photoclinometry, 
LPSC XXVIII, p. 1509-1510, 1997. 

Wells, G.L., and J.R. Zimbelman. Extraterrestrial arid surface 
processes, in Arid Zone Geomorphology: Process, Form and 
Change in Drylands, 2nd ed. (D.S.G. Thomas, ed.), pp. 
659-690, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1997. 

Zimbelman, J., D. Crown, J. Grant, and D. Hooper. The 
Medusae Fossae Formation, Amazonis Planitia, Mars: 
Evaluation of proposed hypotheses of origin, Lunar and 
Planetary Science XXVIII, pp. 1623-1624, Lunar and 
Planetary Institute, Houston, 1997. 

Zimbelman, J.R. , and N. Bridges. Properties of venusian lava 
flows estimated from geologic mapping and terrestrial 
analogs, Geol. Soc. Am. Abs. Prog. 29(6), A138, 1997. 

Zimbelman, J. R., A.K.Johnston, P.S. Russell, and C.G. 
Lovett (1997) Regional geologic setting of the Medusae 
Fossae Formation on Mars, Trans. Am Geophys. Union 
78(46), F411. 

Zimbelman, J.R. , and S.H. Williams. Chemistry indicators of 
related sources for sand deposits in southeastern California 
and western Arizona, Am. Assoc. Geograph. 93rd Ann. 
Mtg. Abs., Ft. Worth, Texas., 300, 1997. 



Space History Division 

Ceruzzi, Paul. "Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and 
the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 
1935— 1955" IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Vol. 19, 
No. 1, 1997. 

DeVorkin, David. "Astrophysics," in Lankford, ed., Garland 
History of Astronomy. Garland, 1997, pp. 72-80. 

. "Henry Norris Russell," "Meghnad Saha," and 

"Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram." In Lankford, ed. Garland 
History of Astronomy. Garland, 1977. 

. Book review of The Story of Astronomy, by Lloyd Motz 



. "Goddard: A New Perspective of the Man and His 

Achievements," Space Times (Springfield, VA), Volume 36, 
No. 2, March-April 1997, pp. 4—9. 

. '"Black Betsy': The 6000 C-4 Rocket Engine, 



and Jefferson Hane Weaver. New York: Plenum, 1995. 

American Scientist 8% 1997, pp. 182— 183. 
Needell, Allan, Ronald E. Doel. "Science, Scientists, and the 

CIA: Balancing International Ideals, National Needs, and 

Professional Opportunities," in Intelligence and National 

Security, Volume 12(1), pp. 59-81. 
Smith, Robert. "Engines of Discovery: Scientific Instruments 

and the History of Astronomy and Planetary Science in the 

United States in the Twentieth Century," Journal for the 

History of Astronomy, 28, 1997, pp. 49-77. 
. Essays on "Modern Cosmology," "Galaxies," "The 

Discovery of Neptune," "Lowell Observatory," in John 

Lankford, ed. The Encyclopedia of the History of Astronomy. 

Garland, Winter, 1997. 



1945-1989 — Part 2," in J.D. Hunley, ed., History of 
Rocketry and Astronautics, AAS History Series, Volume 19, 
(Univelt Corporation for American Astronomical Society: 
San Diego, 1997), pp. 237-258. 
. "Out of the Past — An Aerospace Chronology," with 



Frank R. van der Linden, appearing monthly since 
September 1972 in Astronautics & Aeronautics. New York, to 
December 1983, magazine entitled Aerospace America in 
January 1984, with continuation of column to present. 
. "William Hale and His Rockezs," Journal of the 



Ordnance Society. Volume 9, August 1997, pp. 19—26. 
. "Was Hermann Oberth the True Father of Spaceflight?" 



Ad Astra, Volume 8. Number 6. November-December 1996, 
pp. 40-42. 

. "Saturn V Reborn — A Giant Restoration," Spaceflight 

(London), Volume 39, No. 4, April 1997, pp. 130-132. 

. "Saturn V Reborn — A Giant Restoration, " Journal of 

the British Interplanetary Society (London), Volume 50, 1997, 
pp. 169-172. 

Smith, Robert, Michael J. Neufeld. "Heyland Rocket Cars 
and the V-2: A Little Known Chapter in the History of 
Space Technology," History of Rocketry and Astronautics, 
Philippe Jung, ed., AAS History Series. Volume 21, IAA 
History Symposia, Volume 73, pp. 41-72 (Univelt Corporation 
for American Astronautical Society, San Diego, 1977. 

Archives Division 

Hagedorn, Daniel P. North American NA-16IAT-6ISNJ, 

WarBird Tech Series. Vol. 11, North Branch, MN: Specialty 

Press, 1997. 
. "The Pre-1946 U.S. Civil Register Project," Skyways 

No. 42, (April 1997) pp. 54-61. 
Hagedorn, Daniel P. and Antonio L. Sapienza, Aircraft of the Chaco 

War Ip28-ipi5, Atglen, PA; Schiffer Publishing Ltd., 1996. 
Bell, Dana. Air Force Color, Pacific and Home Front, 1942—4% 

Vol. 3, Carrollton, TX: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1997. 
. "The First Fifty Years" Air Forces Monthly, United 

Kingdom: Key Publishing, 1997. 



National Museum of African Art 



Chaffers, Pedra. Lukasas: Luba Memory Boards, Guide and 
Family Activities, [gallery guide] Washington, D.C: 
National Museum of African Art, 1996. 

Farrar Fortune, Leasa. Adinkra: The Cloth That Speaks, [gallery- 
guide] Washington, D.C: National Museum of African 
Art, 1997. 



167 



Geary, Christraud M. "Early Images from Benin at the 

National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution." 
African Arts, Summer 1997. 

. "Bamileke and Related Peoples." In The Dictionary of 

Art. Jane Turner (ed.), London: MacMillan Publishers. Vol. 

3, pp. 145-149. I996- 
. "Ethnographic Photography." (with Joanna Scherer). 



In The Dictionary of Art. Jane Turner (ed.), London: 
MacMillan Publishers. Vol. 10. pp. 578-580, 1996. 
. "Africa (ii) Funerary." In The Dictionary of Art. Jane 



Turner (ed.), London, MacMillan Publishers. Vol. I, 
pp. 257-260, 1996. 
. "Pratica fotogtafica in Africa: Fotografie storica e 



problemi di contestualizzatione." Archivio Fotografico 
Toscano. Vol. IO, no. 21. pp. 38—51, 1995. 
. Review of Frank L. Lambrecht: Pawa. A Memoir from 



the Belgian Congo, ip4^-ip4p. Santa Barbara: Everbest 

Printing Company, 1994. In: African Arts. Vol. 29, No. 4. 

pp. 89-90, 1996. 
Mellor, Steve. "Conservation Laboratory Overview, 

National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian 

Institution." ICOM Ethnographic Conservation Newsletter. 

13:5-6, 1996. 
. Session statement: "Conservation and Cultural 

Context. College Art Association Annual Meeting 

Preprints, 1997. 
Mellor, Steve, Madeleine Hexter and Dana Moffett. "The 

Media of African Art: An Ongoing Investigation." 

Abstracts of papers presented at the eighteenth annual 

meeting, Richmond, VA. Washington, D.C.: American 

Institute for Conservation, 1997. 
Moffett, Dana. "Wax Coatings on Ethnographic Metal 

Objects: Justifications for Allowing a Tradition to Wane." 

Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 35:1—7, 

1996. 
Ravenhill, Philip. "Africa. Art and Aesthetics." [Overview 

essay on approaches to figurative art in Africa} In The 

Dictionary of Art. Jane Turner (ed.). London: MacMillan 

Publishers. Vol 1, pp. 230-235, 1996. 
. "Baule." [Overview essay on Baule arts] In The 

Dictionary of Art. Jane Turner (ed.). London: MacMillan 

Publishers. Vol. 3, pp. 404-409, 1996. 
. "Cote d'lvoire." [Overview essay on the arts, 



collecting, and history of museum exhibitions in Cote 
d'lvoire] In The Dictionary of Art. Jane Turner (ed). 
London: MacMillan Publishers. Vol. 8 pp. 21-24, 
1996. 
. "Africa (ii) Funerary." In The Dictionary of Art. Jane 



Turner (ed.). London: MacMillan Publishers. Vol. I, pp. 
257—260, 1996. 
Walker, Roslyn Adele. "Howardena Pindell." In St. James 
Guide to Black Artists. Thomas Riggs (ed.), Detroit: 
St. James Press in association with the Schomburg 
Center for Research in Black Culture, pp. 418—420, 
1997- 



National Museum of American History 



Office of Curatorial Affairs 

Bunch, Lonnie, and William Yeingst. "Cutating the Recent 
Past: The Woolworth Lunch Counter, Greensboro, North 
Carolina." In Exhibiting Dilemmas: Issues of Representation at 
the Smithsonian, edited by Amy Henderson and Adrienne L. 
Kaeppler. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution 
Press, 1997. 



Department of History 
Archives Center 

Fleckner, John. "Reaching the Mass Audience: Business 
History as Popular History." In The Records of American 
Business, edited by James OToole. Chicago: Society of 
American Archivists, 1997. 

Haberstich, David E. "Barbara Beirne's Women of Southern 
Appalachia." In Now and Then. Johnson City, TN: Center 
for Appalachian Studies and Services, East Tennessee State 
University, 1997. 

Ruffins, Fath. "Culture Wars Won and Lost: Ethnic Museums 
on the Mall: The Holocaust Memorial Museum and the 
National Museum of the American Indian." Radical History 
Review 68 (Spring 1997). 

Ruffins, Fath, and Paul Ruffins. "Recovering Yesterday." 
Black Issues in Higher Education 13 (February 2, 1997). 

Division of Cultural History 

Bowers, Dwight. "A Conversation with Harold Prince." Oral 

history, 1997. 
. Red. Hot and Blue — A Songbook of the American 

Musical. New York: Universe/Rizzoli, 1997. 
. Star-Spangled Rhythm: Voices of Broadway and 



Hollywood. Smithsonian Collection of Recordings, 1997. 

Green, Rayna. "Down Home In the City: A Store Bought 
Remembrance." Wine, Food and the Arts, 11: Works Gathered 
By the American Institute of Wine and Food. San Francisco: 
AIWF and Swan's Island Books, 1997. 

Hasse, John Edward, comp. and ed. Music of the River: A 
Companion for Steamboaters, New Orleans: The Delta Queen 
Steamboat Company, 1997. 

Hughes, Ellen Roney. "The Unstifled Muse: The 'All in the 
Family Exhibit' and Popular Culture at the National 
Museum of American History." In Exhibiting Dilemmas: 
Issues of Representation at the Smithsonian, edited by Amy 
Henderson and Adrienne L. Kaeppler. Washington, D.C.: 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997. 

Perez, Marvette Perez, and Lassalle Yvonne. "'Virtually' 
Puerto Rican: 'Dis'-Locating Puerto Rican-ness and its 
Privileged Sites of Production." Radical History Review 68 
(Spring 1997). 



168 



Rand, Harry. "Art Buyer Fights Holocaust Heirs." Boston 

Sunday Globe (May 18, 1997). 

. Book review. The An Bulletin 79 (June 1997). 

. "Gorky's Waterfalls." Art News (November 1997). 

. "Letter: They're Twins of the Zodiac: The Ain 

Ghazal Figures." Bible Review 23 (1997). 
. "Motherwell Lleva al Museo Reina Sofia." El Pais 



(March 3, 1997). 
. "The Potential of Scriptute's Images: From Genesis 



to Abstract Expressionism." Religion and the Arts I (Summer 

1997)- 

Shayt, David. "Keeping Time in Guyana." Americas 49 
(Nov-Dec 1997). 

Zimmerman, James K., Producer, and Kenneth R. Kimery, 
Associate Producer. The Smithsonian Jazz Masterworks 
Orchestra: Big Band Treasures Live. Smithsonian 
Collection of Recordings, 1997. Compact disk. 

Division of the History of Technology 

Hacker, Barton. "The Martians' New Milieu: The 
Restructuring of American Military R&D." In The 
Martians: Hungarian Emigre Scientists and the Technology of 
War and Peace, edited by Geotge Marx, et al. Budapest: 
Eocvos University, 1997. Hungarian translation published 
in Fizikai Szemle 47 (March 1997). 

. "Nuclear-powered Flight." In Technology and the Air 

Force: A Retrospective Assessment, edited by Jacob Neufeld, 
George M. Watson, Jr., and David Chenoweth. 
Washington, D.C.: Air Force History and Museums 
Program, 1997. 

Hacker, Barton C, George Marx, Sybil Francis, and Gabor 
Pallo, eds. The Martians: Hungarian Emigre' Scientists and the 
Technology of War and Peace. Budapest: Ebtvos University, 
1997- 

Johnson, Paula. The Workboats of Smith Island. Baltimote: The 
Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997. 

White, Roger B. "The Controversial Parking Meter." Antique 
Automobile (January-February 1997). 

Division of Information Technology And Society 

Forman, Paul. "Recent Science: Late-modern and 

Post-modern." In The Historiography of Contemporary Science 

and Technology, edited by Thomas Soderqvist. London and 

Chur: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1997. 

. Book review. Science 276 (1997). 

Harris, Elizabeth. American Patent Models in the Graphic Arts 

Collection. Washington, D.C.: National Museum of 

American History, 1997. 
Kidwell, Peggy. Reviews in The Annals of the History of 

Computing. 1997. 
Mudd, Douglas. Russian Coins and Medals. 1997. Webpage. 
Nelson, Stan. "The Common Press." Hall of Graphics, 

National Museum of American History, Hall of Graphic 

Arts, 1997. Video. 



Wallace, Hal. Wallace Station and the Creation of An 

American Space Program, NASA. 1997. 
Wright, Helena. "The Exhibition Program." In Clio in 

Museum Garb: The National Museum of American History. The 

Science Museum, and History of Technology. London: National 

Museum of Science and Industry, 1997. 

Division of Science, Medicine, and Society 

Chelnick, Judy M. "From Stethoscopes to Artificial Heart." In 
"150 Years of Collecting Medical History at the 
Smithsonian Institution." Caduceus: A Humanities Journal for 
Medicine and the Health Sciences 13 (Winter 1997). 

Gossel, Patricia Peck. "Public Health Collections" and 
"Laboratory Apparatus." In "150 Years of Collecting 
Medical History at the Smithsonian Institution." Caduceus: 
A Humanities Journal for Medicine and the Health Sciences 13 
(Winter 1997). 

Kondratas, Ramunas, ed. "150 Years of Collecting Medical 
History at the Smithsonian Institution." Caduceus: A 
Humanities Journal for Medicine and the Health Sciences 13 
(Winter 1997). 

. "Medical Imaging" and "Scientific Medicines." In 

"150 Years of Collecting Medical History at the 
Smithsonian Institution" Caduceus: A Humanities Journal for 
Medicine and the Health Sciences 13 (Winter 1997). 

Sharrer, G. Terry. "Theobald Smith." In Doctors, Nurses and 
Practitioners: A Biographical Dictionary, edited by Lois N. 
Magner. Westpott, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997. 

. "Molecular Medicine: Collecting A Revolution in 

Progress." In "150 Years of Collecting Medical History at 
the Smithsonian Institution." Caduceus: A Humanities 
Journal for Medicine and the Health Sciences 13 (Winter 1997). 

Turner, Steven. "Demonstrating Harmony: Some of the Many- 
Devices Used to Produce Lissajous Curves Before the 
Oscilloscope." Rittenhouse II. 

Wendt, Diane L., and Eric W. Jentsch. "The Pharmacy 

Collections." In "150 Years of Collecting Medical History at 
the Smithsonian Institution." Caduceus: A Humanities 
Journal for Medicine and the Health Sciences 13 (Winter 1997). 

Division of Social History 

Foote, Shelly, Stephen T Rogers, Douglas W Owlsey and 
Robert W Mann. "The Man in the Cast Iron Coffin: A Tale 
of Historic and Forensic Investigation." The Tennessee 
Anthropologist (Fall 1997). 

Kidwell, Claudia Brush. "Are those Clothes Real 5 

Transforming the Way Eighteenth-Century Portraits are 
Studied." Dress 24 (1997). 

Taylor, Lonn. "Wonderful Things: Artifact and Argument in 
the Brooklyn Museum's 'Converging Cultures'." American 
Quarterly 49 (March 1997). 

Yeingst, William, and Lonnie Bunch. "Curating the Recent 
Past: The Woolworth Lunch Counter, Greensboro, North 
Carolina." In Exhibiting Dilemmas: Issues of Representation at 
the Smithsonian, edited by Amy Henderson and Adrienne L. 



169 



Kaeppler. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution 
Press, 1997. 



National Museum of the 
American Indian 



Arellano, Carmen. Die Bucher der Maya. Mixteken und Azteken. 
Die Sckrift und ihre Funktwn in vorspanischen und kolomalen 
Codices. Carmen Arellano and Peer Schmidt (Eds.). 
Eichstatt/Frankfurt: Vervuert 1997 (1st Edition). 

. "Der Schreiber und seine Schreibutensilien in 

Mesoamerika. Zur Stellung des Schreibers vor und nach der 
Ankunft der Europaer." In Die Bucher der Maya. Mixteken 
und Azteken. Die Scbrift und ihre Funktion in vorspanischen und 
kolomalen Codices. Carmen Arellano and Peer Schmidt 
(Eds.), pp. 187-220. Eichstatt/Frankfurt: Vervuert 1997. 

. "Kosmovisionen pragten die Politik." In Agora. 



No. 2, pp. 45—49. Eichstatt 1997. 
. "New Thoughts on the Preservation of Bronzes." 

Anatolian Archaeological Studies VI, Middle Eastern Culture 

Center in Japan (Tokyo:i997):30l— 307. 
Arellano, Carmen, and Nikolai Grube. "Schrift und 

Schnftlichkeit in Mesoamerika und im Andengebiet: Ein 

Vergleich." In Die Bucher der Maya. Mixteken und Azteken. 

Die Schrift und ihre Funktion in vorspanischen und kolomalen 

Codices. Carmen Arellano and Peer Schmidt (Eds.), pp. 

27-58. Eichstatt/Frankfurt: Vervuert 1997. 
Arellano, Carmen, and Peer Schmidt. "Einleitung." In Die 

Bucher der Maya, Mixteken und Azteken. Die Schrift und ihre 

Funktion in vorspanischen und kolonialen Codices. Carmen 

Arellano and Peer Schmidt (Eds.), pp. 12—24. 

Eichstatt/Frankfurt: Vervuert 1997. 
Heth, Charlotte, George P. Horse Capture, Ramiro Matos, et 

al. Stories of the People: Native American Voices. Copublished 

by NMAI and Universe Publishing, 1997. 
Kalafatic, Carol. "Knots." In William S. Penn, ed. As We Are 

Now: Mixblood Essays on Race and Ethnicity. University of 

California Press, 1997. 
. Speech to 51st National Conference of the National 

Trust for Historic Preservation, 1998. Transcript published 

in the Journal of the National Trust for Historic Preservation 12, 

no. 2 (Winter I997):n. 
. "A Native American View of History and Place." 



History News 52, no. I (Wincer l997):22-24. 
. "Beyond Repatriation (Or How the 'Other? Became 



the 'We')." Historic Nantucket 44, no. 3 (Winter 1996). 
. "Zwischen Exotik und Armutsvorstellungen der 



Dritte-Welt. Interkulturelle Perception bei einer 
Dorfparrnerschaft, Illingen (Deutschland) und Palca/Tarma 
(Peru)." In Transatlantische Perzeptionen: Lateinamerika 
Europa USA in Geschichte und Gegenwart, Hans-Joachim 



Kbmg and Stefan Rinke (Eds.), pp. 367—388. 
(Historamencana, vol. 6). Stuttgart 1998. 
. "Asentamientos inka en Chakamarka y Tarmatambo 



(Dpto. de Junin): Problemas y criterios de interpretacion 
para la reconstruccion de una provmcia inka." In / Encuentro 
Internacional de Peruamstas. Estado de los Estudios Histo'rico- 
sociales sobre el Peru a fines del siglo XX. tomo I, pp. 181— 193. 
Universidad de Lima, Unesco, Fondo de Cultura 
Economica. Lima 1998 (Co-Authors: Ramiro Matos, David 
Brown). 
. "Alemania-Latinoamerica. Un modelo de 



entrenamiento intercultural." In International Communication 
in Business: Theory and Practice, edited by Robert Gibson, 
pp. 195—202. (European Network for Communication, 
Development in Business and Education). Sternenfels; 
Berlin: Verlag Wissenschaft und Praxis, 1998 (Co-Author: 
Adriana Spadoni). 
. "Hanan / Urin: Reflexiones acerca de un concepto 



dual inka y su aplicacion en el Chinchaysuyu." In $0 Anos de 
Estudios Americanistas en la Universidad de Bonn. Nuevas 
contnbuciones a la arqueologi'a. etnohistoria, etnolingui'stica y 
etnografia de las Americas. Sabine Dedenbach, Carmen 
Arellano, Eva Konig and Heiko Priimers (eds.), pp. 
473—493. (Bonner Amerikanistische Studien, 30). Markt 
Schwaben: Verlag Sauerwein 1998. 
. $0 Anos de Estudios Americanistas en la Universidad de 



Bonn. Nuevas constribuciones a la arqueologi'a, etnohistoria, 
etnolingui'stica y etnografia de las Americas. Sabine Dedenbach, 
Carmen Arellano, Eva Konig and Heiko Priimers (eds.). 
(Bonner Amerikanistische Studien, 30). Markt Schwaben: 
Verlag Sauerwein 1998. 
. "Los Inkas en la sierra central del Peru. Balance 



critico desde la perspectiva etnohistorica." Actas del Simposio 
Arq 16: "Los Inkas: Avances arqueologicos. etnohistdricos e 
iconogrdficos" , 490. Congreso Internacional de Americanistas 
(Quito, 7-11 de julio de 1997). Carmen Arellano and Laura 
Laurencich Minelli (eds.). In Tawantinsuyu, No. 5 (special 
issue). Canberra 1998. 
. "Introduccion." Actas del Simposio Arq 16: "Los Inkas: 



Avances arqueologicos, etnohistoricos e iconogrdficos" , 490. 
Congreso Internacional de Americanistas (Quito, 7— II de 
julio de 1997). Carmen Arellano and Laura Laurencich 
Minelli (eds.). In Tawantinsuyu, No. 5 (special issue). 
Canberra 1998 (Co-Author: Laura Laurencich Minelli). 
. Actas del Simposio Arq 16: "Los Inkas: Avances 



arqueoldgicos. etnohistdricos e iconogrdficos", 490. Congreso 
Internacional de Americanistas (Quito, 7— II de julio de 
1997). Carmen Arellano and Laura Laurencich Minelli 
(eds.). In Tawantinsuyu, No. 5 (special issue). Canberra 1998. 

Carroll, S. "Temporary Protection of a Tel Site Excavation in 
Central Turkey." Conservation and Management of 
Archaeological Sites 2, no. 3, James and James Publishing 
Ltd. (London, I998):i55-l62. 

de Montano, Marty Kreipe. Coyote in Love with a Star. Tales of 
the People series for children, National Museum of the 



170 



American Indian, Smithsonian Institution. Co-published 
by NMAI and Abbeville Press, 199S. 

Ganteaume, Cecile R. "Western Apache Tailored Deer Hide 
Shirts: Their Resemblance to Full Dress Coats Worn by 
Officers in the U.S. Army and Possible Meaning." American 
Indian Art Magazine (1998)144— 55:104. 

Johnson, Tim, ed. Spirit Capture: Photographs from the National 
Museum of the American Indian. Copublished by NMAI and 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1998. 

. "Keepers of the Power: Story as Covenant in the 

Films of Loretta Todd, Shelley Niro and Christine Welsh." 
In Kay Armatage, et al., eds. Gendering the Nation: 
Canadian Women's Cinema. University of Toronto Press, 1998. 

Kaminitz, Marian. "Cultural Partnerships at the National 
Museum of the American Indian." In Critical Issues in the 
Conservation of Ethnographic Materials. CAC Workshop, 
1998, Canadian Association for Conservation of Cultural 
Property. 

Kaplan, Emily, et al. "Analisis tecnico de qeros pintados de 
los Periodos Inca y Colonial." Iconos. no. 2 (July-December 
I999):30— 38. (Journal published by Yachay Wasi, Instituto 
Superior de Conservacion, Restauracion y Turismo, Lima, 
Peru.) 

Medicine Crow, Joseph. Brave Wolf and the Thunderbird. Tales 
of the People series for children, National Museum of the 
American Indian, Smithsonian Institution. Copublished by 
NMAI and Abbeville Press, 1998. 

Rapkievian, Carolyn. "Interpreting Native Cultures from the 
Native Perspective." Paper presented at conference on 
"Communication and Museography for the 21st Century" in 
Madrid, Spain, 4—7 May 1998, and published as part of 
conference proceedings by host, Spanish Ministry of 
Education and Culture. 

West, W. Richard. Speech to Smithsonian Institution 
Conference at the Louvre, 14 January 1998. Transcript 
published in Connaissance Des Artes (July I998):66— 73. 



National Museum of Natural History 



Office of the Director 

Bannikov, A.F. and J.C. Tyler. 1997. First discovery of a 
porcupinefish (Tetraodontiformes) in the Eocene of the 
North Caucasus. Paleo.Jour. (Moscow), 3l(6):648— 652, 2 figs. 

Gilbert, G.R. and J.C. Tyler. 1997. Apogon robbyi, a new 

cardinalfish (Perciformes: Apogonidae) from the Caribbean 
Sea. Bull. Marine Sci. (Univ. Miami), 6o<3):764-78i, 5 figs. 

Matsuura, K. and Tyler J.C. 1997. Resutats des Campagnes 
MUSORSTOM. 

Tetraodontiform fishes, mostly free from deep waters, of New 
Caledonia. Mem. Us. Natn. Hist. Nat., (A) 174:173-208, 27 
figs. 



Tyler, J.C. 1997. New species of Paratriacanthodes spikefish 
(Triacanthodidae: Tetraodontiformes) from the South China 
Sea. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, no(2):3iio-3l3, 1 fig. 

. 1997. The Miocene fish Marosichthys, a putative 

tetraodontiform, actually a perciform surgeon fish 
(Acanthuridae) related to che recent Naso. Beaufortia (Univ. 
Amsterdam), 47(i):i-io, 6 figs. 

Tyler, J.C. and A.F. Bannikov. 1997. Relationships of the fossil 
and recent genera of rabbitfishes (Acanthuroidei: 
Siganidae). Smithsonian Contrib. Paleo.. 84:1—35, 21 figs. 

Tyler J.C, and D.M. Tyler. 1997. A new species of chaenopsid 
fish, Emblemariopsis ruetzleri. from the western Caribbean 
Off Belize (Blennioidei). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 
iio(i):24-38, 6 figs. 



Department of Anthropology 

Archambault, J. 1996 Anthropology and Indians. Encyclopedia 

of North American Indians. (Fred Hoxie, ed.) New York: 

Houghton Mifflin Co. 
. 1996 Beads and Beadwork. Encyclopedia of North 

American Indians. (Fred Hoxie, ed.) New York: Houghton 

Mifflin Co. 
. 1996 Pan-Indian Organizations. Encyclopedia of North 



American Indians, (Fred Hoxie, ed.) New York: Houghton 

Mifflin Co. 
Archambault, J. and Sturtevant, W.C. 1996 150 Years of 

Native American Research at the Smithsonian. Anthro Notes 

i8(3):8-ii. 
. 1996 Museums and Collectors. Encyclopedia of North 

American Indians, (Fred Hoxie, ed.) New York: Houghton 

Mifflin Co. 
Behrensmeyer, A.K., N.E. Todd, R. Potts, and G.E. McBrinn 

1997 Late Pliocene faunal turnover in the Turkana Basin, 

Kenya and Ethiopia. Science 278:1589—1594. 
Damuth, J., A.K. Behrensmeyer, W.A. DiMichele, C. 

Labandeira, R. Potts, and S.L. Wing ETE Database Manual. 

Second Edition, ETE Consortium, Washington, D.C., 250 pp. 
Dequeker, J., D.J. Ortner, A. I. Stix, X. G. Cheng, P. Brys, 

and S. Boonen 1997 Hip fracture and osteoporosis in a 

Xllth Dynasty female skeleton from Lisht, Upper Egypt. 

Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 12:881-888. 
Fitzhugh, W W 1997 Ambassadors in Sealskins: Exhibiting 

Eskimos at the Smithsonian. In Exhibiting Dilemmas: Issues 

of Representation at the Smithsonian (Amy Henderson and 

Adrienne Kaeppler, eds.) Washington: Smithsonian Press 

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blueberries. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of 
Washington, 99:440—460. 

Nickle, D. A. and Naskrecki, P. 1997. Recent Developments 
in the Systematics of Tettigoniidae and Gryllidae. 60 ms 
pp. In: Grasshoppers and Their Kin, S. K. Gangwere (ed.). 

Nickle, D. A., Castner, J. L.,Smedley,S. R., Attygalle, A. B., 
Meinwald, J., and Eisner, T. 1997. Glandular pyrazine 
emission by a tropical karydid: an example of chemical 
aposematism? (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Copiphorinae: 
Vestria Stal). Journal of Orthoptera Research. 5:221—223. 

Norrbom, A. L. and McAlpine, J. F. 1997. A revision of the 
neotropical species of Dasiops Rondani (Diptera: 
Lonchaeidae) attacking Passiflora (Passifloraceae). Memoirs of 
the Entomological Society of Washington, 18:189—211. 

Norrbom, A. L. 1997. The genus Carpomya (Diptera: 

Tephritidae): New synonymy, description of first American 
species, and phylogenetic analysis. Proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of Washington, 99:338—347. 



Polhemus, D. A. 1997. Systematics of the Genus Rhagovelia 
Mayr (Heteroptera: Veliidae) in the Western Hemisphere 
(Exclusive of the angustipes Complex), in: Thomas Say 
Publications in Entomology: Monographs. Ashe, J. S. and 
Everngam Jr., R. L. (eds.), pp. 1-386. Entomological 
Society of America, Lanham, MD, [394 figs.]. 

Polhemus, D. A. and Kumashiro, B. 1997. Heteroptera: 
Nabidae, in: New Records for Hawaiian Insects, edited by 
Kumashiro, B. R. and Heu, R. A., pp. 49:20-21. Bishop 
Museum Occasional Papers. 

Polhemus, D. A. 1996. Island Arcs, and their Influence on 
Indo-Pacific Biogeography, in: The origin and evolution of 
Pacific Island biotas. New Guinea to Easter Polynesia: patterns 
and processes, pp. 51—66, edited by Keast, A. and Miller, S. 
E.. Academic Publishing, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 

[9 figs]- 

Robbins, R. K. 1997. These legs were made for walking — and 
so much more!. American Butterflies, 5:28-33. 

Robbins, R. K. and Opler, P. A. 1997. Butterfly diversity and 
a preliminary comparison with with bird and mammal 
diversity, pp. 69—82, in: Biodiversity II. Understanding and 
Protecting Our Biological Resources. Wilson, D. E., 
Reaka-Kudla, M. L. and Wilson, E. O. (eds.). Joseph Henry 
Press, Washington, DC. 

Robbins, R. K., Lamas, G., Mielke, O. H. H., Harvey, D. J., 
Casagrande, M. 1996. Taxonomic composition and 
ecological structure of the species-rich butterfly community 
at Pakitza, Parque Nacional del Manu, Peru, pp. 217—252, 
in: Manu: The Biodiversity of Southeastern Peru. D. E. Wilson 
and A. Sandoval (eds.). Smithsonian Institution Press, 
Washington, DC, 679 pp. 

Rueda, L. M., and Axtell, R. C. 1997. Arthropods in litter of 
poultry (broiler chicken and turkey) houses. Journal of 
Agricultural Entomology, I4(l):8l-9I. 

Rueda, L. M., Roh, P. U., and Ryu, J. L. 1997. Pupal 
parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) of filth flies 
(Diptera: Muscidae, Calliphoridae) breeding in refuse and 
poultry livestock manure in South Korea. Journal of Medical 
Entomological, 34(l):82— 85. 

Rueda, L. M., Stockwell, S. A., Pecor, J. E., and Gaffigan, 
T. V. 1997. Key to the Mosquito Genera of the World. 
Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit, Department of 
Entomology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 
Washington, DC. CD-ROM. 

Sallum, M. A. M. And Wilkerson, R. C. 1997. Description of 
the immature stages of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) rodoni 
(Neiva & Pinto) (Diptera: Culicidae). Mem. Inst. Oswaldo 
Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 92(3)^65— 372. 

Savini, V. and Furth, D. G. 1997. Nuevas Combinaciones, 
Designacion de Lectotipos y Redescripciones en Gioia 
Bechyne (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Alticinae). Bol. 
Entomol. Venez. N.S. Il(2):i9l— 198. 

. 1997. Chaetocnema seriata (Duvivier) (Coleoptera: 

Chrysomelidae, Alticinae): A New Combination. The 
Coleoptertsts Bulletin, Jl(2):l98. 



180 



Scharff, N. and Coddington, J. A. 1997. A phylogenenc 
analysis of the orb-weaving spider family Araneidae 
(Arachnida, Araneae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean 
Society, 120:355-434 [103 figs.]. 

Silva, D. and Coddington, J. A. 1996. Spiders of Pakitza 
(Madre de Dios, Peni): species richness and notes on 
community structure. In: D. E. Wilson and A. Sandoval 
(Eds.), La Biodiversidad del Sureste del Peru. Editorial 
Horizonte, Lima Peru, 241—299 [6 figs; 5 tables]. 

Smith, D. R. 1997. Aulacidae (Hymenoptera) of Sri Lanka. 
Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 
99:60-66. 

. 1997. Collections of Stephanidae (Hymenoptera) in 

the mid-Atlantic states, including an eastern record for 
Schlettererius cinctipes (Cresson). Proceedings of the Entomological 
Society of Washington. 99:377-378. 

Smith, D. R. and Schiefer, X L. 1997. A new genus and 
species of Allantinae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredimdae) from 
southeasrern United States. Proceedings of the Entomological 
Society of Washington, 99:472—476. 

Spangler, P.J. 1996. A New Genus and Species of Aquatic 
Beetle, Caenelmis octomena, from Kenya, Africa 
(Coleoptera: Elmidae: Elminae). Insecta Mundi. 
io(i-4):I9— 23 [20 figs.]. 

. 1996. Four New Stygobiontic Beetles (Coleoptera: 

Dytiscidae; Notendae; Elmidae). Insecta Mundi, 
io(i-4):24I-26o {80 figs.]. 

Staines, C. L. and Staines, S. L. 1997. Type Specimens of 
Hispinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the National 
Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 
Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 585:1-25. 

Thompson, F. C. 1997. Revision of the Enstalis flower flies 
(Diptera: Syrphidae) of the Americas South of the United 
States. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 
99(2):209-237. 

. 1997. Spilomyia flower flies of the New World 

(Diptera: Syrphidae). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of 
Washington, 261—272. 

. 1997. The genus Pleskeola Stackelberg (Diptera: 



Syrphidae), a junior synonym of Parhelophilus Girschner. 
Proceedings of the Entomological Society Washington. 37 ms pp. 

Vandenberg, N.J. 1997. Beetle Economics. Proceedings of the 
XXI BARC Symposium, 107-116. 

Venable, G. L. and Erwin, T. L. 1997. Mapping of the 
biodiversity site at Pakitza, pp. 29-42. In: Manu, The 
Biodiversity of Southeastern Peru, by Wilson, D. E. and 
Sandoval, A. (eds.), Editorial horizonte, Lima. 

Wijesekara, A. G. and Schauff, M. E. 1997. Two new genera of 
Eulpectrini (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of Washington, 99:101—109. 

Wilkerson, R. C, Sallum, M. A. M., and Forattim, O. P. 
1997. Redescription of Anopheles (Anopheles) shannoni Davis; 
a member of the Ambalzagia series from the Amazon Basin 
(Diptera: Culicidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of 
Washington, ^^y.^61-471. 



Woodley, N. E. 1997. A review of the Afrotropical 

pachygastrine genus Meristomerinx Enderlein (Diptera: 
Stratiomyidae). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of 
Washington. 18:289-297. 

Zumbado, M. A. and Thompson, F. C. 1997. Neuvas Especies 
de Sterphus (Diptera: Syrphidae) de Costa Rica Con Not as 
Sobre Otras Especies Presentes en Costa. Southwestern 
Entomologist, 22(l):79~90. 



Department of Invet tebrate Zoology 

Adamkewicz, S.L. and M.G. Harasewych, 1996. Systematics 
and biogeography of the genus Donax (Bivalvia: Donacidae) 
in eastern North America. American Malacological Bulletin 
I3(i/2):97-io3. 

Adamkewicz, S.L., M.G. Harasewych, J. A. Blake, T. Spriggs 
and C.J. Bult, 1997. A molecular phylogeny of bivalve 
mollusks. Molecular Biology and Evolution 

Cairns, S.D. and H. Zibrowius, 1997. Cnidaria Anthozoa: 
Azooxanthellate Scleractinia from the Philippine and 
Indonesian regions. In: Crosnier, A. and P. Bouchet [eds.), 
Resultats des Campagnes M USORSTOM. Memoires du Museum 
National d'Histoire Naturelle. Paris 172:27—243. 

Child, C.A., 1996. The Pyconogonida types or William A. 
Hilton. II. The remaining undescribed species. Proceedings 
of the Biological Society of Washington io9(4):677-686. 

. 1997. Some deep-sea Pycnogonida from che 

Argentine slope and basin. Proceedings of the Biological Society 
of Washington no(l):i28-i42. 

Child, C.A. and M. Segonzac, 1996. Sericosura heteroscela and S. 
cyrtoma, new species, and other Pycnogonida from Atlantic 
and Pacific hydrothermal vents, with notes on habitat and 
environment. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 
109(4): 664-676. 

Coan, E.V. and A.R. Kabat, 1996. Annotated catalog of 
malacological meetings, including symposia and 
workshops in malacology. American Malacological Bulletin 
13:129-148. 

Felder, D.L. and R.B. Manning, 1997. Ghost shrimps of the 
Genus Lepidophthalmus from the Caribbean region, with 
description of L. richardi, new species, from Belize 
(Decapoda: Thalassimdea: Callianassidae)._/o«rWfl/ 
Crustacean Biology lj(z):^o^— 331. 

Harasewych, M.G., S.L. Adamkewicz, J.A. Blake, D. Saudek, 
T Spriggs and C.J. Bult, 1997. Phylogeny and relationships 
of pleurotomariid gastropods (Mollusca: Gastropoda): an 
assessment based on partial 18S rDNA and cytochrome C 
oxidase I sequences. Molecular Marine Biology and 
Biotechnology 6(l):i— 20 . 

. 1997. Neogstropod phylogeny: a molecular 

perspective. Journal of Molluscan Studies 63:327—351. 

Hershler, R. 1996. Review of the North American aquatic 
snail genus Probythmella (Rissooidea: Hydrobiidae). 
Invertebrate Biology H5(2):I20-I44. 



181 



Janetzky, W., P. Martinez Arbizu and J.W. Reid, 1996. 

Attheyella (Canthosella) mervini sp.n. (Canthocamptidae, 

Harpaccicoida) from Jamaican bromeliads. Hydrobiologia 

339:123-135. 
Kabat, A.R. 1996. Biogeography of the genera of Nancjdae 

(Gastropoda) in the Indo Pacific. American Malacological 

Bulletin l2(l/2):29-35. 
. 1996. J.J.N.A. Spalowsky (1752-1797) and the 

prodromus in Systema Historicum Testaceorum (1795). 

Archives of Natural History 23(2):24 5-253. 
Kensley, B. 1996. New thalassinidean shrimp from the Pacific 

Ocean (Crustacea: Decapoda: Axiidae and Calocandidae). 

Bulletin of Marine Science 59(j):469— 489. 
. 1996. The genus Ptilanthura in the western Atlantic: 

evidence for primary males and description of a new species 

(Isopoda: Anthuridae)._/0#nW of Crustacean Biology 

16(4)763-781. 
. 1997. Identification, distribution, and aspects of the 



biology often anthuridean isopod species from the shallow 

continental shelf of the U.S. gulf and east coasts. Gulf 

Research Reports 9(4):zjj-}OZ. 
Kensley, B. and M. Schotte, 1997. New records of marine 

Isopoda from Cuba (Crustacea: Peracarida). Proceedings of the 

Biological Society of Washington iio(i):74— 98. 
Kornicker, L.S. and D.J. Barr, 1997. Anchialine Ostracoda 

(Halocyprididae) from San Salvador, Bahamas. Smithsonian 

Contributions to Zoology 588:1—20. 
Lalana, R. and Kornicker, L.S., 1997. Amboleberis cubensis. a 

new species of myodocopine ostracode from the vicinity of 

Cuba (Crustacea: Ostracoda: Cylindrolebendidae). 

Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington iio(i):io7— 114. 
Lemaitre, R., 1997. Crustacea Decapoda: Parapagundae from 

the KARUBAR Cruise in Indonesia, with descriptions of 

two new species. Re'sultats des Campagnes MUSORSTOM, 16. 

Memoiresdu Museum national d'Histoire naturelle. Paris 

i72-:573-59<5- 

Lemaitre, R. and P.K.L. Ng, 1996. Rediscover)' and 
redescription of the rare hermit crab, Diogenes jubatus 
(Nobill, 1903) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: 
Diogenidae), from Singapore. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 
44(2):323-333. 

Manning, R.B. 1996. Viridotheres marionae, a new genus and 
species of pinnotherid crab from west Africa (Crustacea: 
Decapoda: Brachyura). Zoologische Mededelingen Rijksmuseurn 
van Natuurlijke Historie Leiden 70:271—273. 

. 1997. Eunephrops luckhursti, a new deep-sea lobster from 

Bermuda (Crustacea: Decapoda: Nephropidae). Proceedings of 
the Biological Soceity of Washington IIo(2):256-262. 

■ 1997- Neogonodactylus campi, a new species of stomatopod 



crustacean from the Caribbean Sea, with additional records for 
N. caribbaeus (Schorte and Manning). Proceedings of the Biological 
Society ofWashington no(2):28o-284. 
Norenburg, J.L. 1996. First record of the terrestrial species 
Geonemertes pelaensis (Nemertea: Hoplonemertea) in Hawaii. 
Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 46:21. 



Norman, M.A. and M.J. Sweeney, 1997. The shallow-water 

Octopuses (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) of the Philippines. 

Invertebrate Taxonomy ii(i):89— 140. 
Pastonno, G. 1996. Predation marks in bivalves of the coastal 

marine Quaternary of the province of Buenos Aires, 

Argentina. Iberus I4(l):93— 101. 
Pastonno, G. and M. Griffin, 1996. An extant whale barnacle 

(Cirripedia, Coronulidae) from holocene deposits of Buenos 

Aires (Argentina). Crustaceana 69(6)769— 772. 
Pettibone, M.H., 1996. Revision of the scaleworm genera 

Acholoe Claparede, Arctonoella Buzhinskaja, and Intoshella 

Darboux (Polychaeta: Polynoidae) with the erection of the 

new subfamily Acholoinae. Proceedings of the Biological Society 

of Washington 1 09(4)^29— 644. 
. 1997. Revision of the sigalionid species (Polychaeta) 

referred to Psammolyce Kinberg, 1856, Pelogenia Schmarda, 

1861, and belonging to the Subfamily Plogeniinae 

Chamberlin, 1919. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 

581:1-89. 
Reid, J.W. 1996. Copepoda (Calanoida, Cyclopoida, 

Harpacticoida). In: WCN Red list of Threatened Animals, 

Gland. Switzerland -.^l-^t, 96, 132-133, 185, 207—208. 
Reid, J.W. and W. Janetzky, 1996. Colonization of Jamaican 

bromeliads by Tropocyclops jamaicensis n.sp. (Crustacea: 

Copepoda: Cyclopoida). Invertebrate Zoology II5(4):305— 320. 
Roper, C.F.E. and M. Vecchione, 1996. In situ observations on 

Brachioteuthis beami Verrill: paired behavior, probably 

mating (Cephalopoda, Oegopsida). American Malacological 

Bulletin i3(i/2):55— 60. 
. 1997. In situ observations test hypotheses of 

functional morphology in Mastigoteuthis (Cephalopoda; 

Oegopsida). Vie et Milieu 4j(z):Sj-c>-}. 
Ruetzler, K., 1996. Sponge diving — Professional but not for 

profit. In: Lang, M.A. andC.C. Baldwin (eds.), Methods and 

techniques of underwater research. Proceedings of the American 

Academy of Underwater Sciences Scientific Diving Symposium, 

October :i83-204. 
Ruetzler, K. and S. Richardson, 1996. The Caribbean spicule 

tree: a sponge-imitating foraminifer (Astrorhizidae). 

Bulletin de I'lnstitut Royal des Sciences Naturales de Belgique, 

Biologic suppl. 66:143-151. 
Sanchez, G., H.M. Perry, C.B. Trigg, M. Vecchione, C. Roper 

and R.M. Biesiot, 1996. Morphometry of juvenile and 

subadult Loligo pealei and L. plei from the northern Gulf of 

Mexico. Fishery Bulletin 94:535—550. 
Sankarankutty, C. and R.B. Manning, 1997. Observations on 

Hexapanopeus schmitti Rathbun from Brazil (Crustacea: 

Decapoda: Xanthidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of 

Washington uo(2):249-255 
Vecchione, M. 1997. Commentary on the International 

Symposium on Functional Morphology of Cehalopods. Vie 

et Milieu 47(2):i83-i84. 
Vecchione, M. and B.B. Collette, 1996. Fisheries Agencies and 

marine biodiversity. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 

83(i):29-36. 



182 



. 1996. The central role of systematics in marine 

biodiversity problems. Oceanography 9(l):44— 49. 

Vecchione, M. and R.E. Young, 1997. Aspects of the 

functional morphology of cirrate octopods: Locomotion and 
feeding. Vie et Milieu 47(2):ioi-iio. 



Department of Mineral Sciences 

Aranda-Gomez, J.J., Henry, CD., Luhr, J.F., and McDowell, 
F.W. (1997) Cenozoic volcanism and tectonics in NW 
Mexico: A transect across the Sierra Madre Occidental 
Volcanic Field and observations on extension-related 
magmatism in the southern Basin and Range and Gulf of 
California tectonic provinces. Guidebook for Excursion No. 
II, International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry 
of the Earth's Interior, General Assembly, Puerto Vallarta, 
Mexico, 94 pp. 

Dickinson T.L. and McCoy T. J. (1997) Experimental REE 
partitioning in oldhamite: Implications for the igneous 
origin of aubritic oldhamite. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 
32, 395-412- 

Fritsch, S., Post, J.E. and Navrotsky, A. (1997) Energetics of 
stable and metastable low temperature manganese dioxides 
and oxyhydroxides. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. In press. 

Haynes, J.T. and Melson, W.G. (1997). SEM and EMX study 
of titaniferous minerals in the Ordovician and Deicke 
K-benronite of southwestern Virginia. Virginia Minerals, v. 
43(1), p. 1-7 

Luhr, J. F. and Melson, W.G. (1997). Mineral and Glass 
compositions in the June 15, 1991 pumices: evidence for 
dynamic equilbrium in the Pinatubo dacite. Pp. 733—750. 
In "Fire and Mud: Eruptions of Mount Pinatubo. Philippines" , 
edited by C.G. Newhall and R.S. Punongbayan, Univ. 
Washington Press, Seattle. 

Luhr, J.F. (1997) Extensional tectonics and diverse primitive 
volcanic rocks in the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. Can. 
Mineral. 35:473-500. 

Luhr, J.F. and Aranda-Gomez, J.J. (1997) Mexican peridotite 
xenoliths and tectonic terranes: Correlations among vent 
location, texture, temperature, pressure, and oxygen 
fugacity.J. Petrol. 38:1075—1112. 

Luhr, J.F. and Delgado-Granados, H. (1997) Aerial 

examination of volcanoes along the front of the western 
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and a visit to Paricutin. 
Guidebook for Excursion No. 9, International Association 
of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, 
General Assembly, Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, 38 pp. 

McCoy T.J. and Ehlmann A.J. (1997) Monnig collection 
meteorites from Forestburg, Davy, Harrison Township and 
Gurram Konda. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 32, 
A167-A170. 

McCoy T.J., Ehlmann A.J. and Moore C.B. (1997) The Leedey, 
Oklahoma, chondrite: Fall, petrology, chemistry and an 
unusual Fe ,N i-FeS inclusion. Meteoritics and Planetary 
Science 32, 19—24. 



McCoy T.J., Keil K., Clayton R.N., Mayeda T.K., Bogard 
D.D., Garrison D.H. and Wieler R. (1997) A petrologic 
and isotopic study of lodranites: Evidence for early 
formation as partial melt residues from heterogeneous 
precursors. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 61, 623—637. 

McCoy T.J., Keil K., Muenow D.W. and Wilson L. (1997) 
Partial melting and melt migration in the 
acapulcoite-lodranite parent body. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 
61, 639-650. 

Melson, W.G., Post, J., Wise, M., Sorensen, S., Fiske, D., 
Luhr, J., McPherson, G., and McCoy, T (1997). From 
Diamonds To Diamonds: A Tour Of The New Geology, 
Gems, And Minerals Exhibit; Geotimes. 

Post J. E. (1997) The National Gem Collection 

Russell S.S., McCoy T.J., Jarosewich E. and Ash R.D. (1997) 
The Burnwell, Kentucky, low-FeO chondrite fall: 
Description, classification and origin. Meteoritics and 
Planetary Science (in press). 

Snell H. M., Snell H. L., Davis-Merlen G., Simkin T, and 
Silberglied R. E. (1997) Bibliography oj Galapagos Science; 
Charles Darwin Foundation. 321 pp. 

Sorensen S. S., Grossman J. N., and Perfit M. R. (1997) 
Phengite-hosted LILE enrichment in eclogite and related 
rocks: implications for fluid-mediated mass transfer in 
subduction zones and arc magma genesis;Journal of 
Petrology 38, 3-34. 



Department of Paleobiology 

Baker, R., and Dimichele, W. A. "Biomass Allocation in Late 
Pennsylvanian Coal-swamp Plants." Palaios 12 
(2)d996):i27-i32. 

Behrensmeyer, A. K. " Learning from Fossils: the Role of 
Museums in Understanding and Preserving our 
Paleontological Heritage." In Partners in Paleontology: 
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Fossil Resources ipp4 
{Natural Resources Report NPSINRFLFOINRR-97I 01} 
(i997):2i-23. Edited by M. Johnson and J. McChristal. 
Florissant, Colorado: U. S. Department of the Interior, 
National Park Service, 239 pages. 

Benson, R. H, and Hayek, L. C. "An Application of Spectral 
Analysis: Tying Iterative Changes in the Earth's Magnetic 
Field to Rhythms in Earth Orbital Motion." Stats 18 
(lS>97):3-8. 

Buzas, M. A., and Hayek, L. C. "Biodiversity Resolution: an 
Integrated Approach." Biodiversity Letters 3 (2)(l996):40—43. 

Cheetham, A. H., and Jackson, J. B. C. "Speciation, 
Extinction, and the Decline of Arborescent Growth in 
Neogene Quaternary Cheilostome Bryozoa of Tropical 
America." In Evolution and Environment in Tropical America 
(i996):205-233. Edited by J. B. C. Jackson, A. F. Budd, and 
A. G. Coates. Chicago and London: University of Chicago 
Press, 425 pages. 

Culver, S. J.; Woo. H. J.; Oertel, G. F.; and Buzas, M. A. 
"Foraminifera of Coastal Depositional Environments, 



183 



Virginia, U. S. A.: Distribution and Taphonomy." Palaios II 

(5)(i9S>6):459-486. 

Cunningham, K. J.; Benson, R. H.; Rakic-El Bied, K.; and 
McKenna, L. W. "Eustatic Implications of late Miocene 
Depositional Sequences in the Melilla Basin, Northeastetn 
Morocco." Sedimentary Geology 107 (3-4)(l997):i47-l65. 

Damuth, J.; Behrensmeyer, A. K.; Dimichele, W. A.; 

Labandeira, C. C; Potts, R.; and Wing, S. L. ETE Database 
Manual. Washington, D. C: Evolution of Terrestrial 
Ecosystems Consortium, 250 pages. 

Dimichele, W A., and Bateman, R. M. "The Rhizomorphic 
Lycopsids: a Case-study in Paleobotanical Classification." 
Systematic Botany 21 (4)(l996):535~552. 

Dimichele, W A.; Eble, C. E, and Chaney, D. S. "A Drowned 
Lycopsid Forest above the Mahoning Coal (Conemaugh 
Group, Upper Pennsylvanian) in Eastern Ohio, U.S.A." 
International Journal of Coal Geology 31 (1— 4)(l996):249— 276. 

Dimichele, W. A.; Pfefferkorn, H. W.; and Phillips, T L. 
"Persistence of Late Carboniferous Tropical Vegetation 
During Glacially Driven Climatic and Sea-level 
Fluctuations." Paleogeography. Paleoclimatology. Paleoecology 
125 (i-4)(I99<5):io5— 128. 

Dimichele, W A., and Phillips, T. L. ' Clades, Ecological 
Amplitudes, and Ecomorphs: Phylogenetic Effects and the 
Persistence of Primitive Plant Communities in the 
Pennsylvanian-age Tropics." Paleogeography. Paleoclimatology. 
Paleoecology 127 (i-4)(I99<S):83-io6. 

Dutro, J. T,Jr. "The Brachiopod: Amazing Arm-Foot 
Animal." American Paleontologist 5 (3)(l997):2— 5. 

. "Presentation of the Gilbert Harris Award to 

William A. Cobban." American Paleontologist 5 (3)(I997):8— 9. 

Emry, R. J.; Wang, B.; Tjutkova, L. A.; and Lucas, S. G. "A 
late Eocene Eomyid Rodent from the Zaysan Basin of 
Kazakhstan. "Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 17 

(i)(i997):2-2.9-i34- 
Erwin, D. H. Review of "Dinosaur Extinction and the End of 

an Era: What the Fossils Say," by J. D. Archibald; 

"Cretaceous-Tertiary Mass Extinction, Biotic and 

Environmental Changes," by N. MacLeod and G. Keller; 

and "The Great Dinosaur Extinction Controversy," by C. 

Officer and J. Page. American Paleontologist 5 (lXl997):9— 10. 
Erwm, D. H.; Valentine, J. W; and Jablonski, D. "The 

Origin of Animal Bodyplans." American Scientist 85 

(2Xi997):i26-l37. 
Erwin, D. H., and Zeigler, W. "Paleontology in Museums and 

Institutes in the 21st Century." Kleine Senckenbergreihe No. 25 

(l997):69-75. 
Gastaldo, R. A.; Dimichele, W A.; and Pfefferkorn, H. W. 

"Out of the Icehouse into the Greenhouse: a Late Paleozoic 

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Phycological Research. 44:81—84. 

Pires, A. and R. M. Woollacott. 1997. Serotonin and 

dopamine have opposite effects on phototaxis in larvae of 
the bryozoan Bugola neritina. Biological Bulletin (Woods 
Hole), 192:399-409. 

Roper, Clyde F.E. and Michael Vecchione. 1996. In-Situ 

observations on Brachioteuthis beam: Verrill: paired behavior, 
probably mating; (Cephalopoda, Oegopsida). American 
Malacological Bulletin. I3(i/2):55~6o. 

Rouse, Greg E. and Kristian Fauchald. 1995. The Articulation 
of Annelids. Zoologica Scripta. 24(4):269— 301. 

Ruppert, Edward E. 1996. Cephalochordata (Acrania). 
Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, 15: Hemichordata, 
Chaetognatha, and the Invertebrate Chordates. 349—504. 

. 1996. Introduction: Microscopic Anatomy of the 

Notochord, Heterochrony, and Chordate Evolution. 
Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, is: Hemichordata, 
Chaetognatha. and the Invertebrate Chordates, I— 13. 

. 1996. Morphology of Hatschek' Nephndium in 



Larval and Juvenile Stages of Branchiostoma virginiae 
(Cephalochordata). Israel Journal of Zoology, 42: S-161— S-182. 

Ryland, John S. 1997. Reproduction in Zoanthidea (Anthozoa: 
Hexacorallia). Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 
31:1-3 177-188. 

Sankarankutry, C. and Raymond B. Manning. 1997. 

Observations on Hexapanopeus schmitti Rathbun from Brazil 
(Crustacea: Decapoda: Xanthidae). Proceedings of the 
Biological Society of Washington. no(2):249— 255. 

Winston, Judith E. 1997. Encrusters, Epibionts, and Other 
Biota Associated with Pelagic Plastics: A Review of 
Biogeographical, Environmental, and Conservation Issues. 
In: Marine Debris: Sources, Impact and Solutions. Proceedings of 
the Third International Symposium on Marine Debris, y.&l-jj. 



192 



National Portrait Gallery 



Office of the Director 

Carr, Carolyn K. "William Merritt Chase: Girl in White." In 
Akron Art Museum: Art Since 1&50. an Introduction to the 
Collection, by Barbara Tannenbaum, Mitchell D. Kahan, and 
Jeffrey Grove, with additional contributions by Graham 
W.J. Beal et al. Akron, Ohio: Akron Art Museum, 1997. 

Fern, Alan. Foreword to Mat hew Brady and the Image of History. 
by Mary Panzer. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian 
Institution Press, 1997. 

. "Leadership in Arts — Oxymoron or Opportunity." 

Washington, D.C.: The Cosmos Club, Cosmos ippj, 

PP- 70-73- 
Fern, Alan, and Albert J. Beveridge III. Foreword to George C. 
Marshall: Soldier of Peace, by James G. Barber. Washington, 
D.C. and Lexington, Virginia: National Portrait Gallery 
and The George C. Marshall Foundation, 1997. 



Catalog of American Portraits 

Sisum, Deborah L. '"A Most Favorable and Striking 

Resemblance': The Virginia Portraits of Cephas Thompson 
( l 77$— 1856)." Journal of Early Southern Decorative Arts 23, no. 
i,(Summer i997):i-89. 



. "Lighting Out for the Territories: American 

Expatriates, Pans, and Modernism." The Sewanee Review 105 
(Summer i997):423-27. 

. Essay review of Landscape and Memory, by Simon 



Schama, and Flesh and Stone, by Richard Sennett. 
Archives of American Art Journal 36 (Winter 1996 [1997]): 
23-26. 
. Review of Agent of Destiny: The Life and Times of 



Winfield Scott, by John Eisenhower. The Philadelphia 
Inquirer. January II, 1997, 8. 
. Review at Daniel Webster: The Man and His Time, by- 



Robert Remini. The Philadelphia Inquirer. December 14, 
1997, 7- 
. Review of Robert Penn Warren, by Joseph Blotner. The 



Boston Book Review, July/August 1997, 16. 



Department of Photographs 

Panzer, Mary C. Foreword to Mary Ellen Mark: Portraits. 

Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997. 
. Mathew Brady and the Image of History. Washington, 

D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997. 
. ed. "Mathew Brady's National Portrait Gallery 



Gazette." Washington, D.C: National Portrait Gallery, 
1997- 
. ed. Mathew Brady's Portraits: A Web-site. National 



Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, 1997. 



Department of History 

Barber, James G. George C. Marshall: Soldier of Peace. 

Washington, D.C: National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian 
Institution and The George C Marshall Foundation, 1997. 

Henderson, Amy, and Dwight Blocker Bowers. Introduction 
and progam notes for Star Spangled Rhythm: Voices of 
Broadway and Hollywood (4-CD set). Washington, D.C: 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997. 

. Red. Hot & Blue Songbook: Classic Songs from Great 

American Musicals. New York: Universe, 1997. 



Peale Family Papers 

Hart, Sidney. Essay review of Public Culture in the Early 

Republic: Peak's Museum and Its Audience, by David A. 

Bngham. Archives of American Art Journal 3<S(Winter 1996 

[I997]):ll-l6. 
. Review oijohn Quincy Adams: A Public Life, a Private 

Life, by Paul C. Nagel. The Philadelphia Inquirer, November 

30, 1997. 
Ward, David C. "'Morgenland': The Poetry of Robert 

Morgan." North Carolina Literary Review 6 (Summer 

l997):l24-29. 
. "'Love Again': Larkin and Obscenity." The Sewanee 

Review 105 (Spring I997):227~43. 



Department of Prints and Drawings 

Reaves, Wendy Wick. "Celebrity Caricature and Material 
Culture." The Grapevine (November 1996):!— 2. 

Wagner, Ann Prentice. '"The Artist Prints: Thirty-Five Years 
at Crown Point Press' at The National Gallery of Art." The 
Washington Print Club Quarterly (Fall I997):n-I4. 

. "The Graver, the Brush, and the Ruling Machine: 

The Training of Late-Nineteenth-Century Wood 
Engravers." In The Cultivation of Artists in Nineteenth Century 
America. Edited by Georgia B. Barnhill, Diana Korzenik, 
and Caroline F. Sloatt. Worcester, Mass.: American 
Antiquarian Society, 1997. 

. "Michelangelo and His Influence: Walking Tour by 



Andrew Robison." The Washington Print Club Quarterly 
(Spring l997):2-4. 
Walker, LuLen. "A Jazz Era Portfolio at the National Portrait 
Gallery." The Washington Print Club Quarterly (Winter 

i99<S-5>7):3-44- 

. "Le Tumulte Noir: Paul Colm's Jazz Age Portfolio." 

Brochure for the National Portrait Gallery exhibition, 
January 31— September 14, 1997. Brochure was also 
published in the Chicago Art Deco Society Magazine (Spring 

I997):i3-I5- 
. "Tour of Biennial Exhibition: 'Go Out Into the 



Street,'" The Washington Print Club Quarterly (Spring I997):9- 



103 



National Postal Museum 



Office of the Director 

Bruns, James H. Great American Post Offices. New York: John 

Wiley and Sons, 1997. 
. Motorized Mail. Iola, Wisconsin: Krause 

Publicacions, 1997. 
. Reaching Rural America. Ord, Nebraska: Quiz 



Graphics, 1997. 
. Horse-Drawn Mail Vehicles. Rochelle, Illinois: 



Rochelle Pnnring Company, 1996. 



National Zoological Park 



Allen, M. E., O. T. Oftedal. 1996. "Essential nutrients in 
mammalian diets." In: Wild Mammals in Captivity. 
(Eds: Kleiman, D. G., M. E. Allen, K. V. Thompson, et al.) 
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 117— 128. 

Allen, M. E., O. T. Oftedal, D. J. Baer. 1996. "The feeding 
and nutrition of carnivores." In: Wild Mammals in Captivity. 
(Eds: Kleiman, D. G., M. E. Allen, K. V. Thompson, et al.) 
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 139-147. 

Baker, A. J., A. M. Baker, K. V. Thompson. 1996. "Parental 
care in captive mammals." In: Wild Mammals in Captivity. 
(Eds: Kleiman, D. G., M. E. Allen, K. V. Thompson, et al.) 
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 497-512. 

Ballou, J. D. 1996. "Small population management: 

contraception of golden lion tamarins." In: Contraception in 
Wildlife. Book 1. (Eds: Cohn, P. N., E. D. Plotka, U. S. 
Seal.) Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press, 339—358. 

Ballou, J. D., and T. J. Foose. 1996. "Demographic and 
genetic management of captive populations." In: Wild 
Mammals in Captivity. (Eds: Kleiman, D. G., M. E. Allen, 
K. V. Thompson, et al.) Chicago: University of Chicago 
Press, 263-283. 

Ballou, J. D. 1997. "Genetic and demographic aspects of 
animal reintroductions." Supplemento alle ricerche di biologia 
della selvaggina. Bologna: National Institute of Wildlife. 
XXVIL75-95. 

. 1997. "Genetic and demographic modeling for 

animal colony and population management." Institute for 
Laboratory Animal Research 38:69-75. 

. 1997. "Ancestral inbreeding only minimally affects 



inbreeding depression in mammalian populations. "Journal 
of Heredity 88:169-178. 

Boness, D. J. 1996. "Water quality management in aquatic 
mammal exhibits." In: Wild Mammals in Captivity. (Eds: 
Kleiman, D. G., M. E. Allen, K. V. Thompson, et al.) 
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 231-242. 

Boness, D. J. and W. D. Bowen. 1996. "The evolution of 
maternal care in pinnipeds." BioScience 46(9X645— 654. 



Brody, A. J., K. Ralls, D. B. Siniff. 1996. "Potential impact of 
oil spills on California sea otters: Implications of the Exxon 
Valdez spill in Alaska." Marine Mammal Science 12:38—53. 

Brown, J. L., and D. E. Wildt. 1997. "Assessing reproductive 
status in wild felids by non-invasive faecal steroid 
monitoring." International Zoo Yearbook 35:173—191. 

Bush, M. 1997. "Clinical challenge." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife 
Medicine 28(2):220— 221. 

Carlstead, K. 1996. "Effects of captivity on the behavior of 
wild mammals." In: Wild Mammals in Captivity. (Eds: 
Kleiman, D. G., M. E. Allen, K. V. Thompson, et al.) 
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 317—333. 

Carter, C. S., and L. S. Roberts. 1997. "The psychobiological 
basis of cooperative breeding in rodents." In: Cooperative 
breeding in mammals. (Eds: Solomon, N. G., and J. A. 
French) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 231-266. 

Castro, M. I., B. B. Beck, D. G. Kleiman, and C. 

Ruiz-Miranda. 1997. "Environmental enrichment in a 
reintroduction program for golden lion tamarins 
{Leontopithecus rosalia)." In: Second Nature: Environmental 
Enrichment for Captive Animals. (Eds: Shepherdson, D. J., 
J. D. Mellen, M. Hutchms.) Washington, D.C.: 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 113— 128. 

Cooper, A. C, J. Rhymer, H., S. Olson, C. Mcintosh, 
M. Sorenson, R. C. Fleischer. 1996. "Ancient DNA and 
island endemics." Nature 381:484. 

Creel, S., N. M. Creel, and S. L. Monfort. 1997 

"Radiocollaring African wild dogs {Lycaon pictus) does not 
cause chronic stress." Conservation Biology 10:1—6. 

Cunningham, C, and J. Berger. 1997. Horn of Darkness: Rhinos 
on the Edge. New York: Oxford University Press. 

Fajardo, M. E, M. A. Ramos, and J. H. Rappole. 1997. 

"Platynnchus cancrommus. " In Historia Natural de los Tuxtlas. 
(Eds. E. G. Soriano, R. Dirzo, and R. C. Vogt) Mexico D. 
F., Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 
562—64. 

Ferrell, S. T, L. K. Richman, M. Bush, R. J. Montaii, and 
L. Tell. 1997. " Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (meningeal worm) 
in scimitar-horned oryx {Oryx dammah)." Journal of Zoo and 
Wildlife Medicine 28(2): 221-223. 

Fleischer, R. C. 1996. "Application of molecular methods to 
the assessment of genetic mating systems in vertebrates." 
In: Molecular Zoology: Advances, Strategies, and Protocols. (Eds: 
Ferraris, J. D., S. R. Palumbi.) New York: Wiley-Liss, 
133-161. 

Fleischer, R. C. and S. Loew. 1996. "Construction of 

microsatellite-enriched genomic libraries." In: Molecular 
Zoology: Advances, Strategies and Protocols. (Eds: Ferraris, 
J. D., S. R. Palumbi.) New York: Wiley-Liss, 461-468. 

Fleischer, R. C, C. L. Tarr, E. S. Morton, A. Sangmeister, 
K. C. Derrickson. 1997. "Mating system of the dusky 
antbird, a tropical passerine, as assessed by DNA 
fingerprinting." CoWor 99:512— 514. 

Good, S. V., D. F. Williams, K. Ralls, and R. C. Fleischer. 
1997. "Population structure of Dipidomys ingens 



194 



(Heteromyidae): The role of spatial heterogeneity in 
maintaining genetic diversity." Evolution 51:1296—1310. 

Grand, T. I. 1996. "Disposal versus disposition: The role of a 
comparative anatomist in a zoological park." In: Wild 
Mammals in Captivity. (Eds: Kleiman, D. G., M. E. Allen, 
K. V. Thompson, et al.) Chicago: University of Chicago 
Press, 571-578. 

1997- "How muscle mass is part of the fabric of 

behavioral ecology in East African hoxids."{Madoqua. 
Gazella. Pamaliscus. Hippotragus)." Anatomy and Embryology 
195:375-586. 

Hildebrandt, T, E Goeritz, N. Pratt, D. Schmitt, J. Lehnhardt, 
R. Hermes, S. Quandt, J. Raath, G. West, and R. Montali. 
1997. "Assessment of health and reproductive status in 
African and Asian elephants by transrectal 
ultrasonography." AAZV Proceedings:2.o~—iu.. 

Howard, J. G., T L. Roth, W. F. Swanson, J. L. Buff, 
M. Bush, J. Grisham, L. Marker-Kraus, D. Kraus, and 
D. E. Wildt. 1997. "Successful intercontinental genome 
resource banking and artificial insemination with 
cryopreserved sperm in cheetahs." Proceedings of the American 
Society of Andrology, Abstract 123:55. 

Howard, J. G., T L. Roth, and D. E. Wildt. 1997. "Sensitivity 
to exogenous gonadotropins for ovulation induction and 
laparascopic artificial insemination in the cheetah and 
clouded leopard." Biology of Reproduction 56:1059-1068. 

Howard, J. G., K. Wolf, A. Vargas, P. Marinari, J.Kreeger, 
L. Williamson, and D. Wildt. 1997. "Enhanced 
reproductive efficiency and pregnancies after artificial 
insemination m black-footed ferrets." In American 
Association of Zoo Veterinarians Annual Conference. 

Ibrahim, S. A., J. W. Avery, P.J. Weldon, and J. W Wheeler. 
1997. "Age-class differences in lipids from the paracloacal 
glands of the American alligator {Alligator mississippzensis)." 
Zeitschrtft fuer Naturforschung. 

Kania, S., L. Richman, M. Kennedy, R. J. Montali, and 
L. N. D. Potgieter. 1997. "The isolation, detection and 
cross-reactivity of Asian elephant IgG for che development 
of serological diagnostic tests." Journal of Veterinary Allergy 
and Clinical Immunology 5(4):l25— 128. 

Kleiman, D. G. 1996. Preface and introduction to parts 4, 6, 
and 7. In: Wild Mammals in Captivity. (Eds: Kleiman, D. G., 
M. E. Allen, K. V. Thompson, et al.) Chicago: University 
of Chicago Press, xv-xvi, 243-245, 377-378, 529-530. 

. 1996. "Reintroduction programs." In: Wild Mammals in 

Captivity. (Eds: Kleiman, D. G., M. E. Allen, K V. Thompson, 
et al.) Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 297-305. 

. 1996. "Special research strategies for zoos and 



aquariums and design of research programs." In: The 
Well-being of Animals in Zoo and Aquarium Sponsored Research. 
(Eds: Burghardt, G. M., J. T Bielitzki, J. R. Boyce, and 
D. O. Schaeffer) Greenbelt, MD: Scientists Center for 
Animal Welfare, 15-22. 
. 1997. Book review of E. F. Gibbons, Jr., (Eds. 



B. S. Durranc, and J. Demarest ) "Conservation of 



endangered species in captivity — an interdisciplinary 
approach . "Journal of Wildlife Management. 62. 

Kleiman, D. G., M. Allen, K. Thompson, and S. Lumpkin 
(Eds.) 1996. Wild Mammals in Captivity. Chicago: 
University of Chicago Press. 

Koontz, F. W., J. L. Wellington, and P.J. Weldon. 1997. "The 
external gland of the rufous elephant-shrew, Elephantulus 
rufescens: anatomy, growth, and secretion composition." 
Advances in Chemical Signals in Vertebrates. 

Loew, S, and R. C. Fleischer. 1996. "Multilocus DNA 

fingerprinting." In: Molecular Zoology: Advances. Strategies 
and Protocols. (Eds: Ferraris, J. D., and S. R. Palumbi) New 
York: Wiley-Liss, 456-461. 

McCullough, D. R., J. K. Fischer, and J. D. Ballou. 1996. 
"From bottleneck to metapopulation: recovery of the Tule 
elk in California." In: Metapopulations and Wildlife 
Conservation. (Ed: McCullough, D. R.) Washington, D.C.: 
Island Press, 375-404. 

McDonald, M. V. 1997. "Kentucky warbler." In Biographies of 
North American Birds. American Ornithologists' Union. 

McShea, W.J. 1997. "Variable song rates in three species of 
passerines and implications for estimating bird 
populations. "Journal of Field Ornithology 68(}):}6j~^j { ). 

McShea, W.J. , and J. H. Rappole, 1997. "The science and 
politics of managing deer within a protected area." Wildlife 
Society Bulletin 25(2):443— 46. 

McShea, W. J., B. Underwood, and J. H. Rappole, 1997. The 
Science of Overabundance: Deer Ecology and Population 
Management. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution 
Press. 

Mattern, D. L., W. D. Scott, C. A. McDaniel, P.J. Weldon, 
and D. E. Graves. 1997. "Cembrene-A and a congeneric 
ketone isolated from the paracloacal gland of the Chinese 
alligator (Alligator sinensis)." Journal of Natural Products 
60:828-831. 

Miller, B., R. P. Reading, and S. Forrest. 1997. Prairie Night. 
Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. 

Montali, R. J., T Hildebrandt, F. Goritz, R. Hermes, 
R. Ippen, and E. Ramsay. 1997. "Ultrasonography and 
pathology of genital tract leiomyomas in captive Asian 
elephants: implications for reproductive soundness." 
Verhandlungen Bericht Erkrankungen Zootiere 38:253—258. 

Montgomery, M. E., J. D. Ballou, R. K. Nurthen, 

P. R. England, D. B. Briscoe, and R. Frankham. 1997. 
"Minimizing kinship in captive breeding programs." Zoo 
Biology \6:yjj-'i%'). 

Murray, S., L. A. Tell, and M. Bush. 1997. "Zinc toxicosis in a 
Celebes ape (Macaca nigra) following ingestion of pennies." 
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 28(l):l0l-l04. 

Nusser, J. A., R. Goto, D. Ledig, R. C. Fleischer, and 

M. M. Miller. 1996. "Genetic diversity of populations of the 
endangered light-footed clapper rail revealed by RAPD 
analysis." Molecular Ecology 5:463—472. 

Oftedal, O. T, and M. E. Allen. 1996. "Nutrition and dietary 
evaluation in zoos." In: Wild Mammals in Captivity. (Eds: 



195 



Kleiman, D. G., M. E. Allen, K. V. Thompson, et al.) 
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 109-116. 
. 1996. "The feeding and nucricion of omnivores with 



emphasis on primates." In: Wild Mammals in Captivity. 
(Eds: Kleiman, D. G., M. E. Allen, K. V. Thompson, et al.) 
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 148-158. 

Oftedal, O. T, D.J. Baer, and M. E. Allen. 1996. "The feeding 
and nutrition of herbivores." In: Wild Mammals in Captivity. 
(Eds: Kleiman, D. G., M. E. Allen, K. V. Thompson, et al.) 
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 129-138. 

Oftedal, O. T, W D. Bowen, and D. J. Boness. 1996. 

"Lactation performance and nutrient deposition in pups of 
the harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) on ice floes off southeast 
Labrador. Physiological Zoology 69:635—657. 

Oftedal, O. T, T. C. Chen, and J. Schulkin. 1997. 

"Preliminary observations on the relationship of calcium 
ingestion to vitamin D status in the green iguana (Iguana 
iguana)." Zoo Biology 16:201—207. 

Ono, K. A., and D. J. Boness. 1996. "Sexual dimorphism in 
sea lion pups: differential maternal investment, or 
sex-specific differences in energy allocation?" Behavioral 
Ecology and Sociobiology.^i, 31— 41. 

Paxinos, E., C. Mcintosh, K. Ralls, and R. Fleischer. 1997. "A 
non-invasive method for distinguishing among canid 
species: amplification and enzyme restriction of DNA from 
dung." Molecular Ecology 6:483-486. 

Pessier, A., C. Stringfield, J. Tragle, H. Holshuh, D. Nichols, 
and R. Montali. 1997. "Cerebrospinal Nematodiasis due to 
Baylisascaris sp." In Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins 
(Leontopithecus chrysomelas): Implications for Management. 
American Association of Zoo Veterinarians' 
Proceedings:245— 247. 

Piper, W. H., D. C. Evers, M. W. Meyer, K. B. Tischier, 
J. D. Kaplan, and R. C. Fleischer. 1997. "Genetic 
monogamy in the common loon (Gavia immer)." 
Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 41:25—31. 

Power, M. L., and O. T. Oftedal. 1996. "Differences among 
captive callitnchids in the digestive responses to dietary 
gum." American Journal of Primatology 40:131—144. 

Power, M. L., O. T. Oftedal, A. Savage, E. S. Blumer, 

L. H. Soto, T C. Chen, and M. F. Holick. 1997. "Assessing 
vitamin D status of callitrichids: baseline data from wild 
cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) in Colombia." Zoo 
Biology 16:39—46. 

Pukazhenthi, B. S., K. M. Pell, D. E. Wildt, and 

J. G. Howard. 1997. "Sensitivity of domestic cat sperm 
to cold-induced acrosomal damage." Proceedings of the 
American Society of Andrology, Abstract 66. 

Pukazhenthi, B. S., D. E. Wildt, K. M. Pell, and J. G. 
Howard. 1997. "Slow cooling prevents cold-induced 
sperm acrosomal damage in the teratospermic domestic 
cat." Proceedings of the Society for the Study of Reproduction, 97. 

Ralls, K., D. DeMaster, and J. Estes. 1996. "Developing a 
delisting criterion for the southern sea otter under the U.S. 
Endangered Species Act." Conservation Biology io, 1528— 1537. 



Ralls, K. 1997. "A conservation biologist's toolbox." Society for 

Conservation Biology Newsletter 4(i):2l. 
. 1997. "On becoming a conservation biologist: 

autobiography and advice." In: Behavioral Approaches to 

Conservation in the Wild. (Eds: Clemmons, J., and R. 

Buchholz) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 

356-372. 
. 1997. Review of Prairie Night: Black-footed Ferrets and 



the Recovery of Endangered Species. Quarterly Review of Biology 

72, 2II-2I2. 
Ralls, K., and L. L. Eberhardt. 1997. "Assessment of 

abundance of San Joaquin kit fox by spotlight surveys." 
Journal of Mammalogy 78:65—73. 
Ralls, K., and B. L. Taylor. 1997. "How viable is population 

viability analysis?" In: The Ecological Basis of Conservation: 

Heterogeneity, Ecosystems, and Biodiversity. (Eds: S. T. A. 

Pickett, R. S. Ostfield, M. Shachak, and G. E. Likens) New 

York: Chapman and Hall, 228-235. 
Richman, L., R. Montali, D. Nichols, and D. Lightner. 1997. 

"A newly recognized fatal baculovirus infection in 

fteshwater crayfish." American Association of Zoo Veterinarians 

Proceedings. 262—264. 
Rappole, J. H, M. A. Ramos, K. Winker, R.J. 

Oehlenschlager, and D. W. Warner. 1997. "Aves migratorias 

nearticas." In Hisloria Natural de los Tuxtlas. Eds. E. G. 

Soriano, R. Dirzo, and R. C. Vogt, 545—56. 
Robinson, Michael H. 1997. "Multimedia in living exhibits: 

now and then." Museum News. July/August 1997, 38—43. 
. 1997. "Spiders vs. moth." Muse Magazine, May 1997, 

8-13. 
Rodden, M. D., L. G. Sorenson, A. Sherr, and D. G. Kleiman. 

1996. "Use of behavioral measures to assess reproductive 

status in maned wolves (Chrysocyon hrachyurus)." Zoo Biology 

i 5 (6): 5 65-585. 
Roth, T. L., B. A. Wolfe, J. A. Long, J. G. Howard, and D. E. 

Wildt. 1997. "Effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin, 

human chorionic gonadotropin and laparoscopic artificial 

insemination on embryo, endocrine and luteal characterics 

in the domestic cat." Biology of Reproduction 57:165—171. 
Ryder, O. A., and R. C. Fleischer. 1996. "Genetic research and 

its application." In: Wild Mammals in Captivity. (Eds: 

Kleiman, D. G., M. E. Allen, K. V. Thompson, et al.) 

Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 255—262. 
Simon, C, L. Nigro, J. Sullivan, et al. 1996. "Large differences 

in substitutional pattern and evolutionary rate of 12S 

ribosomal RNA genes." Molecular Biology and Evolution 

13:923-932. 
Snyder, N. F. R., S. R. Derrickson, S. R. Beissinger, J. W 

Wiley, T. B. Smith, W D. Toone, and B. Miller. 1997. 

"Limitations of captive breeding: reply to Hutchins, Wiese, 

and Willis." Conservation Biology ii(i):3— 5 . 
. 1997. "Limitations of captive breeding: reply to 

Gippoliti and Carpaneto." Conservation Biology ll(3):8o8— 810. 
Sorenson, M. D., and R. C. Fleischer. 1996. Multiple 

independent transpositions of mitochondrial DNA control 



196 



region sequences to the nucleus." Proceedings of the National 
Academy of Sciences 93:15239—15243. 

Sorenson, L. G., P. M. Nolan, A. M. Brown, S. R. Derrickson, 
and S. L. Monfort. 1997. "Hormonal dynamics during mate 
choice in the northern pintail: a test of the "challenge" 
hypothesis." Animal Behavior 54:1117—1133. 

Stutchbury, B. J., W. H. Piper, D. L. Neudorf, S. A. Tarof, 
J. A. Rhymer, G. Fuller, and R. C. Fleischer. 1997. 
"Correlates of extra-pair fertilization success in hooded 
warblers." Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 40:119—126. 

Sukumar, R., V. Krishnamurthy, C. M. Wemmer, and M. 
Rodden. 1997. "Demography of captive Asian elephants 
(Elephas maximus) in Southern India." Journal of Zoo Biology 
16:263-272. 

Swanson, W. E, and D. E. Wildt. 1997. "Strategies and 
progress in reproductive research involving small cat 
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